FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson

In office
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
Vice President None (1963–1965),
Hubert Humphrey (1965–1969)
Preceded by John F. Kennedy
Succeeded by Richard Nixon

In office
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
President John F. Kennedy
Preceded by Richard Nixon
Succeeded by Hubert Humphrey

In office
January 3, 1955 – January 3, 1961
Deputy Earle C. Clements (19551957)
Mike Mansfield (19571961)
Preceded by William F. Knowland
Succeeded by Mike Mansfield

In office
January 3, 1953 – January 3, 1955
Deputy Earle C. Clements
Preceded by Styles Bridges
Succeeded by William F. Knowland

In office
January 3, 1953 – January 3, 1961
Deputy Earle C. Clements (19531957)
Mike Mansfield (1957-1961)
Preceded by Ernest McFarland
Succeeded by Mike Mansfield

In office
January 3, 1951 – January 3, 1953
Leader Ernest McFarland
Preceded by Francis J. Myers
Succeeded by Leverett Saltonstall

In office
January 3, 1949 – January 3, 1961
Preceded by W. Lee O'Daniel
Succeeded by William Blakley

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Texas's 10th District
In office
April 10, 1937 – January 3, 1949
Preceded by James P. Buchanan
Succeeded by Homer Thornberry

Born August 27, 1908(1908-08-27)
Stonewall, Texas
Died January 22, 1973 (aged 64)
Stonewall, Texas
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse Lady Bird Johnson
Alma mater Southwest Texas State Teachers' College
Profession Teacher, Career politician
Religion Disciple of Christ
Signature Lyndon B. Johnson's signature

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the thirty-sixth President of the United States, serving from 1963-1969. A Democrat, Johnson succeeded to the presidency following the assassination of President Kennedy, and after completing Kennedy's term was elected President in his own right in a landslide victory in the 1964 Presidential election. Johnson was a major leader of the Democratic Party and as President was responsible for designing the "Great Society" legislation that included civil rights laws, Medicare (health care for the elderly), Medicaid (health care for the poor), aid to education, and the "War on Poverty." Simultaneously, he escalated the American involvement in the Vietnam War, from 16,000 American soldiers in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968. LBJ may refer to: Lyndon Baines Johnson Nickname for LeBron James Labuan Bajo, Indonesia, Mutiara airport IATA location identifier Lake Lyndon B. Johnson, lake in Texas. ... Download high resolution version (407x619, 70 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by the party conference which holds the majority in the Senate to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Earle Chester Clements (October 22, 1896 - March 12, 1985) served as Governor of Kentucky and as a member of the United States Senate from Kentucky. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was a U.S. politician and newpaperman. ... Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Earle Chester Clements (October 22, 1896 - March 12, 1985) served as Governor of Kentucky and as a member of the United States Senate from Kentucky. ... Henry Styles Bridges Henry Styles Bridges (September 9, 1898–November 26, 1961) was an American teacher, editor, and Republican Party politician from Concord, New Hampshire. ... William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was a U.S. politician and newpaperman. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Earle Chester Clements (October 22, 1896 - March 12, 1985) served as Governor of Kentucky and as a member of the United States Senate from Kentucky. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest William McFarland (1894 - 1984), an American politician and the Father of the G.I. Bill, is the only American to serve in the highest office in all three branches of government--two at the state level, one at the federal level. ... Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... The Assistant Majority and Minority Leaders of the United States Senate (commonly called Senate Majority and Minority Whips) are the second-ranking members of their parties in the United States Senate. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest William McFarland (1894 - 1984), an American politician and the Father of the G.I. Bill, is the only American to serve in the highest office in all three branches of government--two at the state level, one at the federal level. ... Francis John Myers (December 18, 1901–July 5, 1956) was an American teacher, lawyer, and Democratic Party politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Leverett A. Saltonstall (September 1, 1892 – June 17, 1979) was an American politician who served as Governor of Massachusetts (1939 - 1945) and as a United States Senator (1945 - 1967). ... Texas was admitted to the Union on December 29 1845. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wilbert Lee Pappy ODaniel (March 11, 1890 - May 11, 1969) was a radio personality and a politician from Texas. ... Texas Senator William Blakley William Arvis Dollar Bill Blakley (November 17, 1898 – January 5, 1976) was an American senator and businessman from the State of Texas. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The current boundaries of Texas District 10. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James P. Buchanan (1867-1937) served as the congressman from the 10th district of Texas from 1913 to 1937. ... William Homer Thornberry (January 9, 1909 - December 12, 1995) was a United States Representative from the 10th congressional district of Texas from 1948 to 1963. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Stonewall is a census-designated place located in Gillespie County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Stonewall is a census-designated place located in Gillespie County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was First Lady of the United States from 1963 to 1969, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Texas State University–San Marcos (often referred to as Texas State) is a doctoral granting university located in San Marcos, Texas, United States. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), often abbreviated as the Disciples of Christ or Christian Church, is a denomination of Christian Restorationism that grew out of the Restoration Movement founded by Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell of Pennsylvania and West Virginia (then Virginia) and Barton W. Stone of Kentucky. ... Image File history File links Lyndon_B._Johnson_signature. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... In politics, a landslide victory (or just a landslide) is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming majority in an election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Johnson served as a United States Representative from Texas from 1937–1949 and as United States Senator from 1949–1960, including six years as United States Senate Majority Leader. After campaigning unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination in 1960, Johnson was selected by John F. Kennedy to be his running-mate for the 1960 presidential election. Johnson's popularity as President steadily declined after the 1966 Congressional elections, and his reelection bid in the 1968 United States presidential election collapsed as a result of turmoil within the Democratic party related to opposition to the Vietnam War. He withdrew from the race to concentrate on peacemaking. Johnson was renowned for his domineering (or dominating) personality and the "Johnson treatment," his arm-twisting of powerful politicians. The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by the party conference which holds the majority in the Senate to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The U.S. House election, 1966 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1966 which occurred in the middle of President Lyndon Johnsons second term. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ...


Johnson died after a heart attack, the third in his lifetime, on January 22, 1973. A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...

Contents

Early years

Johnson was maternally descended from a pioneer Baptist clergyman, George Washington Baines, who pastored some eight churches in Texas as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana. Baines was also the president of Baylor University, then in Independence, in Washington County during the American Civil War. George Baines was the grandfather of Johnson's mother, Rebekah Baines Johnson. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... George Washington Baines, Sr. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... {{Infobox_University |image_name = 135px-Baylor_seal. ... Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The President's grandfather, Samuel Ealy Johnson, Sr., was raised as a Baptist. Subsequently, in his early manhood, he became a member of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). In his later years he became a Christadelphian.[1] According to Lady Bird Johnson, President Johnson's father also joined the Christadelphian Church toward the end of his life.[2] Later, as a politician LBJ was influenced in his attitude towards the Jews by the religious beliefs that his family, especially his grandfather, had shared with him (see Operation Texas).[1][3] Samuel Ealy Johnson, Sr. ... The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), often abbreviated as the Disciples of Christ or Christian Church, is a denomination of Christian Restorationism that grew out of the Restoration Movement founded by Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell of Pennsylvania and West Virginia (then Virginia) and Barton W. Stone of Kentucky. ... Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a religious group that developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century. ... Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was First Lady of the United States from 1963 to 1969, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... “Grandfather” redirects here. ... In 1938 Lyndon Baines Johnson, then a Congressman and later the 36th President of the United States of America, worked to establish a refuge in Texas for European Jews fleeing Nazi occupied Germany. ...


Johnson was born near Stonewall, Texas, on August 27, 1908, in a small farmhouse in a poor area on the Pedernales River. His parents, Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. and the former Rebekah Baines, had three girls and two boys: LBJ and his brother, Sam Houston Johnson (1914-1978), and sisters Rebekah (1910–1978), Josefa (1912–1961), and Lucia (1916–1997). The nearby small town of Johnson City, Texas was named after LBJ's father's cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Georgia. In school, Johnson was an awkward, talkative youth and was elected president of his eleventh-grade class. He graduated from Johnson City High School in 1924.[4] In 1925, he worked as an elevator operator in downtown San Bernardino, California.[5][6] Stonewall is a census-designated place located in Gillespie County, Texas. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... FarmHouse Fraternity is an all-male international social fraternity founded at the University of Missouri in 1905. ... The Pedernales River (locally pronounced as per-du-NAH-les) is a tributary of the Colorado River, approximately 106 mi (170 km) long, in central Texas in the United States. ... Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. ... Sam Houston Johnson (January 31, 1914-December 11, 1978) was the younger brother of President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Johnson City is a city located in Blanco County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... San Bernardino is the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In 1926, Johnson enrolled in Southwest Texas State Teachers' College (now Texas State University-San Marcos). He worked his way through school, participated in debate and campus politics, edited the school newspaper, dropped out of school in 1927 and returned one year later, graduating in 1930. The college years refined his skills of persuasion and political organization. In 1927 Johnson taught mostly Mexican children at the Welhausen School in Cotulla, some ninety miles south of San Antonio in La Salle County. In 1930 he taught in Pearsall High School in Pearsall, Texas and afterwards took a position as teacher of public speaking at Sam Houston High School in Houston.[7] When he returned to San Marcos in 1965, after having signed the Higher Education Act, Johnson looked back: Texas State University–San Marcos is a doctoral degree granting university located in San Marcos, Texas. ... Texas State University–San Marcos (often referred to as Texas State) is a doctoral granting university located in San Marcos, Texas, United States. ... Cotulla is a city located in La Salle County, Texas. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... La Salle County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pearsall is a city located in Frio County, Texas. ... Houston redirects here. ... The Higher Education Act may refer to an Act of either the Congress of the United States or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

