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Encyclopedia > Lycurgus of Athens

Lycurgus (in Greek Λυκουργος; 396323 BC), an Attic orator, was born at Athens about 396 BC, and was the son of Lycophron, who belonged to the noble family of the Eteobutadae.1 In his early life he devoted himself to the study of philosophy in the school of Plato, but afterwards became one of the disciples of Isocrates, and entered upon public life at a comparatively early age. He was appointed three successive times to the office of manager of the public revenue, and held his office each time for five years, beginning with 337 BC. The conscientiousness with which he discharged the duties of this office enabled him to raise the public revenue to the sum of 1200 talents. This, as well as the unwearied activity with which he laboured both for increasing the security and splendour of the city of Athens, gained for him the universal confidence of the people to such a degree, that when Alexander the Great demanded, in 335 BC, among the other opponents of the Macedonian interest, the surrender of Lycurgus also, who had, in conjunction with Demosthenes, exerted himself against the intrigues of Macedonia even as early as the reign of Philip, the people of Athens clung to him, and boldly refused to deliver him up.2 He was further entrusted with the superintendence (φυλακη) of the city and the keeping of public discipline; and the severity with which he watched over the conduct of the citizens became almost proverbial.3 He had a noble taste for every thing that was beautiful and grand, as he showed by the buildings he erected or completed, both for the use of the citizens and the ornament of the city. His integrity was so great, that even private persons deposited with him large sums of money, which they wished to be kept in safety. He was also the author of several legislative enactments, of which he enforced the strictest observance. One of his laws forbade women to ride in chariots at the celebration of the mysteries; and when his own wife transgressed this law, she was fined 4; another ordained that bronze statues should be erected to Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, that copies of their tragedies should be made and preserved in the public archives. The Lives of the Ten Orators erroneously ascribed to Plutarch5 are full of anecdotes and characteristic features of Lycurgus, from which we must infer that he was reputed one of the noblest specimens of old Attic virtue, and a worthy contemporary of Demosthenes. He often appeared as a successful accuser in the Athenian courts, but he himself was as often accused by others, though he always, and even in the last days of his life, succeeded in silencing his enemies. Thus we know that he was attacked by Philinus6, Dinarchus7, Aristogeiton, Menesaechmus, and others. He died while holding the office of director (επιστατης) of the theatre of Dionysus, in 323 BC. A fragment of an inscription, containing the account which he rendered to the state of his administration of the finances, is still extant. At his death he left behind three sons, by his wife Callisto, who were severely persecuted by Menesaechmus and Thrasycles, but were defended by Hypereides and Democles.8 Among the honours which were conferred upon him, we may mention, that the archon Anaxicrates ordered a bronze statue to be erected to him in the Ceramicus, and that he and his eldest son should be entertained in the prytaneum at the public expense. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 401 BC 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC 397 BC - 396 BC - 395 BC 394 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC - 323 BC - 322 BC 321 BC 320... The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logographers of the classical era (5th century BC–4th century BC). ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 401 BC 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC 397 BC - 396 BC - 395 BC 394 BC... Raphaels portrait of Plato, a detail of The School of Athens fresco An an institution for the study of (usually) higher learning. ... Plato ( Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (c. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC - 280s BC Years: 342 BC - 341 BC - 340 BC - 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC... A talent is an ancient unit of mass. ... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC - 335 BC - 334 BC 333 BC... Bust of the Greek orator Demosthenes, Louvre museum, Paris, France. ... Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος, transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedonia from 359 BC until his death. ... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000 –500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... Aeschylus This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... A Roman bust. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... In general usage, a tragedy is a drama, movie or sometimes a real world event with a sad outcome. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... Bust of the Greek orator Demosthenes, Louvre museum, Paris, France. ... Dinarchus, (c. ... 37. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC - 323 BC - 322 BC 321 BC 320... Hypereides (c. ... Grave shrine from the Kerameikos - Aristonautes as warrior - ca. ... The prytaneis (literally presidents) of ancient Athens were members of the boule chosen to perform executive tasks during their term (a prytany), which lasted about one month and then was rotated to other members of the boule. ...


