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Encyclopedia > Lymphoma
Lymphoma
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 C81.-C96.
ICD-O: 9590-9999
MeSH D008223

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates in lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system). There are many types of lymphoma. Lymphomas are part of the broad group of diseases called hematological neoplasms. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Lymphoma in animals is a type of cancer defined by a proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver and spleen. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Although hematological malignancies are a form of cancer, they are generally treated by specialists in hematology, although in many hospitals oncology specialists also manage these diseases. ...


In the 19th and 20th centuries the affliction was called Hodgkin's Disease, as it was discovered by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. Colloquially, lymphoma is broadly categorized as Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (all other types of lymphoma). Scientific classification of the types of lymphoma is more detailed. Hodgkins disease is a type of lymphoma described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, and characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. ... Thomas Hodgkin (August 17, 1798 - April 5, 1866) was a British physician and considered one of the most prominent pathologists of his time and a pioneer in preventive medicine. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hodgkins lymphoma, also known as Hodgkins disease, is a type of lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. ... Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) describes a group of cancers arising from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. ...


Although older classifications referred to histiocytic lymphomas, these are recognized in newer classifications as of B, T or NK cell lineage. Histiocytic malignancies are rare and are classified as sarcomas.[1] B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... Natural killer cells (NK) are a type of lymphocyte (a white blood cell) and a component of nonspecific immune defense. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. ...

Contents

Prevalence

According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, lymphomas account for about five percent of all cases of cancer in the United States, and Hodgkin's lymphoma in particular accounts for less than one percent of all cases of cancer in the United States. National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...


Because the lymphatic system is part of the body's immune system, patients with a weakened immune system, such as from HIV infection or from certain drugs or medication, also have a higher incidence of lymphoma. The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Classification

WHO classification

The WHO Classification is the latest classification of lymphoma, published by the World Health Organization in 2001.[1] It was based upon the "Revised European-American Lymphoma classification" (REAL). WHO redirects here. ...


This classification attempts to classify lymphomas by cell type, i.e. the normal cell type that most likely resembles the tumor. They are classified in three large groups: the B cell tumors, the T cell and natural killer cell tumors, Hodgkin lymphoma, and other less common groups: (ICD-O codes are provided where available). B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... Natural NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules in their cytoplasm contain special proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. ... Hodgkins disease is a type of lymphoma described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, and characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ...


Mature B cell neoplasms

DNA-microarray analysis of Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) showing differences in gene expression patterns. Colors indicate levels of expression; green indicates genes that are overexpressed in normal cells compared to lymphoma cells and red indicates genes that are overexpressed in lymphoma cells compared to normal cells.
DNA-microarray analysis of Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) showing differences in gene expression patterns. Colors indicate levels of expression; green indicates genes that are overexpressed in normal cells compared to lymphoma cells and red indicates genes that are overexpressed in lymphoma cells compared to normal cells.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1914x1398, 707 KB) Summary Public domain image from cancer. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1914x1398, 707 KB) Summary Public domain image from cancer. ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also known as chronic lymphoid leukemia or CLL), is a type of leukemia, or cancer of the white blood cells (lymphocytes). ... Small cell lymphoma (or small lymphocytic lymphoma) is a type of follicular B-cell lymphoma. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Leukemia. ... Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is cancer involving a subtype of white blood cells called lymphocytes. ... Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is an indolent lymphoma recognized by the World Health Organization. ... Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. ... Multiple myeloma (also known as MM, myeloma, plasma cell myeloma, or as Kahlers disease after Otto Kahler) is a type of cancer of plasma cells which are immune system cells in bone marrow that produce antibodies. ... Plasmacytoma refers to a malignant monoclonal plasma cell tumor growing either in bone or soft tissue. ... MALT lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) involving the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, usually of the stomach. ... Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common of the indolent non-Hodgkins lymphomas. ... Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the rarer of the non-Hodgkins lymphomas, comprising about 6% of NHL cases. ... B-cell lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting B cells. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a malignancy of B cells that is caused by Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). ... Burkitts lymphoma (or Burkitts tumor, or Malignant lymphoma, Burkitts type) is a cancer of the lymphatic system (in particular, B lymphocytes). ... Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a neoplastic disease. ...

Mature T cell and natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms

    • T cell prolymphocytic leukemia
    • T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia
    • Aggressive NK cell leukemia
    • Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma
    • Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type
    • Enteropathy-type T cell lymphoma
    • Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma
    • Blastic NK cell lymphoma
    • Mycosis fungoides / Sezary syndrome
    • Primary cutaneous CD30-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorders
      • Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma
      • Lymphomatoid papulosis
    • Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma
    • Peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified
    • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

T-cell-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a mature T-cell leukemia with aggressive behavior and predilection for blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin involvement. ... // Proliferation of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs), LGL leukemia, Tγ-lymphoproliferative disorder, T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia[1] 9831/3[1] T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia is a disease that exhibits a unexplained, chronic (> 6 months) elevation in large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) in the peripheral blood. ... Mycosis Fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is a rare form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... Sézarys disease (or Sézary syndrome) is a type of cutaneous lymphoma characterized by Albert Sézary. ... Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a rare skin disorder. ...