"I shall never forget the faces of the boys and the girls in that little Welhausen Mexican School, and I remember even yet the pain of realizing and knowing then that college was closed to practically every one of those children because they were too poor. And I think it was then that I made up my mind that this nation could never rest while the door to knowledge remained closed to any American."[8]

Early political career

Johnson briefly taught public speaking and debate in a Houston high school, then entered politics. Johnson's father had served five terms in the Texas legislature and was a close friend to one of Texas's rising political figures, Congressman Sam Rayburn. In 1930, Johnson campaigned for Texas State Senator Welly Hopkins in his run for Congress. Hopkins recommended him to Congressman Richard M. Kleberg, who appointed Johnson as Kleberg's legislative secretary. LBJ was elected speaker of the "Little Congress," a group of Congressional aides, where he cultivated Congressmen, newspapermen and lobbyists. Johnson's friends soon included aides to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as fellow Texans such as Vice President John Nance Garner. He became a surrogate son to Sam Rayburn. Texas Senate in session The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... For the current professional American football player, see Sam Rayburn (football player). ... Richard Mifflin Kleberg was a seven-term member of the US Congress and a heir to the King Ranch in South Texas. ... FDR redirects here. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ...

President Roosevelt, Governor James Allred of Texas & Johnson. In later campaigns, Johnson edited Governor Allred out of the picture to assist his campaign
President Roosevelt, Governor James Allred of Texas & Johnson. In later campaigns, Johnson edited Governor Allred out of the picture to assist his campaign

Johnson married Claudia Alta Taylor (already nicknamed "Lady Bird") of Karnack, Texas on November 17, 1934 after having attended Georgetown University Law School for several months. They had two daughters, Lynda Bird, born in 1944, and Luci Baines, born in 1947. Johnson enjoyed giving people and animals his own initials; his daughters' given names are examples, as was his dog, Little Beagle Johnson. Image File history File links FDR shakes hands with young LBJ, Gov. ... Image File history File links FDR shakes hands with young LBJ, Gov. ... Allred (center) with President Franklin D. Roosevelt (left) and Congressman Lyndon B. Johnson on May 12, 1937. ... Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was First Lady of the United States from 1963 to 1969, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Andrews-Taylor House in Karnack, the childhood home of Lady Bird Johnson Karnack is a city located in northeastern Harrison County near Caddo Lake in East Texas, USA. As of the 1990 census, the city had a total population of 755. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Father John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... Lynda Bird Johnson Robb, born March 19, 1944, is the oldest of the two daughters of Lyndon Baines Johnson and his wife Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor. ... Luci Baines Johnson Nugent Turpin (born July 2, 1947), is the younger daughter of Lady Bird Johnson and her husband the former president, Lyndon Johnson. ...


In 1935, he was appointed head of the Texas National Youth Administration, which enabled him to use the government to create education and job opportunities for young people. He resigned two years later to run for Congress. Johnson was a notoriously tough boss throughout his career, often demanding long workdays and work on weekends, and Johnson himself worked as hard as any member of his staff.[9] The National Youth Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency in the United States. ...


House years

In 1937 Johnson successfully contested a special election for Texas's 10th congressional district, which covered Austin and the surrounding hill country. He ran on a New Deal platform and was aided effectively by his wife. He served in the House from April 10, 1937 to January 3, 1949[10]. The current boundaries of Texas District 10. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


President Roosevelt found Johnson to be a welcome ally and conduit for information, particularly with regards to issues concerning internal politics in Texas (Operation Texas) and the machinations of Vice President Garner and Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn. Johnson was immediately appointed to the Naval Affairs Committee. He worked for rural electrification and other improvements for his district. Johnson steered the projects towards contractors that he personally knew, such as the Brown Brothers, Herman and George, who would finance much of Johnson's future career.[11] In 1941, he ran for the U.S. Senate in a special election against the sitting Governor of Texas, radio personality W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel in an election marked by massive fraud on the part of both campaigns. Johnson was not expected to win against the popular governor, but he ran a strong race and was declared the winner in unofficial returns - ultimately losing due to controversial official returns. In 1938 Lyndon Baines Johnson, then a Congressman and later the 36th President of the United States of America, worked to establish a refuge in Texas for European Jews fleeing Nazi occupied Germany. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... For the current professional American football player, see Sam Rayburn (football player). ... KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown and Root) NYSE: KBR is an American engineering and construction company, formerly a subsidiary of Halliburton, based in Houston. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... Wilbert Lee Pappy ODaniel (March 11, 1890 - May 11, 1969) was a radio personality and a politician from Texas. ...


War record

After America entered the war in December 1941, Johnson, still in Congress, became a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserves, then asked Undersecretary of the Navy James Forrestal for a combat assignment.[12] Instead he was sent to inspect the shipyard facilities in Texas and on the West Coast. In the spring of 1942, President Roosevelt needed his own reports on what conditions were like in the Southwest Pacific. Roosevelt felt information that flowed up the military chain of command needed to be supplemented by a highly trusted political aide. From a suggestion by Forrestal, President Roosevelt assigned Johnson to a three-man survey team of the Southwest Pacific. James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ...


Johnson reported to General Douglas MacArthur in Australia. Johnson and two Army officers went to the 22nd Bomb Group base, which was assigned the high risk mission of bombing the Japanese airbase at Lae in New Guinea. A colonel took Johnson's original seat on one bomber, and it was shot down with no survivors. Reports vary on what happened to the B-26 Marauder carrying Johnson. Some accounts say it was also attacked by Japanese fighters but survived, while others, including other members of the flight crew, claim it turned back due to generator trouble before reaching the objective and before encountering enemy aircraft and never came under fire, which is supported by official flight records.[13] Other airplanes that continued to the target did come under fire near the target at about the same time that Johnson's plane was recorded as having landed back at the original airbase.[14] MacArthur awarded LBJ the Silver Star, the military's third-highest medal, although it is notable that no other members of the flight crew were awarded medals, and it is unclear what Johnson could have done in his role purely as an "observer" to deserve the medal, even if it had seen combat. This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... The 22nd Bomb Group was established on 1 February 1940 under the command of the First Air Force in response to Englands declaration of war against Germany. ... Lajes Airbase in the Azores islands, Portugal An Airbase, sometimes referred to as a military airport or airfield, provides basing and support of military aircraft. ... The city of Lae, as seen from space. ... Martin B-26 Marauder See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ...


Johnson's biographer, Robert Caro, stated, "The most you can say about Lyndon Johnson and his Silver Star is that it is surely one of the most undeserved Silver Stars in history. Because if you accept everything that he said, he was still in action for no more than 13 minutes and only as an observer. Men who flew many missions, brave men, never got a Silver Star."[15] Robert Allan Caro (born October 30, 1935) is a biographer most noted for his studies of United States political figures Robert Moses and Lyndon B. Johnson. ...


Johnson reported back to Roosevelt, to the Navy leaders, and to Congress that conditions were deplorable and unacceptable. He argued the South West Pacific urgently needed a higher priority and a larger share of war supplies. The warplanes sent there, for example, were "far inferior" to Japanese planes, and morale was bad. He told Forrestal that the Pacific Fleet had a "critical" need for 6,800 additional experienced men. Johnson prepared a twelve-point program to upgrade the effort in the region, stressing "greater cooperation and coordination within the various commands and between the different war theaters." Congress responded by making Johnson chairman of a high-powered subcommittee of the Naval Affairs committee. With a mission similar to that of the Truman Committee in the Senate, he probed into the peacetime "business as usual" inefficiencies that permeated the naval war and demanded that admirals shape up and get the job done. However, Johnson went too far when he proposed a bill that would crack down on the draft exemptions of shipyard workers if they were absent from work too often. Organized labor blocked the bill and denounced Johnson. Still, Johnson's mission had a substantial impact because it led to upgrading the South Pacific theater and aided the overall war effort immensely. Johnson’s biographer concludes, "The mission was a temporary exposure to danger calculated to satisfy Johnson's personal and political wishes, but it also represented a genuine effort on his part, however misplaced, to improve the lot of America's fighting men."[16] The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs is currently chaired by Senator Norm Coleman (R-MN), with Carl Levin (D-MI) as a ranking member. ...