The ancients mention fifteen orations of Lycurgus as extant in their days9, but we know the titles of at least twenty. With the exception, however, of one entire oration against Leocrates, and some fragments of others, all the rest are lost, so that our knowledge of his skill and style as an orator is very incomplete. Dionysius and other ancient critics draw particular attention to the ethical tendency of his orations, but they censure the harshness of his metaphors, the inaccuracy in the arrangement of his subject, and his frequent digressions. His style was said to be noble and grand, but neither elegant nor pleasing.10 His works seem to have been commented upon by Didymus of Alexandria.11 Theon12 mentions two declamations, Encomium of Helen and Deploration of Eurybatus, as the works of Lycurgus; but this Lycurgus, if the name be correct, must be a different personage from the Attic orator. The oration Against Leocrates, which was delivered in 330 BC13, was first printed by Aldus Manutius in his edition of the Attic orators. Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... In language, a metaphor (from the Greek: metapherin) is a rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two or more seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Didymus Chalcenterus (ca. ... Aelius Theon was a mid-1st millennium Alexandrian sophist and author of a collection of preliminary exercises (progymnasmata) for the training of orators. ... Declamation (also known as Oratorical Declamation or Oratorical Interpretation, commonly abbreviated to dec) is a public speaking event of the National Catholic Forensic League. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. ...


References

Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ... Boston is a town and small port c. ...

Notes

1 Pseudo-Plutarch, Moralia, "Lives of the Ten Orators", p. 841; Suda, s.v. "Lykourgos"; Photius, Bibliotheca, cod. 268
2 Pseudo-Plutarch, ibid.; Photius, ibid.
3 Cicero, Epistulae, "Ad Atticum", i. 13; Plutarch, Parallel Lives, "Flaminus", 12; Ammianus Marcellinus, Res gestae, xxii. 9, xxx. 8
4 Aelian, Varia Historia, xiii. 24
5 Pseudo-Plutarch, p. 842
6 Harpocration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators, s.v. "theorika"
8 Pseudo-Plutarch, ibid.
9 Pseudo-Plutarch, p. 843; Photius, ibid.
10 Dionysius, On the ancient orators, v. 3; Hermogenes of Tarsus, De Formis Oratoriis, v; Dio Chrysostom, Orationes, xviii
11 Harpocration, s.vv. "pelanos", "prokovia", "stroter"
12 Theon, Progymnasmata
13 Aeschines, Speeches, "Against Ctesiphon", 93

External link

  • Lycurgus, Against Leocrates (both Greek text and English translation at Perseus)

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1867).
External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On the Worship... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... Photius (b. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ;) (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin orator and prose stylist. ... Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... Ammianus Marcellinus is a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... Valerius Harpocration was a Greek grammarian of Alexandria, of unknown date. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Hermogenes of Tarsus was a Greek rhetorician, surnamed the polisher. ... Dio or Dio Chrysostom (c 40 AD - c 120 AD) was a Greek orator, writer, philosopher and historian of the Roman Empire in the first century. ... Aeschines (389 - 314 BC), Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators, was born at Athens. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ...

Attic Orators | Ancient Greece
Antiphon | Andocides | Lysias | Isocrates| Isaeus | Aeschines | Lycurgus | Demosthenes | Hypereides | Dinarchus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lycurgus, from Lives of the Ten Orators, at Peitho's Web (1898 words)
LYCURGUS was the son of Lycophron, and grandson of that Lycurgus whom the Thirty Tyrants put to death, by the procurement of Aristodemus the Batesian, who, also being treasurer of the Greeks, was banished in the time of the popular government.
Lycurgus and some of his posterity were buried publicly, at or near the temple of Minerva Paeonia, where their monuments stand in the garden of Melanthius the philosopher, on which are inscriptions to Lycurgus and his children, which are yet extant.
This Lycurgus also was used frequently to plead on the account of sacred things; and accused Autolycus the Areopagite, Lysicles the general, Demades the son of Demeas, Menesaechmus, and many others, all whom he caused to be condemned as guilty.
The Internet Classics Archive | Lycurgus by Plutarch (5826 words)
Lycurgus was of opinion that ornaments were so far from advantaging them in their counsels, that they were rather an hindrance, by diverting their attention from the business before them to statues and pictures, and roofs curiously fretted, the usual embellishments of such places amongst the other Greeks.
Lycurgus, so far from being daunted and discouraged by this accident, stopped short and showed his disfigured face and eye beat out to his countrymen; they, dismayed and ashamed at the sight, delivered Alcander into his hands to be punished, and escorted him home, with expressions of great concern for his ill-usage.
Lycurgus allowed a man who was advanced in years and had a young wife to recommend some virtuous and approved young man, that she might have a child by him, who might inherit the good qualities of the father, and be a son to himself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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