Hodgkin lymphoma

    • Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma
    • Classical Hodgkin lymphoma
      • Nodular sclerosis
      • Mixed cellularity
      • Lymphocyte-rich
      • Lymphocyte depleted or not depleted

Immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders

    • Associated with a primary immune disorder
    • Associated with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    • Post-transplant
    • Associated with Methotrexate therapy

Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...

Working formulation

The Working Formulation, published in 1982, is primarily descriptive. It is still occasionally used, but has been superseded by the WHO classification, above.


Low grade

  • Malignant Lymphoma, small lymphocytic (chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
  • Malignant Lymphoma, follicular, predominantly small cleaved cell
  • Malignant Lymphoma, follicular, mixed (small cleaved and large cell)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also known as chronic lymphoid leukemia or CLL), is a type of leukemia, or cancer of the white blood cells (lymphocytes). ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Large cell is a term used in oncology. ...

High grade

Lymphoblasts are immature white blood cells which typically differentiate to form normal white blood cells but which proliferate uncontrollably in leukemia. ... Burkitts lymphoma (or Burkitts tumor, or Malignant lymphoma, Burkitts type) is a cancer of the lymphatic system (in particular, B lymphocytes). ...

Miscellaneous

Mycosis Fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is a rare form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... A Histiocyte is a cell that is part of the human immune system. ... Plasmacytoma refers to a malignant monoclonal plasma cell tumor growing either in bone or soft tissue. ...

Other classification systems

  • ICD-O (codes 9590-9999, details at [1]) (archive link, was dead)
  • ICD-10 (codes C81-C96, details at [2])

The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... A dead link or broken link is a link on the world wide web that points to a webpage or server that is permanently unavailable. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ...

Diagnosis, etiology, staging, prognosis, and treatment

See separate links to Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hodgkins lymphoma, also known as Hodgkins disease, is a type of lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. ... Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a type of cancer. ...


Genetics

Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is environmentally induced as a result of the consumption of Triticeae glutens. In gluten sensitive individuals with EATL 68% are homozygotes of the DQB1*02 subtype at the HLA-DQB1 locus (serotype DQ2).[2] (See Coeliac Disease, HLA-DQ, HLA DR3-DQ2) Wheat gluten flour Triticeae glutens are seed storage proteins found in mature seeds of grass tribe Triticeae. ... Coeliac disease or celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals in all age groups after early infancy. ... HLA DQ is a protein/peptide-antigen receptor and graft-versus-host disease antigen that is composed of 2 subunits DQα and DQβ. DQα and DQβ are encoded by two loci, HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 which are found in the MHC Class II (or HLA-D) region in the... HLA DR3-DQ2 is the serotypic representation of a HLA-DRB1: DQA1 :DQB1 haplotype. ...


See also

Hodgkins lymphoma, also known as Hodgkins disease, is a type of lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. ... Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a type of cancer. ... Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common of the indolent non-Hodgkins lymphomas. ... Burkitts lymphoma (or Burkitts tumor, or Malignant lymphoma, Burkitts type) is a cancer of the lymphatic system (in particular, B lymphocytes). ... Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the rarer of the non-Hodgkins lymphomas, comprising about 6% of NHL cases. ... Endoscopic image of gastric MALT lymphoma taken in body of stomach in patient who presented with upper GI hemorrhage. ... Cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a class of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, which is a type of cancer of the immune system. ... Mycosis Fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is a rare form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of non_Hodgkin lymphoma that features in the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of lymphomas. ... The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the diffuse system of small concentrations of lymphoid tissue found in various sites of the body such as the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin. ... Primary CNS lymphoma is a primary intracranial tumor usually present in those with severe immunosuppression --- commonly in those with AIDS --- and represents around 20% of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infection (other types being Burkitts lymphoma and immunoblastic lymphoma). ... BCP-1 cells are a clonal lymphoma cell line. ... Ann Arbor staging is the staging system for lymphomas, both in Hodgkins lymphoma (previously called Hodgkins Disease) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (abbreviated NHL). ... The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is a clinical tool developed by oncologists to aid in predicting the prognosis of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Pathology and Genetics of Haemo (World Health Organization Classification of Tumours S.). Oxford Univ Pr. ISBN 92-832-2411-6. 
  2. ^ Al-Toma A, Verbeek WH, Hadithi M, von Blomberg BM, Mulder CJ (2007). "Survival in Refractory Coeliac Disease and Enteropathy associated T cell Lymphoma: Retrospective evaluation of single centre experience". doi:10.1136/gut.2006.114512. PMID 17470479. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Research Foundations

  • Lymphoma Research Foundation

Information

Societies

  • The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society
  • Lymphoma Support Ireland - Booklets & Patient Stories online
  • Lymphoma Coalition - an international coalition of lymphoma organisations.