Senate years

1948 contested election

In 1948, Johnson again ran for the Senate and won. This election was highly controversial: a three-way Democratic Party primary saw Johnson facing a well-known former governor, Coke Stevenson, and a third candidate. Johnson drew crowds to fairgrounds with his rented helicopter dubbed "The Flying Windmill". He raised money to flood the state with campaign circulars, and won over conservatives by voting for the Taft-Hartley act curbing unions and by criticizing unions on the stump. Stevenson came in first, but lacked a majority, so a runoff was held. Johnson campaigned even harder, while Stevenson's efforts were poor. The runoff count took a week as the two candidates see-sawed for the lead. The Democratic State Central Committee handled the count (not the state, because it was a party primary), and it finally announced Johnson won by eighty-seven votes. The committee voted 29-28 to certify Johnson's nomination, with the last vote cast on Johnson's behalf by the Temple publisher Frank W. Mayborn, who rushed back to Texas from a business trip in Nashville, Tennessee. There were many allegations of fraud on both sides. Thus one writer alleges that Johnson's campaign manager, John B. Connally, was connected with 202 ballots in Precinct 13 in Jim Wells County that had curiously been cast in alphabetical order and all just at the close of polling. Robert Caro argued in his 1989 book that Johnson had rigged the election in Jim Wells County, and other counties in South Texas, as well as rigging 10,000 ballots in Bexar County alone.[17] Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1948 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the election of Democratic President Harry Truman for a full term. ... For other uses, see Primary. ... Texas politician Coke Stevenson Coke Robert Stevenson (March 20, 1888–June 28, 1975) was a U.S. political figure. ... The Taft-Hartley Act severely restricted the activities and power of labor unions in the United States. ... Temple is a city in Bell County, Texas, United States. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Frank Willis Mayborn (December 7, 1903 - May 16, 1987) was a prominent 20th Century Texas newspaper publisher and philanthropist who played a crucial role in the development of Temple and Bell County, located north of the state capital of Austin. ... Nashville redirects here. ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ... Jim Wells County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Robert Allan Caro (born October 30, 1935) is a biographer most noted for his studies of United States political figures Robert Moses and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Bexar County is a county located in the state of Texas. ...


However, the state Democratic convention upheld Johnson. Stevenson went to court, but — with timely help from his friend Abe Fortas — Johnson prevailed. Johnson was elected senator in November, and went to Washington, D.C. tagged with the ironic label "Landslide Lyndon," which he often used deprecatingly to refer to himself. Abe Fortas (June 19, 1910–April 5, 1982) was a U.S. Supreme Court associate justice. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Freshman Senator

Once in the Senate, Johnson was known among his colleagues for his highly successful "courtships" of older senators, especially Senator Richard Russell, patrician leader of the Conservative coalition and arguably the most powerful man in the Senate. Johnson proceeded to gain Russell's favor in the same way that he had "courted" Speaker Sam Rayburn and gained his crucial support in the House. Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ...


Johnson was appointed to the Senate Armed Services Committee, and later in 1950, he helped create the Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee. Johnson became its chairman and conducted investigations of defense costs and efficiency. These investigations tended to dig out old forgotten investigations and demand actions that were already being taken by the Truman Administration, although it can be said that the committee's investigations caused the changes. However, Johnson's brilliant handling of the press, the efficiency with which his committee issued new reports, and the fact that he ensured every report was endorsed unanimously by the committee all brought him headlines and national attention. For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


In 1951 Johnson was chosen as Senate Majority Whip under a new Majority Leader, Ernest McFarland of Arizona, and served from 1951 to 1953[18]. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest William McFarland (1894 - 1984), an American politician and the Father of the G.I. Bill, is the only American to serve in the highest office in all three branches of government--two at the state level, one at the federal level. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Senate Democratic leader

In the 1952 general election Republicans won majority in both House and Senate. Among defeated Democrats that year was McFarland, who lost to then-little known Barry Goldwater, Johnson's future presidential opponent.  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1952 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower to the presidency by a large margin. ... GOP redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ...


In January 1953, Johnson was chosen by his fellow Democrats to be the minority leader. Thus, he became the least senior Senator ever elected to this position, and one of the least senior party leaders in the history of the Senate. On the other side the whip is usually first in line to replace party leader (i.e., most recently whip Harry Reid became Senate Minority Leader after Tom Daschle's defeat). Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Thomas Andrew Daschle (born December 9, 1947) is a former U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Leader from South Dakota. ...


One of his first actions was to eliminate the seniority system in appointment to a committee, while retaining it in terms of chairmanships. In the 1954 election, Johnson was re-elected to the Senate, and since the Democrats won the majority in the Senate, Johnson became majority leader. LBJ's duties were to schedule legislation and help pass measures favored by the Democrats. He, Rayburn and President Dwight D. Eisenhower worked smoothly together in passing Eisenhower's domestic and foreign agenda. As Majority Leader, Johnson was responsible for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first civil rights legislation passed by the Senate since Reconstruction.  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1954 was an election for the United States Senate which was a midterm election in the first term of Dwight D. Eisenhowers presidency. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. ...

Johnson gives "The Treatment" to 90-year-old Rhode Island Senator Theodore F. Green in 1957
Johnson gives "The Treatment" to 90-year-old Rhode Island Senator Theodore F. Green in 1957

Historians Caro and Dallek consider Lyndon Johnson the most effective Senate majority leader in history. He was unusually proficient at gathering information. One biographer suggests he was "the greatest intelligence gatherer Washington has ever known", discovering exactly where every Senator stood, his philosophy and prejudices, his strengths and weaknesses, and what it took to win him over.[19] Central to Johnson's control was "The Treatment",[20] described by two journalists:[21] Image File history File links Lbj-green. ... Image File history File links Lbj-green. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Theodore F. Green (1867-1966) was a Democratic politician from Rhode Island. ...

The Treatment could last ten minutes or four hours. It came, enveloping its target, at the LBJ Ranch swimming pool, in one of LBJ's offices, in the Senate cloakroom, on the floor of the Senate itself — wherever Johnson might find a fellow Senator within his reach.
Its tone could be supplication, accusation, cajolery, exuberance, scorn, tears, complaint and the hint of threat. It was all of these together. It ran the gamut of human emotions. Its velocity was breathtaking, and it was all in one direction. Interjections from the target were rare. Johnson anticipated them before they could be spoken. He moved in close, his face a scant millimeter from his target, his eyes widening and narrowing, his eyebrows rising and falling. From his pockets poured clippings, memos, statistics. Mimicry, humor, and the genius of analogy made The Treatment an almost hypnotic experience and rendered the target stunned and helpless.

Vice Presidency

Johnson's success in the Senate made him a possible Democratic presidential candidate. He was the "favorite son" candidate of the Texas delegation at the Party's national convention in 1956. In 1960, after the failure of the "Stop Kennedy" coalition he had formed with Stevenson, Symington, and Humphrey, Johnson received 409 votes on the first and only ballot at the Democratic convention, which nominated John F. Kennedy. The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... For other uses, see Favorite Son. ...


Tip O'Neill, then a representative from Kennedy's home state of Massachusetts, recalled that Johnson approached him at the convention and said, "Tip, I'd like to have you with me on the second ballot." O'Neill, understanding the influence of the Kennedy name, replied, "Senator, there's not going to be any second ballot."[22] Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


During the convention, Kennedy designated Johnson as his choice for Vice President. Some later reports (such as Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.'s) say that Kennedy offered the position to Johnson as a courtesy and did not expect him to accept. Others (such as W. Marvin Watson) say that the Kennedy campaign was desperate to win the 1960 election against Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., and needed Johnson on the ticket to help carry Southern states. This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ... William Marvin Watson (b. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


At the same time as his Vice Presidential run, Johnson also sought a third term in the U.S. Senate. According to Robert Caro, "On November 5, 1960, Lyndon Johnson won election for both the vice presidency of the United States, on the Kennedy-Johnson ticket, and for a third term as Senator (he had had Texas law changed to allow him to run for both offices). When he won the vice presidency, he made arrangements to resign from the Senate, as he was required to do under federal law, as soon as it convened on January 3, 1961."[23] (In 1988, Lloyd Bentsen, the Vice Presidential running mate of Democratic presidential candidate Michael Dukakis, and also a Senator from Texas, took advantage of "Lyndon's law," and was able to retain his seat in Senate despite Dukakis' loss to George H. W. Bush. The same went for Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut in 2000 after Al Gore lost to George W. Bush.) Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Joseph Isadore Joe Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a United States Senator from Connecticut. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Johnson was reelected Senator with 1,306,605 votes (58 percent) to Republican John Tower's 927,653 (41.1 percent). Fellow Democrat William A. Blakley was appointed to replace Johnson as Senator, but Blakley lost a special election in May 1961 to Tower. John Tower John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States senator from Texas since the Reconstruction after the Civil War. ... Texas Senator William Blakley William Arvis Dollar Bill Blakley (November 17, 1898 – January 5, 1976) was an American senator and businessman from the State of Texas. ...


After the election, Johnson found himself powerless. Despite Kennedy's efforts to have Johnson busy, informed, and at the White House often, his advisors and even some of his family were dismissive to the Texan. Kennedy appointed him to nominal jobs such as head of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities, through which he worked with African Americans and other minorities. Though Kennedy probably intended this to remain a nominal position, Taylor Branch in Pillar of Fire contends that Johnson served to force the Kennedy administration's actions for civil rights further and faster than Kennedy intended to go. Branch notes the irony of Johnson, who the Kennedy family hoped would appeal to conservative southern voters, being the advocate for civil rights. In particular he notes Johnson's Memorial Day 1963 speech at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania as being a catalyst, that led to much more action than otherwise would have occurred. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Taylor Branch is the author of Pulitzer Prize-winning Parting the Waters and Pillar of Fire. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This article is about the holiday in the United States. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ...


