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Encyclopedia > Lying in state

Lying in state is a term used to describe the tradition in which a coffin is placed on view to allow the public at large to pay their respects to the deceased. It traditionally takes place in the principal government building of a country. While practice differs among countries, a viewing in a location that is not the principal government building is referred to as lying in repose. A coffin (in North American English, also known as a casket) is a funerary box used in the display and containment of deceased remains -- either for burial or after cremation. ... Lying in repose is when the remains of a deceased person, often one of some stature, are available for viewing by the public. ...

Contents

Canada

Pierre Trudeau lying in state
Pierre Trudeau lying in state

Lying in state takes place on Parliament Hill in the capital, Ottawa, in the Hall of Honour (for prime ministers) or the Senate Chamber (for governors general). Guards are from the Canadian Forces and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. When prime ministers lie in state, guards are also from Parliamentary security forces - Commons Police, as well as Senate Police. When governors general have their funerals held, guards are also from the Governor General's Foot Guards. Like in the United Kingdom, the guards stand at each corner with heads bowed and weapons inverted ("Resting on Arms reversed") and their backs are turned towards the casket. Pierre Trudeau lying in state. ... Pierre Trudeau lying in state. ... Trudeau redirects here. ... Centre Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada Parliament Hill, (French Colline du Parlement), -The Hill for locals- is a scenic location on the banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, Canada. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario County Established 1850 as Bytown City Mayor Larry OBrien Governing body Ottawa City Council MPs / MPPs Members of Parliament (MPs) Mauril Bélanger (LPC), Paul Dewar (NDP), John Baird (CPC), Royal Galipeau (CPC), David McGuinty (LPC),Pierre Lemieux... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC) are the combined armed forces of Canada. ... Royal Canadian Mounted Police heraldic badge. ... The Governor Generals Foot Guards is one of three Household regiments in the Canadian Army reserve forces, along with The Governor Generals Horse Guards and the Canadian Grenadier Guards. ...


Recent figures to have lain in state include former prime minister Pierre Trudeau and Canada's Unknown Soldier, both of them in 2000, former governor general Ray Hnatyshyn in 2002 and Ernest "Smokey" Smith, the last living Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, in 2005. Trudeau redirects here. ... The Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located at the National War Memorial in Confederation Square, Ottawa. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Ramon John Ray Hnatyshyn, PC, CC, CMM, CD, BA, LL.B, QC FRHSC (hon) (anglicized pronunciation ) (March 16, 1934 – December 18, 2002) was Canadas twenty-fourth governor general, serving from 1990 to 1995. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Ernest Alvia (Smokey) Smith in his official portrait from the Order of British Columbia in 2002. ... Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


United Kingdom

In state and ceremonial funerals in the UK, the lying-in-state takes place in Westminster Hall. The coffin is placed on a catafalque and is guarded, around the clock, by detachments each of four men from the following units: The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A catafalque is a raised bier or platform of sorts (often movable) used to support the casket or coffin, or in the case of a pope: the body, of a person during a funeral or memorial service. ...

Each unit mans the guard for a total of six hours, with each detachment standing post for twenty minutes. The four men stand at each corner with heads bowed and weapons inverted and their backs are turned towards the coffin. Foot guards is a term used to describe elite infantry regiments. ... The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. ... The Coldstream Guards is a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division or Household Division. ... The Scots Guards is a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division, and have a long and proud history stretching back hundreds of years. ... This article deals with the current British Army regiment, for historical regiments, see Historical Irish Guards regiments. ... The Welsh Guards is an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division. ... The term Household Cavalry is used across the Commonwealth of Nations to describe the cavalry of the Household Divisions. ... The Life Guards is the senior regiment of the British Army. ... The Blues and Royals are a British Army armoured regiment and are part of the Household Cavalry. ... The Queens bodyguard Sovereigns Bodyguard is the name given to three ceremonial units in the United Kingdom who are tasked with guarding the Sovereign. ... Yeomen of the Guard in the procession to the annual service of the Order of the Garter at Windsor Castle For the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, see The Yeomen of the Guard The Queens Body Guard of the Yeomen of the Guard are a bodyguard of the British Monarch. ... Her Majestys Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms is a bodyguard to the British Monarch. ... The Royal Company of Archers is a ceremonial unit that serves as the Sovereigns Bodyguard in Scotland, a role it has performed since 1822 and the reign of King George IV, when the company provided a personal bodyguard to the King on his visit to Scotland. ...


On two occasions, the guard has been mounted by four male members of the Royal Family. At the lying in state of King George V in 1936, the guard was mounted by his four sons King Edward VIII, the Duke of York, the Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Kent. For Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother's lying-in-state in 2002, the guard was mounted by her four grandsons the Prince of Wales, the Duke of York, the Earl of Wessex and Viscount Linley. [1] 1936 2002 The Vigil of the Princes is the unofficial name given to two occasions when male members of the British Royal Family have stood guard during the lying in state of one of their relatives. ... Members of the British royal family A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Duke of Gloucester His Royal Highness The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert Windsor) (31 March 1900 - 10 June 1974), was the third son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary, the brother of King Edward VIII (later Duke of Windsor) and... His Royal Highness The Prince George, Duke of Kent (George Edward Alexander Edmund von Wettin, later Windsor) (20 December 1902 - 25 August 1942) was the fourth son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary. ... Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the Queen Consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG, KCVO, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 19 February 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor), styled HRH The Earl of Wessex, KG (born March 10, 1964), is a member of the British royal family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex... David Albert Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley (born November 3, 1961), is the son of the late Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon and Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon. ...


