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Encyclopedia > Lychee
Lychee
Lychee branch with ripe fruit
Lychee branch with ripe fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Litchi
Sonn.
Species: L. chinensis
Binomial name
Litchi chinensis
Sonn.

The Lychee (Litchi chinensis), also spelled Litchi (the U.S. FDA spelling) or Laichi, is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. It is a tropical fruit tree native to southern China. It is also found south to Vietnam and Indonesia and east to the Philippines. Lychees (Litchi chinensis). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Pierre Sonnerat (August 18, 1748 – March 31, 1814) was a French naturalist and explorer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ...


It is a medium-sized evergreen tree, reaching 15–20 m tall, with alternate pinnate leaves, each leaf 15–25 cm long, with 2-8 lateral leaflets 5–10 cm long; the terminal leaflet is absent. The newly emerging young leaves are a bright coppery red at first, before turning green as they expand to full size. The flowers are small, greenish-white or yellowish-white, produced in panicles up to 30 cm long. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Look up Pinnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A leaflet in botany is a part of a compound leaf. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ...


The fruit is a drupe, 3–4 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. The outside is covered by a pink-red, roughly-textured rind that is inedible but easily removed. The inside consists of a layer of sweet, translucent white flesh, rich in vitamin C, with a texture somewhat similar to that of a grape. The edible flesh consists of a highly developed aril enveloping the seed. The center contains a single glossy brown nut-like seed, 2 cm long and 1–1.5 cm in diameter. The seed, similar to a buckeye seed, is slightly poisonous and should not be eaten. The fruit matures from July to October, about 100 days after flowering. The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... In botany, a rind is the thick outer skin of various structures such as fruit. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Mature and immature arils of Taxus baccata, a European yew. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Species Aesculus arguta: Texas Buckeye Aesculus californica: California Buckeye Aesculus chinensis: Chinese Horse-chestnut Aesculus flava (): Yellow Buckeye Aesculus glabra: Ohio Buckeye Aesculus hippocastanum: Common Horse-chestnut Aesculus indica: Indian Horse-chestnut Aesculus neglecta: Dwarf Buckeye Aesculus parviflora: Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus pavia: Red Buckeye Aesculus sylvatica: Painted Buckeye Aesculus turbinata... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ...


There are two subspecies:

  • Litchi chinensis subsp. chinensis. China, Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia). Leaves with 4 to 8 (rarely 2) leaflets.
  • Litchi chinensis subsp. philippinensis (Radlk.) Leenh. Philippines, Indonesia. Leaves with 2-4 (rarely 6) leaflets.

Contents

History

A major early Chinese historical reference to lychees was made in the Tang Dynasty, when it was the favourite fruit of Emperor Li Longji (Xuanzong)'s favoured concubine Yang Yuhuan (Yang Guifei). The emperor had the fruit, which was only grown in southern China, delivered by the imperial messenger service's fast horses, whose riders would take shifts day and night in a Pony Express-like manner, to the capital. (Most historians believe the fruits were delivered from modern Guangdong, but some believe they came from modern Sichuan.) For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (685 - 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China reigining from 712 to 756. ... Yáng GuìfÄ“i (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), Yáng: (a common surname), GuìfÄ“i: highest-ranking imperial concubine (literally means precious princess consort), (June 1, 719 — July 15, 756), born Yáng Yùhuán (楊玉環), was one of the Four Beauties of ancient China. ... Frank E. Webner, pony express rider c. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


In the Chinese classical work, Shanglin Fu (上林賦), it is related that the alternate name, 离枝 (pinyin: lízhī), meaning leaving its branches, is so-called because once the fruit is picked it deteriorates quickly.


The lychee was first described in the West by Pierre Sonnerat (1748–1814) on a return from his travel to China and Southeast Asia. Pierre Sonnerat (August 18, 1748 – March 31, 1814) was a French naturalist and explorer. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


It was then introduced to the Réunion Island in 1764 by Joseph-François Charpentier de Cossigny de Palma. It was later introduced to Madagascar which has become a major producer.