Johnson took on numerous minor diplomatic missions, which gave him limited insights into international issues. He was allowed to observe Cabinet and National Security Council meetings. Kennedy did give Johnson control over all presidential appointments involving Texas, and he was appointed chairman of the President's Ad Hoc Committee for Science. When, in April 1961, the Soviets beat the U.S. with the first manned spaceflight, Kennedy tasked Johnson with coming up with a 'scientific bonanza' that would prove world leadership. Johnson knew that Project Apollo and an enlarged NASA were feasible, so he steered the recommendation towards a program for landing an American on the moon. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


Presidency 1963–1969

Assassination of President John F. Kennedy

Lyndon B. Johnson being sworn in aboard Air Force One by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, following the assassination of John F. Kennedy. To the left of Johnson is Jacqueline Kennedy, widow of Kennedy; to his right is Mrs. Lady Bird Johnson, and sitting down near the airplane window is Jack Valenti, founder of the MPAA.
Lyndon B. Johnson being sworn in aboard Air Force One by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, following the assassination of John F. Kennedy. To the left of Johnson is Jacqueline Kennedy, widow of Kennedy; to his right is Mrs. Lady Bird Johnson, and sitting down near the airplane window is Jack Valenti, founder of the MPAA.

Two hours and 8 minutes after President Kennedy was shot two cars in front of him in a Dealey Plaza motorcade, Johnson was sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas at Love Field Airport on November 22, 1963. He was sworn in by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, a very close friend of his family, making him the first President sworn in by a woman. He is also the only President to have been sworn in on Texas soil. Johnson was not sworn on a Bible, as none could be found aboard Air Force One; a Roman Catholic missal was discovered in Kennedy's desk, and this book was used during the swearing-in ceremony.[24] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1100, 324 KB) Description: Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas, November 22, 1963 ARC identifier for use at NARA: 194235 Photographer: Cecil Stoughton Date: November 22... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1100, 324 KB) Description: Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas, November 22, 1963 ARC identifier for use at NARA: 194235 Photographer: Cecil Stoughton Date: November 22... Sarah Tilghman Hughes (August 2, 1896 – April 23, 1985) was the United States District Court judge who swore Lyndon Johnson into office on Air Force One after the Kennedy assassination, becoming the first (& as of 2006 only) woman in U.S. history to swear in a Chief Executive. ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... First official White House portrait. ... Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was First Lady of the United States from 1963 to 1969, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Jack Joseph Valenti (September 5, 1921 – April 26, 2007) was an influential corpse and a long-time president of the Motion Picture Association of America. ... The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is a non-profit trade association formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza (IPA pronunciation: ), in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA), is infamous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... Love Field is an airport in Dallas, Texas with the IATA airport code DAL, and ICAO airport code KDAL. Love Field was the primary airport for Dallas until 1974, when Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport opened. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Sarah Tilghman Hughes (August 2, 1896 – April 23, 1985) was the United States District Court judge who swore Lyndon Johnson into office on Air Force One after the Kennedy assassination, becoming the first (& as of 2006 only) woman in U.S. history to swear in a Chief Executive. ... The Missal, by John William Waterhouse Missal, in the Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ...


To investigate Kennedy's murder, Johnson created a special panel called the Warren Commission. This panel, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, conducted hearings about the assassination and concluded that Oswald did indeed shoot the President without conspiring with anyone. Not everyone agreed with the Warren Commission, however, and numerous public and private investigations continued for decades after Johnson left office.[25] Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ...


The wave of national grief following the assassination gave enormous momentum to Johnson's promise to carry out Kennedy's programs. He retained the senior Kennedy appointees, some for the full term of his presidency. Even the late President's brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, with whom Johnson had an infamously difficult relationship, remained in office until leaving in 1964 to run for the Senate.[26] In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ...


1964 Presidential election

On September 7, 1964, Johnson's campaign managers for the 1964 presidential election broadcast the "Daisy ad." It portrayed a little girl picking petals from a daisy, counting up to ten. Then a baritone voice took over, counted down from ten to zero and a nuclear bomb exploded. The message was that Barry Goldwater meant nuclear war. Although it was soon pulled off the air, it escalated into a very heated election. Johnson won by a sweeping landslide. Johnson won the presidency with 61 percent of the vote and the then-widest popular margin in the 20th century — more than 15 million votes (this was later surpassed by Nixon's defeat of McGovern in 1972).[27] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Daisy, sometimes known as Daisy Girl, or Peace Little Girl is perhaps the most famous campaign commercial of all time. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. ...


In the summer of 1964, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) was organized with the purpose of challenging Mississippi's all-white and anti-civil rights delegation to the Democratic National Convention of that year as not representative of all Mississippians. At the national convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey the MFDP claimed the seats for delegates for Mississippi, not on the grounds of the Party rules, but because the official Mississippi delegation had been elected by a primary conducted under Jim Crow laws in which blacks were excluded because of poll taxes, literacy tests, and even violence against black voters. The national Party’s liberal leaders supported a compromise in which the white delegation and the MFDP would have an even division of the seats; Johnson was concerned that, while the regular Democrats of Mississippi would probably vote for Goldwater anyway, if the Democratic Party rejected the regular Democrats, he would lose the Democratic Party political structure that he needed to win in the South. Eventually, Hubert Humphrey, Walter Reuther and black civil rights leaders (including Roy Wilkins, Martin Luther King, and Bayard Rustin) worked out a compromise with MFDP leaders: the MFDP would receive two non-voting seats on the floor of the Convention; the regular Mississippi delegation would be required to pledge to support the party ticket; and no future Democratic convention would accept a delegation chosen by a discriminatory poll. When the leaders took the proposal back to the 64 members who had made the bus trip to Atlantic City, they voted it down. As MFDP Vice Chair Fannie Lou Hamer said, "We didn't come all the way up here to compromise for no more than we’d gotten here. We didn't come all this way for no two seats, 'cause all of us is tired." The failure of the compromise effort allowed the rest of the Democratic Party to conclude that the MFDP was simply being unreasonable, and they lost a great deal of their liberal support. After that, the convention went smoothly for LBJ without a searing battle over civil rights.[28] Johnson carried the South as a whole in the election, but he lost the white voters to Goldwater in the Deep South states of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina. The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. ... The 1964 Democratic National Convention took place at the Atlantic City Convention Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, August 24 - 27, 1964. ... Atlantic City redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Walter Philip Reuther (September 1, 1907 – May 10, 1970) was an American labor union leader, who made the United Automobile Workers a major force not only in the auto industry but also in the Democratic party]] in the mid 20th century. ... Roy Wilkins, 1968. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the... Fannie Lou Hamer (born Fannie Lou Townsend on October 6, 1917 – March 14, 1977) was an American voting rights activist and civil rights leader. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


Civil rights

President Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964; (Martin Luther King stands just behind and slightly to the right of Johnson).
President Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964; (Martin Luther King stands just behind and slightly to the right of Johnson).

In conjunction with the civil rights movement, Johnson overcame southern resistance and convinced Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed most forms of racial segregation. Johnson signed it into law on July 2, 1964. Legend has it that, as he put down his pen, Johnson told an aide, "We have lost the South for a generation," anticipating a coming backlash from Southern whites against Johnson's Democratic Party.[29] In 1965, he achieved passage of a second civil rights bill, the Voting Rights Act, that outlawed discrimination in voting, thus allowing millions of southern blacks to vote for the first time. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (7000x4687, 2722 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil rights Lyndon B. Johnson Civil Rights Act of 1964 African American history Portal:Human rights Portal:Human... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (7000x4687, 2722 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil rights Lyndon B. Johnson Civil Rights Act of 1964 African American history Portal:Human rights Portal:Human... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ...


In 1967, Johnson nominated civil rights attorney Thurgood Marshall to be the first African American Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. After the murder of civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo, Johnson went on television to announce the arrest of four Ku Klux Klansmen implicated in her death. He angrily denounced the Klan as a "hooded society of bigots", and warned them to "return to a decent society before it's too late." He turned the themes of Christian redemption to push for civil rights, thereby mobilizing support from churches North and South.[30] For people and institutions etc. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The Justices of the United States Supreme Court, other than the Chief Justice, are termed Associate Justices. ... Viola Liuzzo with her husband Anthony, 1949. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...

President Johnson meets with Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King in the White House Cabinet Room in 1966.
President Johnson meets with Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King in the White House Cabinet Room in 1966.

At the Howard University commencement address on June 4, 1965, he said that both the government and the nation needed to help achieve goals: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2002 pixel, file size: 801 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2002 pixel, file size: 801 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Howard University (HU) is a private, coeducational, nonsectarian university located in Washington, D.C., United States. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...

To shatter forever not only the barriers of law and public practice, but the walls which bound the condition of many by the color of his skin. To dissolve, as best we can, the antique enmities of the heart which diminish the holder, divide the great democracy, and do wrong — great wrong — to the children of God....[31]

Great Society

The Great Society program became Johnson's agenda for Congress in January 1965: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime, and removal of obstacles to the right to vote. Congress, at times augmenting or amending, enacted many of Johnson's recommendations. The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ... Urban Renewal redirects here. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ...