United States

Ronald Reagan lying in state
Ronald Reagan lying in state

Lying in state is the rare honor granted by the United States to a deceased official wherein his remains are placed in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol for a public viewing, guarded by members of the Armed Forces. By custom, only Presidents (current and former), military commanders, and members of Congress are granted the honor of lying in state. (Except for Presidents and former Presidents, the honor is not automatic -- and not all those entitled to the honor accept it.) The first leader to receive this honor was former Speaker of the House Henry Clay when he died in 1852. Since then the honor has been extended to 27 men, including the four U.S. presidents who were assassinated and six other U.S. Presidents who died of other causes. Image File history File links PeoplePayingRespectsToReagan. ... Image File history File links PeoplePayingRespectsToReagan. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... Henry Clay (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was a leading American statesman and orator who represented Kentucky in both the House of Representatives and Senate. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ...


The United States Congress has recently created a similar -- though not identical -- privilege for distinguished Americans who don't quite qualify for a "lying in state" designation. Congress may permit an individual to lie in honor in the Rotunda and has done so for three individuals to date. In 1998, a mentally unstable man named Russell Eugene Weston Jr. stormed the U.S. Capitol building and shot and killed two members of the United States Capitol Police, Officer Jacob Chestnut and Detective John Gibson. In response, the U.S. Congress provided for their remains to lie in honor at the Rotunda. In 2005, upon the death of civil rights activist Rosa Parks, Congress permitted her remains to lie in honor at the Rotunda, too. Parks became the second African American (after Officer Chestnut), the second non-governmental official (after Pierre Charles L'Enfant), and the first woman to lie in state or in honor at the Capitol rotunda. Russell Eugene Weston Jr. ... The United States Capitol Police (USCP) is a police force charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories. ... Jacob Chestnut, one of the two United States Capitol Police officers killed in the line of duty on July 24, 1998, was the first African American to lay in honor in the U.S. Capitol. ... Commemorative plaque in the United States Capitol Detective John Michael Gibson (March 29, 1956 – July 24, 1998) was a United States Capitol Police officer assigned to the dignitary protection detail of Congressman Tom DeLay. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American seamstress and civil rights activist whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Pierre Charles LEnfant LEnfants plan for Washington, as revised by Andrew Ellicott Pierre Charles LEnfant (2 August 1754; Paris, France – 14 June 1825; Prince Georges County, Maryland) was a French-born American architect and urban planner. ...


Whether lying in state or in honor, the process is very similar. The coffin or casket is usually placed on a catafalque, usually the black catafalque first constructed upon the death of Abraham Lincoln, from when he lay in state following his assassination in 1865. For those who lie in state, the casket is guarded at each of its corners by servicemen from each of the four major branches of the United States Armed Forces for its duration at the Capitol. For those who lie in honor, another suitable honor guard is provided. (In the joint Chestnut/Gibson lying in honor ceremony, the honor guard was mounted by four members of the U.S. Capitol Police in full dress uniform.) In both cases and in contrast to the practice in United Kingdom and countries in the Commonwealth Realm, guards at the Capitol face the casket, hold their rifles with their right hand, and keep the rifle butt resting on the floor. After the viewing and ceremony at the Capitol, the remains are taken to the desired burial location. A coffin (in North American English, also known as a casket) is a funerary box used in the display and containment of deceased remains -- either for burial or after cremation. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard (recently converted to reporting to the Department of Homeland Security... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ...


The ten presidents who have lain in state are:

Johnson and Reagan are the only presidents to have lain in state after a congressional resolution. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... William McKinley, Jr. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th (1921-1923) President of the United States and the sixth President to die in office. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early twentieth century, a chaired professor at Yale Law... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a world-famous mining engineer, and humanitarian administrator. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other notable figures who have lain in state include:

Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 - August 11, 1868), also known as The Great Commoner, was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from Massachusetts. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pierre Charles LEnfant ( 2 August 1754 – 14 June 1825) designed the street plan of the Federal City in the United States, now known as Washington, DC. Born in France, he came to the American colonies as a military engineer with General Lafayette and became closely identified with the... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, United States dedicated to the American soldiers who have died without their remains being identified. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... General John Pershing John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, United States dedicated to the American soldiers who have died without their remains being identified. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was a famous American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover (January 23, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the founder of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its present form and its director from May 10, 1924, until his death in 1972. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, United States dedicated to the American soldiers who have died without their remains being identified. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Those Who Have Lain In State or In Honor in the Capitol Rotunda, US Architect of the Capitol.
  • Memorial or Funeral Services in the Capitol Rotunda (PDF), U.S. Senate Historical Office from the Architect of the Capitol.

 
 

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