Statistics

A mast cell tumor is a type of tumor consisting of mast cells that is found in many species of animals. ... Mast-cell sarcoma is an aggressive[1] form of sarcoma of the mast cells. ... In medicine, mastocytosis is a group of rare disorders of both children and adults caused by the presence of too many mast cells (mastocytes) in a persons body. ... Malignant histiocytosis is a hereditary disease found in the Bernese Mountain Dog characterized by histiocytic infiltration of the lungs and lymph nodes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Immunoproliferative disorders (or immunoproliferative diseases, or immunoproliferative neoplasms) are a group of conditions affecting the immune system where there is overproduction of immunoglobulins or pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell or by abnormal proliferation of primary cells. ... Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is cancer involving a subtype of white blood cells called lymphocytes. ... Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a neoplastic disease. ... Lymphoid leukemia (or lymphocytic leukemia) is a type of leukemia affecting lymphoid tissue. ... Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a form of leukemia, characterised by the overproduction and continuous multiplication of malignant and immature white blood cells (also known as lymphoblasts) in the bone marrow. ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also known as chronic lymphoid leukemia or CLL), is a type of leukemia, or cancer of the white blood cells (lymphocytes). ... T-Cell Leukemia, or T-Cell ALL, Acute lymphocytic leukemiais a cancer of the lymphocyte-forming cells called lymphoblasts. ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... // Proliferation of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs), LGL leukemia, Tγ-lymphoproliferative disorder, T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia[1] 9831/3[1] T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia is a disease that exhibits a unexplained, chronic (> 6 months) elevation in large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) in the peripheral blood. ... T-cell-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a mature T-cell leukemia with aggressive behavior and predilection for blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin involvement. ... T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a cancer of the lymphocyte-forming cells called lymphoblasts. ... B-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemia which affect B cells. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Leukemia. ... Myeloid leukaemia can refer to: Acute myelogenous leukemia Chronic myelogenous leukemia Category: Disambiguation ... Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also known as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells, characterized by the rapid proliferation of abnormal cells which accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into acute myeloid leukemia. ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. ... Acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL, or AML-M5) is considered a type of acute myeloid leukemia. ... Erythroleukemia (or acute Di Guglielmo syndrome) is a rare form of acute myeloid leukemia where the myeloproliferation is of erythrocyte precursors. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterized by increased and unregulated clonal production of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ... Chronic monocytic leukemia (CMoL) is a type of chronic myeloid leukemia characterized by a dominance of monocytes in the marrow. ... Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative disorder that features a persistent neutrophilia in peripheral blood, myeloid hyperplasia in bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, and the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome or a BCR/ABL fusion gene. ... Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific genetic, chromosomal abnormality that is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and involves an exchange of material between chromosomes 9 and 22. ... A chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, or most appropriately, extramedullary myeloid tumor, is a solid tumor composed of immature malignant white blood cells called myeloblasts. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Hairy cell leukemia is a B cell neoplasm. ... // Aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma, large granular lymphocyte leukemia, NK-cell type[1] 9948/3[1] Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a disease with an aggressive, systemic proliferation of natural killer cells (NK cells) and a rapidly declining clinical course. ... The myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs) are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced. ... Primary polycythemia, often called polycythemia vera (PCV), polycythemia rubra vera (PRV), or erythremia, occurs when excess red blood cells are produced as a result of an abnormality of the bone marrow. ... Essential thrombocytosis (ET, also known as essential thrombocythemia) is a rare chronic blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow in the absence of an alternative cause. ... Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, also known as agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, and primary myelofibrosis,[1] was first described in 1879 and is currently classified as a myeloproliferative disease caused by the growth and proliferation of an abnormal bone marrow stem cell, resulting in the replacement of the bone... The hypereosinophilic syndrome is a disease process characterized by a persistently elevated eosinophil count (≥ 1500 eosinophils/mm³) in the blood for at least six months without any recognizable cause after a careful workup, with evidence of involvement of either the heart, nervous system, or bone marrow. ... Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the name given to a group of B cell lymphomas occurring in immunosuppressed patients following organ transplant. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus: Lymphoma (522 words)
The primary NIH organization for research on Lymphoma is the National Cancer Institute
Lymphoma is a cancer of a part of the immune system called the lymphatic system.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas begin when a type of white blood cell, called a T cell or B cell, becomes abnormal.
Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Facts & Statistics (1005 words)
Lymphoma* is a general term for a group of cancers that originates in the lymphatic system.
Lymphoma results when a lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) undergoes a malignant change and begins to multiply, eventually crowding out healthy cells and creating tumors which enlarge the lymph nodes or other sites in the body.
The age-adjusted incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma rose by 84 percent from 1975 to 2004 - an annual average percentage increase of 2.8 percent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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