Federal aid to education

Johnson had a lifelong commitment to the belief that education was the cure for both ignorance and poverty, and was an essential component of the American Dream, especially for minorities who endured poor facilities and tight-fisted budgets from local taxes. He made education a top priority of the Great Society, with an emphasis on helping poor children. After the 1964 landslide brought in many new liberal Congressmen, he had the votes for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. For the first time large amounts of federal money went to public schools. In practice ESEA meant helping all public school districts, with more money going to districts that had large proportions of students from poor families (which included all the big cities). However, for the first time private schools (most of them Catholic schools in the inner cities) received services, such as library funding, comprising about 12% of the ESEA budget. As Dallek reports, researchers soon found that poverty had more to do with family background and neighborhood conditions than the quantity of education a child received. Early studies suggested initial improvements for poor kids helped by ESEA reading and math programs, but later assessments indicated that benefits faded quickly and left students little better off than those not in the programs. Johnson’s second major education program was the “Higher Education Act of 1965," which focused on funding for lower income students, including grants, work-study money, and government loans. He set up the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Endowment for the Arts, to support humanists and artists (as the WPA once did). Although ESEA solidified Johnson's support among K12 teachers' unions, neither the Higher Education act nor the Endowments mollified the college professors and students growing increasingly uneasy with the war in Vietnam.[32] Look up ignorance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... President Lyndon B. Johnson enacted the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in 1965. ... The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the United States established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965 (Pub. ... The National Endowment for the Arts is a United States federally funded program that offers support and funding for projects that exhibit artistic excellence. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ...


War on poverty

In 1964, upon Johnson's request, Congress passed a tax-reduction law and the Economic Opportunity Act, which was in association with the war on poverty. Signed by Lyndon B. Johnson on 20 of August 1964, the Economic Opportunity Act (hereafter EOA) was central to Johnsons Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Medicare and Medicaid

Millions of elderly people were aided by the 1965 Medicare amendment to the Social Security Act. Lower income people received medical care funded by the government through the Medicaid program.[33] United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ...

President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment; Harry Truman observes while Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Truman's wife, Bess, look on
President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment; Harry Truman observes while Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Truman's wife, Bess, look on

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4850x3242, 2117 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lyndon B. Johnson Harry S. Truman Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4850x3242, 2117 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lyndon B. Johnson Harry S. Truman Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Elizabeth Virginia Wallace Truman (February 13, 1885 – October 18, 1982), often known as Bess Truman, was the wife of Harry S Truman and First Lady of the United States from 1945 to 1953. ...

Space race

NASA made spectacular explorations in the space program Johnson had championed since its start. When three astronauts successfully orbited the moon in December 1968, Johnson congratulated them: "You've taken … all of us, all over the world, into a new era …." For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


Urban riots

Major riots in black ghettos caused a series of "long hot summers." They started with a violent disturbance in Harlem in 1964 and the Watts district of Los Angeles in 1965, and extended to 1970. The biggest wave came in April, 1968, when riots occurred in over a hundred cities in the wake of the assassination of Martin Luther King. Newark burned in 1967, where six days of rioting left 26 dead, 1500 injured, and the inner city a burned out shell. In Detroit in 1967, Governor George Romney sent in 7400 national guard troops to quell fire bombings, looting, and attacks on white-owned businesses and on police. Johnson finally sent in federal troops with tanks and machine guns. Detroit continued to burn for three more days until finally 43 were dead, 2250 were injured, 4000 were arrested; property damage ranged into the hundreds of millions; much of inner Detroit was never rebuilt.[citation needed] Johnson called for even more billions to be spent in the cities and another federal civil rights law regarding housing, but his political capital had been spent and his Great Society programs lost support. Johnson's popularity plummeted as a massive white political backlash took shape, reinforcing the sense Johnson had lost control of the streets of major cities as well as his party.[34] For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... The term Watts Riots refers to a large-scale riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... The 1967 Newark Riots were a major civil disturbance that occurred in the city of Newark, New Jersey between July 12 and July 17, 1967. ... The riot featured on the cover of the August 4, 1967 edition of Time magazine. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ...

President Johnson with Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt.
President Johnson with Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 631 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2849 pixels, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Er wurde 1935 für die United Australia Party in das Repräsentantenhaus gewählt. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 631 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2849 pixels, file size: 954 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Er wurde 1935 für die United Australia Party in das Repräsentantenhaus gewählt. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... Harold Edward Holt, CH (5 August 1908 â€“ 17 December 1967) was an Australian politician who became the 17th Prime Minister of Australia in 1966. ...

Backlash against Johnson: 1966–67

Johnson's problems began to mount in 1966. By year's end the Democratic governor of Missouri warned that Johnson would lose the state by 100,000 votes, despite a half-million margin in 1964. "Frustration over Vietnam; too much federal spending and . . . taxation; no great public support for your Great Society programs; and . . . public disenchantment with the civil rights programs" had eroded the President's standing, the governor reported. There were bright spots, however. In January 1967 Johnson boasted that wages were the highest in history, unemployment was at a thirteen-year low, and corporate profits and farm incomes were greater than ever; however a 4.5% jump in consumer prices was worrisome, as well as the rise in interest rates. Johnson asked for a temporary 6% surcharge in income taxes to cover the mounting deficit caused by increased spending. Johnson's approval ratings stayed below 50 percent; by January 1967 the number of his strong supporters had plunged to 16% from 25% four months before. He ran about even with Republican George Romney in trial matchups that spring. Asked to explain why he was unpopular, Johnson responded, "I am a dominating personality, and when I get things done I don't always please all the people." Johnson also blamed the press, saying they showed "complete irresponsibility and lie and misstate facts and have no one to be answerable to." He also blamed "the preachers, liberals and professors" who had turned against him.[35] In the congressional elections of 1966 the Republicans gained three seats in the Senate and 47 in the House, reinvigorating the Conservative coalition and making it impossible for Johnson to pass any additional Great Society legislation. The U.S. House election, 1966 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1966 which occurred in the middle of President Lyndon Johnsons second term. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ...


Vietnam War

"If WE think they’re winning then you can imagine what THEY think!"---LBJ speaking with Robert McNamara about the Viet Cong (Recorded July 10, 1965) as shown on the History Channel Documentary: LBJ and The Vietnam War.


President Johnson increasingly focused on the American military effort in Vietnam. He firmly believed in the Domino Theory and that his containment policy required America to make a serious effort to stop all Communist expansion. At Kennedy's death, there were 16,000 American military advisors in Vietnam. Johnson expanded their numbers and roles following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident (less than three weeks after the Republican Convention of 1964, which had nominated Barry Goldwater for President). The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... Chart showing the U.S. Navys interpretation of the events of the first part of the Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American... The 1964 Republican National Convention took place in the Cow Palace, San Francisco, California, July 13 - 16, 1964. ...

LBJ visits Shriners Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in September 1964
LBJ visits Shriners Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in September 1964

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave the President the exclusive right to use military force without consulting the Senate, was based on a false pretext, as he later admitted.[36]. It was Johnson who began America's direct involvement in the ground war in Vietnam. By 1968 there were 550,000 American soldiers inside Vietnam; in 1967 and 1968 they were being killed at the rate of over 1000 a month.[37] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (498x736, 166 KB) Summary Photo by R. W. Rynerson. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (498x736, 166 KB) Summary Photo by R. W. Rynerson. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 145. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. ...


Politically, Johnson closely watched the public opinion polls. His goal was not to adjust his policies to follow opinion, but rather to adjust opinion to support his policies. Until the Tet Offensive of 1968, he systematically downplayed the war: few speeches, no rallies or parades or advertising campaigns. He feared that publicity would charge up the hawks who wanted victory, and weaken both his containment policy and his higher priorities in domestic issues. Jacobs and Shapiro conclude, "Although Johnson held a core of support for his position, the president was unable to move Americans who held hawkish and dovish positions." Polls showed that beginning in 1965, the public was consistently 40-50% hawkish and 10-25% dovish. Johnson's aides told him, "Both hawks and doves [are frustrated with the war] ... and take it out on you."[38] Belligerents Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength ~120,000[1] ~323 - 595,000[2] Casualties and losses Phase I: 2,788 killed, 8...


It was domestic issues that were driving his polls down steadily from spring 1966 onward. Analysts report that "Vietnam had no independent impact on President Johnson's popularity at all after other effects, including a general overall downward trend in popularity, had been taken into account."[39]


He often privately cursed the Vietnam War, and in a conversation with Robert McNamara, Johnson assailed "the bunch of commies" running the New York Times for their articles against the war effort.[40]Johnson believed that America could not afford to lose and risk appearing weak in the eyes of the world. In a discussion about the war with former President Dwight Eisenhower, Johnson said he was "trying to win it just as fast as I can in every way that I know how" and later stated that he needed "all the help I can get."[41] Johnson escalated the war effort continuously from 1964 to 1968 and the number of American deaths rose. In two weeks in May 1968 alone American deaths numbered 1,800 with total casualties at 18,000. Alluding to the Domino Theory, he said, "If we allow Vietnam to fall, tomorrow we’ll be fighting in Hawaii, and next week in San Francisco." When reporters repeatedly pressed Johnson in late 1967 on why he was so committed to the war, Johnson exposed an old war wound to them and said, That is why.[42] For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Walt Whitman Rostow showing President Lyndon B. Johnson a model of the Khe Sanh area in February 1968
Walt Whitman Rostow showing President Lyndon B. Johnson a model of the Khe Sanh area in February 1968

After the Tet offensive of January 1968, his presidency was dominated by the Vietnam War more than ever. As casualties mounted and success seemed further away than ever, Johnson's popularity plummeted. College students and others protested, burned draft cards, and chanted, "Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?" Johnson could scarcely travel anywhere without facing protests, and was not allowed by the Secret Service to attend the 1968 Democratic National Convention, where hundreds of thousands of hippies, yippies, Black Panthers and other opponents of Johnson's policy both in Vietnam and in the ghettoes converged to protest. Thus by 1968, the public was polarized, with the "hawks" rejecting Johnson's refusal to win the war, and the "doves" rejecting his continuation of containment. Support for Johnson's middle position continued to shrink until he finally rejected containment and sought a peace settlement. By late summer, however, he realized that Nixon was closer to his position than Humphrey.[43] Image File history File links L_B_Johnson_Model_Khe_Sanh. ... Image File history File links L_B_Johnson_Model_Khe_Sanh. ... Walt Whitman Rostow showing President Lyndon B. Johnson a model of the Khe Sanh area, 1968 Walt Whitman Rostow, October 7th, 1968 Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 – February 13, 2003) was an American economist and political theorist who served as... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders David E. Lownds (local), William C. Westmoreland (theater) Tran Quy Hai (local), Vo Nguyen Giap (theater) Strength 6,000 ~30,000 Casualties 730 killed in action, 2,642 wounded, 7 missing[2] Unknown; estimated between 10,000 and 15... Conscription in the United States has been employed several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ...


1968 Presidential election

Entering the 1968 election campaign, initially, no prominent Democratic candidate was prepared to run against a sitting President of his own party. Only Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota challenged Johnson as an anti-war candidate in the New Hampshire primary, hoping to pressure the Democrats to oppose the war. On March 12, McCarthy won 42% of the primary vote to Johnson's 49%, an amazingly strong showing for such a challenger. Four days later, Sen. Robert F. Kennedy of New York entered the race. Internal polling by Johnson's campaign in Wisconsin, the next state to hold a primary election, showed the President trailing badly. Johnson did not leave the White House to campaign. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Primary. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

President Johnson meets with candidate Richard Nixon in July 1968
President Johnson meets with candidate Richard Nixon in July 1968

Johnson had lost control of the Democratic Party, which was splitting into four factions, each of which despised the other three. The first comprised Johnson (and Humphrey), labor unions, and local party bosses (led by Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley). The second group comprised students and intellectuals who were vociferously against the war, and rallied behind McCarthy. The third group comprised Catholics and blacks; they rallied behind Robert Kennedy. The fourth group was traditional white Southerners, who rallied behind George C. Wallace and his third party. Vietnam was one of many issues that splintered the party and Johnson could see no way to unite the party long enough for him to win reelection.[44] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1245x819, 320 KB) Description: Lyndon Johnson meets with Presidential candidate Richard Nixon at the White House, July 26, 1968. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1245x819, 320 KB) Description: Lyndon Johnson meets with Presidential candidate Richard Nixon at the White House, July 26, 1968. ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ...


In addition, Johnson was concerned that he might not make it through another term.[citation needed] Therefore, at the end of a March 31 speech, he shocked the nation when he announced he would not run for re-election: "I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President."[45] He did rally the party bosses and unions to give Humphrey the nomination. In what was termed the October surprise, Johnson announced to the nation on October 31, 1968, that he had ordered a complete cessation of "all air, naval and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam", effective November 1, should the Hanoi Government be willing to negotiate and citing progress with the Paris peace talks. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An October surprise is American political jargon describing a stunning news event with the potential to influence the outcome of an election, particularly one for the presidency. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ...


LBJ was not disqualified from running for a second full term under the provisions of the 22nd Amendment; he had served less than 24 months of President Kennedy's term. Had he stayed in the race and won and served out the new term, he would have been president for 9 years, second only to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. (Redirected from 22nd Amendment) The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution establishes a two-term limit for the Presidency. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...


Legislation and programs

Major legislation signed

Administration and Cabinet

(All of the cabinet members when Johnson became President in 1963 had been serving under John F. Kennedy previously.) First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ... The Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 (Pub. ... President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. ... The Food Stamp Program is a federal assistance program that provides food to low income people living in the United States. ... Signed by Lyndon B. Johnson on August 20, 1964, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (Pub. ... The Higher Education Act of 1965 (Pub. ... The Social Security Act of 1965 established Medicare and Medicaid. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ... President Johnson signs bill at Liberty Island, New York October 3, 1965 The Immigration and Naturalization Services Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act or the INS Act of 1965) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration... PWNED!!! ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 was the first piece of United States federal legislation in regards to minority language speakers. ... In the United States, the phrase fair housing dates back to the 1960s. ...

Official White House portrait of Lyndon B. Johnson
Official White House portrait of Lyndon B. Johnson

Administration and Cabinet

The Johnson Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Lyndon B. Johnson 1963–1969
Vice President None 1963–1965
  Hubert Humphrey 1965–1969
State Dean Rusk 1963–1969
Treasury C. Douglas Dillon 1963–1965
  Henry H. Fowler 1965–1968
  Joseph W. Barr 1968–1969
Defense Robert McNamara 1963–1968
  Clark M. Clifford 1968–1969
Justice Robert F. Kennedy 1963–1964
  Nicholas deB. Katzenbach 1964–1966
  Ramsey Clark 1966–1969
Postmaster General John A. Gronouski 1963–1965
  Larry O'Brien 1965–1968
  W. Marvin Watson 1968–1969
Interior Stewart Lee Udall 1963–1969
Agriculture Orville Lothrop Freeman 1963–1969
Commerce Luther Hartwell Hodges 1963–1965
  John Thomas Connor 1965–1967
  Alexander Buel Trowbridge 1967–1968
  Cyrus Rowlett Smith 1968–1969
Labor W. Willard Wirtz 1963–1969
HEW Anthony Celebrezze 1963–1965
  John William Gardner 1965–1968
  Wilbur Joseph Cohen 1968–1969
HUD Robert Clifton Weaver 1966–1968
  Robert Coldwell Wood 1969
Transportation Alan Stephenson Boyd 1967–1969

Supreme Court appointments

Johnson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: Image File history File links Lyndon_B._Johnson_-_portrait. ... Image File history File links Lyndon_B._Johnson_-_portrait. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Dillons signature, as used on American currency Clarence Douglas Dillon (August 21, 1909 – January 10, 2003) son of Clarence and Ann (Douglass) Dillon, was U.S. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France (1953-1957) and 57th secretary of the United States Department of the Treasury (1961-1965). ... }} Henry Hammill Fowler (September 5, 1908–January 3, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Joseph Walker Barr (January 17, 1918–February 23, 1996) was an American businessman and politician. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... Clark McAdams Clifford (December 25, 1906 – October 10, 1998) was a highly influential American lawyer who served Presidents Truman, Kennedy, and Johnson and Jimmy Carter, serving as Secretary of Defense for Johnson. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Nicholas deBelleville Katzenbach (born January 17, 1922) was a American lawyer and United States Attorney General. ... William Ramsey Clark (born December 18, 1927) is a lawyer and activist. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... John Austin Gronouski (October 26, 1919 - January 7, 1996) had been the Wisconsin state commissioner of taxation, and the United States Postmaster General Biography Gronouski was born in Dunbar, Wisconsin. ... OBrien, c. ... William Marvin Watson (b. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: Stub | 1920 births | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior | World War II veterans ... Orville Freeman Orville Lothrop Freeman (May 9, 1918 - February 20, 2003) was an American Democratic politician who served as the 29th Governor of Minnesota from January 5, 1955 to January 2, 1961 and as the US Secretary of Agriculture from 1961-1969. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1898 births | 1974 deaths | Governors of North Carolina ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1914 births | 2000 deaths ... Alexander Buel Trowbridge Alexander Buel Trowbridge (born December 12, 1929) was the United States Secretary of Commerce from June 14, 1967 to March 1, 1968 in the administration of Lyndon Johnson. ... Cyrus Rowlett Smith Cyrus Rowlett Smith (September 9, 1899 – April 4, 1990), known throughout his life as C. R. Smith, was the CEO of American Airlines from 1934 to 1968 and from 1973 to 1974. ... The official portrait of W. Willard Wirtz hangs in the Department of Labor W. Willard Wirtz (born March 14, 1912) was a U.S. administrator. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Anthony Joseph Celebrezze Sr. ... John W. Gardner, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under President Lyndon Johnson, was subsequently the founder of two influential national organizations, Common Cause and Independent Sector, as well as the author of numerous books on improving leadership in American society and other subjects. ... Wilbur J. Cohen Wilbur Joseph Cohen, generally called Wilbur J. Cohen, was a Jewish American politician born in Milwaukee in 1913. ... Seal of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Robert Clifton Weaver (December 29, 1907-July 17, 1997) served as the first United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (also known as HUD) from 1966 to 1968. ... Robert Coldwell Wood (September 16, 1923 – April 1, 2005) was a U.S. administrator. ... Alan Stephenson Boyd (born July 20, 1922) was the first United States Secretary of Transportation, appointed by Lyndon Johnson. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

Post-presidency

After leaving the presidency in 1969, Johnson went home to his ranch in Johnson City, Texas. In 1971, he published his memoirs, The Vantage Point. That year, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum opened near the campus of The University of Texas at Austin. He donated his Texas ranch in his will to the public to form the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, with the provision that the ranch "remain a working ranch and not become a sterile relic of the past".[46] Abe Fortas (June 19, 1910–April 5, 1982) was a U.S. Supreme Court associate justice. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... For people and institutions etc. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Lyndon B. Johnson library in Austin, Texas. ... University of Texas redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Death and funeral

A memorial wreath at the grave of former U.S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson, August 27, 1999.
A memorial wreath at the grave of former U.S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson, August 27, 1999.

Johnson died at 4:33 p.m. on January 22, 1973, from a third heart attack at his ranch, at age 64. His health was ruined by years of heavy smoking and stress; the former President had severe heart disease. He was found by Secret Service agents, in his bed, with a phone in his hand. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (524 × 680 pixels, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions cropped version of Image:Lyndon Baines Johnson grave. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (524 × 680 pixels, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions cropped version of Image:Lyndon Baines Johnson grave. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Heart attack redirects here. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ...


Johnson was honored with a state funeral in which Texas Congressman J. J. Pickle and former Secretary of State Dean Rusk eulogized him at the Capitol. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Jake Pickle hands Coretta Scott King a squeaky pickle at a campaign rally in Austin (1976) James Jarrell Pickle (October 11, 1913 – June 18, 2005) also known as J.J. Jake Pickle, was a United States Representative from the 10th congressional district of Texas from 1963 to 1995. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


The final services took place on January 25. The funeral was held at the National City Christian Church in Washington, D.C., where he worshiped often when president. The service, presided over by President Richard Nixon and attended by foreign dignitaries, led by former Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato, was the first presidential funeral to feature eulogies, and they were given by the Rev. Dr. George Davis, the church's pastor and W. Marvin Watson, former postmaster general. Nixon did not speak, though he attended, as customary for presidents during state funerals, but the eulogists turned to him and lauded him for his tributes, as Rusk did the day before. is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs to be updated. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William Marvin Watson (b. ...


Johnson was buried in his family cemetery (which can be viewed today by visitors to the Lyndon B. Johnson National Park in Stonewall, Texas), a few yards from the house in which he was born, with eulogies by John Connally and Reverend Billy Graham. The state funeral, the last until Ronald Reagan's in 2004, was part of an unexpectedly busy week for the Military District of Washington (MDW), beginning with Nixon's second inauguration.[47] John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... For other persons named Billy Graham, see Billy Graham (disambiguation). ... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... Military District of Washington Shoulder Sleeve Insignia Military District of Washington Distinctive Unit Insignia The Military District of Washington (MDW), is one of nineteen major commands of the U.S. Army. ... Inauguration Day 2005 of President George W. Bush on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ...


Lady Bird Johnson died 34 years later on July 11, 2007, at her home in Austin, Texas, at the age of 94. Bill Moyers eulogized her: "She seemed to grow calmer as the world around her grew more furious," Moyers said.[48] Moyers had been a long time friend of President Johnson and his wife and had served as Press Secretary to Johnson in the 1960s. Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was First Lady of the United States from 1963 to 1969, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ...

Legacy

The coat of arms granted to President Johnson in 1968
The coat of arms granted to President Johnson in 1968

The Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, was renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, and Texas created a legal state holiday to be observed on August 27 to mark LBJ's birthday. It is known as Lyndon Baines Johnson Day. The Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac was dedicated on September 27, 1974. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (840x560, 76 KB) Summary The coat of arms of Lyndon B. Johnson from a grant by the American College of Heraldry and Arms. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (840x560, 76 KB) Summary The coat of arms of Lyndon B. Johnson from a grant by the American College of Heraldry and Arms. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson Day is a legal state holiday in Texas. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac is located in Lady Bird Johnson Park on Columbia Island in Washington, D.C. The memorial honors the 36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, and the larger park honors his widow, Lady Bird Johnson. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


The LBJ School of Public Affairs was named in his honor.


Johnson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1980. The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an...


On March 23, 2007, President George W. Bush signed legislation naming the United States Department of Education headquarters after President Johnson.[49] is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from...


Runway 17R/35L at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport is known as the LBJ Runway. Austin-Bergstrom International Airport (IATA: AUS, ICAO: KAUS, FAA LID: AUS) is a mixed-use commercial airport located five miles (8 km) southeast of the central business district of Austin, the capital of Texas. ...


2008 is the celebration of the LBJ Centennial featuring special programs, events, and parties across Texas and in Washington, D. C. LBJ would have been 100 years old on August 27, 2008.

In popular culture

Music

Video Games

Movies

  • LBJ (1968): subject of Cuban propaganda film.
  • The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover (1977): played by Andrew Duggan.
  • King (1978, TV): played by Warren Kemmerling.
  • Hair (1979): The song "Initials/LBJ" mentions Johnson in the lyrics repeatedly.
  • Kennedy (1983, TV): played by Nesbitt Blaisdell.
  • The Right Stuff (1983): played by Donald Moffat.
  • Robert Kennedy & His Times (1985, TV): played by G.D. Spradlin.
  • J. Edgar Hoover (1987, TV): played by Rip Torn.
  • LBJ: The Early Years (1987, TV): played by Randy Quaid.
  • JFK (1991): played by Tom Howard and John William Galt. (voice)
  • Forrest Gump (1994): archive footage, voice-over by John William Galt.
  • Thirteen Days (2000): played by Walter Adrian.
  • Path to War (2002): played by Michael Gambon.
  • RFK (2002): played by James Cromwell.

Electoral history

Democratic primary for United States Senate, 1948 Country Joe and the Fish was a rock music/folk music band known for musical protests against the Vietnam War, from 1965 to 1970. ... American screenwriter John Paxton (1911 - 1985) penned the screenplays for a number of gritty dramas for RKO and other studios from the mid-40s through to the early 70s. ... Killing Floor is a song written and recorded by Howlin Wolf in 1966. ... The Electric Flag, formed in 1967, was a blues rock soul group led by guitarist Mike Bloomfield, keyboardist Barry Goldberg, and bassist Harvey Brooks. ... Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (commonly abbreviated MGS3) is a stealth-based game directed by Hideo Kojima, developed and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Why We Fight Series depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Andrew Duggan (1923-1988) was a tall and authoritative character actor who appeared in 70 movies and over 140 television shows between 1949 and 1987. ... Hair is a 1979 film based on the 1968 Broadway musical of the same name about a Vietnam war draftee who meets and befriends a tribe of long-haired hippies on his way to the army induction center. ... Donald Moffat (born December 26, 1930) is an English-born American actor. ... Greenwald Donald Spradlin (born August 31, 1920 in Daylight Township, Garvin County, Oklahoma, USA) is an American character actor. ... Rip Torn (born February 6, 1931) is an American Academy Award-nominated and Emmy Award-winning television and film actor, who is perhaps best known for his role as Artie on the HBO comedy series The Larry Sanders Show. ... Randall Rudy Randy Quaid (born October 1, 1950) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and comedian. ... JFK is an American film directed by Oliver Stone, first released on December 20, 1991. ... Tom Howard is a musician, composer, He was the keyboard player in Larry Normans touring band, often refered to as the Solid Rock Blues Band. ... For other uses, see Forrest Gump (disambiguation). ... For the non-fiction book, see Thirteen Days (book). ... Path to War is a 2002 TV movie, produced by HBO. That deals directly with the Vietnam Conflict as seen through the eyes of the 36th President Lyndon Johnson. ... Sir Michael John Gambon, KBE (born October 19, 1940), is an acclaimed Irish-British actor who has worked in television, film and theatre. ... For Doris Dukes first husband, see James H.R. Cromwell. ...

  • Coke Stevenson – 477,077 (39.68%)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson – 405,617 (33.73%)
  • George E. B. Peddy – 237,195 (19.73%)
  • Otis Myers – 15,330 (1.28%)
  • Frank G. Cortez – 13,344 (1.11%)
  • Roscoe Collier – 12,327 (1.03%)
  • Alton B. Davis – 10,871 (0.90%)
  • Jim Alford – 9,117 (0.76%)
  • F. B. Clark – 7,420 (0.62%)
  • Jesse Sandauers – 7,401 (0.62%)
  • Terrell Seldge – 6,692 (0.56%)

Democratic primary for United States Senate, 1948 (runoff) Texas politician Coke Stevenson Coke Robert Stevenson (March 20, 1888–June 28, 1975) was a U.S. political figure. ...

  • Lyndon B. Johnson – 494,191 (50.004%)
  • Coke Stevenson – 494,104 (49.996%)

Texas United States Senate election, 1948 Texas politician Coke Stevenson Coke Robert Stevenson (March 20, 1888–June 28, 1975) was a U.S. political figure. ...

  • Lyndon B. Johnson (D) – 702,985 (66.22%)
  • Jack Porter (R) – 349,665 (32.94%)
  • Samuel N. Norris (Prohibition) – 8,913 (0.84%)

Texas United States Senate election, 1954 National Prohibition Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892. ...

  • Lyndon B. Johnson (D, Inc.) – 538,417 (84.59%)
  • Carlos G. Watson (R) – 95,033 (14.93%)

1956 Democratic National Convention The 1956 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois for President and Estes Kefauver for Vice President. ...

1960 Democratic National Convention This is about the mid-20th-century politician and diplomat; for other American politicians so named, see Adlai Stevenson (disambiguation). ... William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman and diplomat. ... William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... Albert Benjamin Happy Chandler, Sr. ... John Stweart Battle (July 11, 1890-April 9, 1972) was an American politician and Democratic Governor of Virginia from 1950-1954. ... James C. Davis (May 17, 1895 - December 18, 1981) was a politician from the state of Georgia. ... George Bell Timmerman, Jr. ... Frank John Lausche (November 14, 1895 - April 21, 1990) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... The 1960 Democratic National Convention nominated John F. Kennedy for President and Lyndon B. Johnson for Vice President. ...

United States presidential election, 1960 John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... This is about the mid-20th-century politician and diplomat; for other American politicians so named, see Adlai Stevenson (disambiguation). ... Robert Baumle Meyner (July 3, 1908 - May 27, 1990) of Phillipsburg, New Jersey was the Democratic Governor of New Jersey from 1954 to 1962. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years, from 1951 until 1969, as a member of the Democratic Party. ... Ross Robert Barnett (January 22, 1898 – November 6, 1987) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi from 1960 to 1964. ... Herschel Celiel Loveless (May 5, 1911 – May 4, 1989) was the Democratic governor of Iowa, from 1957 to 1961. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910–14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, famous for his 1957 stand against integration of Little Rock, Arkansas schools in defiance of U.S. Supreme Court rulings. ... Albert Dean Rosellini (born January 21, 1910) is a lawyer from the U.S. state of Washington. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ...

United States presidential election, 1964 John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Reference: Our Campaigns – Candidate – Lyndon Baines Johnson For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... William Edward Miller (March 22, 1914 – June 24, 1983), was an American politician. ...

See also

References

Further information: Lyndon B. Johnson bibliography
  1. ^ a b Smallwood, James M.. Operation Texas: Lyndon B. Johnson’s Attempt to Save Jews from the German Nazi Holocaust. Institute of Texan Cultures. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  2. ^ Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum — Religion and President Johnson.
  3. ^ Banta, Joseph (January 1964). "President Lyndon B. Johnson". The Christadelphian 101: 26. 
  4. ^ Caro, Robert A. Volume I
  5. ^ 735 — Remarks at a Rally in San Bernardino. October 28, 1964.
  6. ^ The Ultimate San Bernardino Trivia Quiz.
  7. ^ "President Lyndon B. Johnson's Biography." Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.
  8. ^ Remarks at Southwest Texas State College Upon Signing the Higher Education Act of 1965. Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  9. ^ Woods, Randall (2006), p. 131
  10. ^ JOHNSON, Lyndon Baines - Biographical Information
  11. ^ Caro, Robert A. (1982).
  12. ^ Hove, Duane T. (2003). American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Burd Street Press. ISBN 1-57249-070.  [1]
  13. ^ CNN.com In-Depth Specials - The story behind LBJ's Silver Star
  14. ^ CNN.com In-Depth Specials - The story behind LBJ's Silver Star
  15. ^ CNN.com In-Depth Specials - The story behind LBJ's Silver Star
  16. ^ Dallek, Robert. Lone Star Rising, p. 237
  17. ^ Woods, Randall (2006), p. 217; Caro, Robert A. (1989)
  18. ^ JOHNSON, Lyndon Baines - Biographical Information
  19. ^ Woods, Randall (2006), p. 262
  20. ^ New York Times, The Johnson Treatment: Lyndon B. Johnson and Theodore F. Green
  21. ^ Rowland Evans and Robert Novak. Lyndon B. Johnson: The Exercise of Power (1966), p. 104
  22. ^ John A. Farrell (2001). Tip O'Neill and the Democratic Century: A Biography. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-26049-5. 
  23. ^ Master of the Senate, p. 1035.
  24. ^ Transcript, Lawrence F. O'Brien Oral History Interview XIII, 9/10/86, by Michael L. Gillette, Internet Copy, LBJ Library. See: Page 23 at [2]
  25. ^ The Assassination Records Review Board noted in 1998 that Johnson became skeptical of some of the Warren Commission findings. See: Final Report, chapter 1, footnote 17 at http://www.fas.org/sgp/advisory/arrb98/index.html
  26. ^ Dallek, Robert (1998). Chapter 2
  27. ^ Dallek, Robert (1998). Chapter 3
  28. ^ Evans and Novak (1966), pp. 451–456; Taylor Branch. Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963–65, pp. 444–470
  29. ^ Risen, Clay. "How the South was won", The Boston Globe, 2006-03-05. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 
  30. ^ Woods, Randall (2006), pp. 759–787
  31. ^ Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1965. Volume II, entry 301, pp. 635–640 (1966)
  32. ^ Woods, Randall (2006), pp. 563–68; Dallek, Robert (1988), pp. 196–202
  33. ^ Patricia P. Martin and David A. Weaver. "Social Security: A Program and Policy History," Social Security Bulletin, volume 66, no. 1 (2005), see also online version
  34. ^ Woods, Randall (2006), pp. 790–795; Michael W. Flamm. Law And Order: Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s (2005)
  35. ^ Dallek, Robert. Flawed Giant, pp. 391–396; quotes on pp. 391 and 396
  36. ^ LBJ tape 'confirms Vietnam war error', Martin Fletcher, The Times, Nov 7th, 2001
  37. ^ siwmfilm.net
  38. ^ Lawrence R. Jacobs and Robert Y. Shapiro. "Lyndon Johnson, Vietnam, and Public Opinion: Rethinking Realist Theory of Leadership." Presidential Studies Quarterly 29#3 (1999), p. 592
  39. ^ John E. Mueller. War, Presidents and Public Opinion (1973), p. 108
  40. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061117/ap_on_re_us/lbj_tapes
  41. ^ LBJ Library releases telephone conversation recordings
  42. ^ Dallek, Robert (1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon B. Johnson and his Times, 1961–1973. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 754. ISBN 0–19-505465-2. 
  43. ^ Lewis L. Gould (1993), p. 98
  44. ^ Lewis L. Gould (1993). 1968: The Election that Changed America.
  45. ^ Remarks on Decision not to Seek Re-Election (March 31, 1968) Text and audio of speech
  46. ^ Harris, Marvin (December 1999). "Taming the wild pecan at Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park". Park Science 19 (2). 
  47. ^ Elsen, William A. "Ceremonial Group Had Busy 5 Weeks". The Washington Post, January 25, 1973.
  48. ^ Former First Families Pay Respects to Lady Bird Johnson. NYT. Retrieved on 2008-05-15.
  49. ^ McClatchy Washington Bureau | Homepage

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
James P. Buchanan
Member from Texas's 10th congressional district
1937 – 1949
Succeeded by
Homer Thornberry
United States Senate
Preceded by
W. Lee O'Daniel
Senator from Texas (Class 2)
1949 – 1961
Served alongside: Thomas T. Connally, Price Daniel,
William A. Blakley and Ralph W. Yarborough
Succeeded by
William Blakley
Political offices
Preceded by
Richard Nixon
Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
Succeeded by
Hubert Humphrey
Preceded by
John F. Kennedy
President of the United States
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
Succeeded by
Richard Nixon
Party political offices
Preceded by
Francis J. Myers
Pennsylvania
Senate Democratic Whip
1951 – 1953
Succeeded by
Earle C. Clements
Kentucky
Preceded by
Ernest W. McFarland
Arizona
Senate Democratic Leader
1953 – 1961
Succeeded by
Mike Mansfield
Montana
Preceded by
Estes Kefauver
Democratic Party vice presidential candidate
1960
Succeeded by
Hubert Humphrey
Preceded by
John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1964
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Harry S. Truman
Oldest U.S. President still living
December 26, 1972 – January 22, 1973
Succeeded by
Richard Nixon
Preceded by
J. Edgar Hoover
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

January 24, 1973 – January 25, 1973
Succeeded by
Hubert Humphrey
Persondata
NAME Johnson, Lyndon Baines
ALTERNATIVE NAMES LBJ (common referent)
SHORT DESCRIPTION President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH August 27, 1908
PLACE OF BIRTH Stonewall, Texas, United States
DATE OF DEATH January 22, 1973
PLACE OF DEATH Stonewall, Texas, United States
The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x970, 462 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:John F. Kennedy President of the United States List of Presidents of the United States Template:POTUSgallery... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Dillons signature, as used on American currency Clarence Douglas Dillon (August 21, 1909 – January 10, 2003) son of Clarence and Ann (Douglass) Dillon, was U.S. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France (1953-1957) and 57th secretary of the United States Department of the Treasury (1961-1965). ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... James Edward Day (October 11, 1914 - October 29, 1996) was an American businessman and political office-holder. ... John Austin Gronouski (October 26, 1919 - January 7, 1996) had been the Wisconsin state commissioner of taxation, and the United States Postmaster General Biography Gronouski was born in Dunbar, Wisconsin. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Stewart Udall Stewart Lee Udall (born January 31, 1920) was an American politician. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Orville Lothrop Freeman (May 9, 1918–February 20, 2003) was an American Democratic politician who served as the 29th Governor of Minnesota from January 5, 1955 to January 2, 1961 and as the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture from 1961 to 1969 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Luther Hartwell Hodges Luther Hartwell Hodges (9 March 1898 – 6 October 1974) was the Democratic governor of the state of North Carolina from 1954 to 1961 and United States Secretary of Commerce from 1961 to 1965. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The official portrait of W. Willard Wirtz hangs in the Department of Labor W. Willard Wirtz (born March 14, 1912) was a U.S. administrator. ... Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (April 9, 1910 – February 22, 1998) was an American Democratic Party politician. ... Anthony Joseph Celebrezze Sr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Stonewall is a census-designated place located in Gillespie County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Stonewall is a census-designated place located in Gillespie County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m