Cultivation and uses

A plate of lychee showing a peeled fruit
A plate of lychee showing a peeled fruit

Lychees are extensively grown in the native region of China, and also elsewhere in South-East Asia, especially in north of Thailand,Cambodia,Vietnam, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, southern Japan, and more recently in California, Hawaii, and Florida[1] in the United States, the wetter areas of eastern Australia and sub-tropical regions of South Africa, also in the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. They require a warm subtropical to tropical climate that is cool but also frost-free or with only very slight winter frosts not below -4°C, and with high summer heat, rainfall, and humidity. Growth is best on well-drained, slightly acidic soils rich in organic matter. A wide range of cultivars is available, with early and late maturing forms suited to warmer and cooler climates respectively. They are also grown as an ornamental tree as well as for their fruit. Lychee. ... Lychee. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Sinaloa is a state in northwestern Mexico. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...

Germinating Lychee seed with its main root (about 3 months old)
Germinating Lychee seed with its main root (about 3 months old)
A normal-sized seed(left) and a small-sized seed(right)
A normal-sized seed(left) and a small-sized seed(right)

Lychees are commonly sold fresh in Vietnamese, Chinese and Asian markets, and in recent years, also widely in supermarkets worldwide. The red rind turns dark brown when the fruit is refrigerated, but the taste is not affected. It is also sold canned year-round. The fruit can be dried with the rind intact, at which point the flesh shrinks and darkens. Download high resolution version (548x800, 25 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (548x800, 25 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo yesterday. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo yesterday. ... Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ...


Cultivars

There are many different cultivars of lychee (lizhi), of which three are considered to be the most sought-after. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


The "Three Prestigious Cultivars"

  • Hanging Green (Chinese: gualü, 掛綠): The most famous (and most rare) lychee in existence. It received its name because of the barely noticeable light green hue and green line on the shell. Ancient records have described Hanging Green as "Fresh and crispy as pear, without juice. It can last for three days after the shell is removed". For centuries, Hanging Green is an item of tribute to the imperial government of various dynasties, until people in Canton revolted during the Qianlong era against the tributes and chopped all but one of the Hanging Green trees. The sole remaining tree still produces fruit each year, and fruits from that tree are now called "Zhengcheng Hanging Green" (Zengcheng gualü, 增城掛綠).
  • Sweet Osmanthus Flavour (gua mei, 桂味): Named because of the Sweet Osmanthus flavour it contains, this lychee has light red shells, which contains sharp edges. The fruits are described as crispy and sweet. There is a related cultivar, called "Yatou Green" (yatoulü, 鴨頭綠). The shell of this cultivar has dark green spots.
  • Glutinous Rice Ball (nuomici, 糯米糍): Named after its thick fruit meats and sweet (some described the taste as close to honey) flavours. The fresh red shells are not sharp and hard, and the seeds from this cultivar are noticeably smaller than others. Some fruits from this cultivar are seedless.

Binomial name Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Binomial name Osmanthus fragrans Lour. ...

Other notable cultivars

  • Baila (白臘)
  • Baitangying (白糖罌)
  • Black Leaves (黑葉): This cultivar matures less than others, and has big meats and seeds. The shell exhibits a dark red tint.
  • Huaizhi (懷枝): Literally "Branches [of fruit] in the arms of [a person]", this lychee supposedly received its name when a government official toured Lingnan (modern day Canton) and placed within his arms lychee branches gifted by local villagers.
  • March Red (sanyuehong, 三月紅): This lychee matures the earliest, and are usually available annually around May.
  • The Concubine Smiles (feizixiao, 妃子笑): Famed as the cultivar of lychee Emperor Xuanzong of Tang brought from the edges of the Tang empire to cheer up Yang Guifei, this lychee matures earlier than others, and has a very light red tint on its shells.
  • The Jade Purse (yuhebao, 玉荷包): Named because of its large fruits and the thick meat within. The seed is small in this cultivar.

Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ... Yáng Guìfēi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), Yáng: (a common surname), Guìfēi: highest-ranking imperial concubine (literally means precious princess consort), (June 1, 719 — July 15, 756), born Yáng Yùhuán (楊玉環), was one of the Four Beauties of ancient China. ...

Nutrition

The following data was compiled by the USDA, and pertains to the nutrition information of significance per 100 grams of lychee fruit:

  • calories: 66
  • carbohydrates: 16.53 g
  • lipids (fat): .44 g
  • fiber: 1.3 g
  • sugars: 15.23 g
  • calcium: 5 mg
  • magnesium: 10 mg
  • potassium: 171 mg
  • phosphorus: 31 mg
  • vitamin c: 71.5 mg

Litchis, raw. USDA (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-30. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Name in different languages

The name 'lychee' comes from the Chinese 荔枝, which may have been lèće in Middle Chinese. This name in various forms is used throughout South and East Asia. Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggÇ” HànyÇ”), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ...

'Lychee' in various languages
Language Original script Romanisation Pronunciation
Mandarin Chinese: 荔枝 pinyin: lìzhī
Wade-Giles: li4chih1
[ li˥˩ ʈʂʐ̩˥˥ ]
Cantonese Chinese: 荔枝 Jyutping: lai6 zi1
Cantonese Yale: laihjì
[ lɐi˨ tsiː˥˧ ]
Hokkien/Taiwanese Chinese: 荔枝 Pe̍h-ōe-jī: nāi-chi [ nai˧˧ tɕi˥˥ ]
Japanese Katakana: ライチー、ライチ、レイシ
Kanji: 茘枝
Hepburn: raichī, raichi, reishi
Kunrei-shiki: raitî, raiti, reisi
[ɺ̠ajtɕiː], [ɺ̠ajtɕi], [ɺ̠ejɕi]
Korean Hangul: 여지 MR: yŏchi
Rev.: yeoji
Yale: yeci
SK: [jʌ.tɕi]
NK: [jʌ.zi]
Vietnamese vải, lệ chi Hanoi: [ vɐːj˧˩˧ ], [ l̺ɜj˧˨ ci˧˧ ]
Saigon: [ jɐːj˧˩˧ ], [ l̻ʲɜj˧˨ ci˧˧ ]
Thai Thai: ลิ้นจี่ RTGS: linchi
ISO 11940: lîncī̀
[lín.tɕìː]
Tagalog lichias, lichia
Ref. spelling: litsias
Similar native fruit: alupag-amo
[lɪˈtʃi.ə], [lɪˈtʃi.əs], [ɐˈlu.pəɡ ˈamo]
Malay laici [ˈlaɪ̯.tʃi]
Hindustani Devanāgarī: लीची
Urdu: لیچی
IAST: līcī [liːtʃiː]

A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Kunrei-shiki Rōmaji Cabinet-ordered romanization system) is a romanization system, i. ... Jamo redirects here. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... ISO 11940 is an ISO standard for the romanization of the Thai alphabet, published in 1998 (updated September 2003). ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Hindustani (/ /; ; हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی), also known as Hindi-Urdu, is a term used by linguists to describe several closely related idioms in the northern, central and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and the vernacular blend between its two standardized registers in the form of the official languages of Hindi and Urdu, as... () is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, languages from Nepal like Nepali, Tharu Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Example of writing in the alphabet- Zabān-e-UrdÅ«-e-moalla Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ...

Lychee in space

The first lychee in space was launched aboard the Bigelow Aerospace spacecraft Genesis II on June 28, 2007 as part of the private aerospace firm's "Fly Your Stuff" program.[1] Guy Pignolet de Pluton, a professor at Université de la Réunion in Sainte-Rose, Réunion, provided the lychee which has been imaged on Bigelow Aerospace's website. Bigelow Aerospace is a North Las Vegas, Nevada space technology startup company that is pioneering work on expandable space station modules. ... Genesis II is the second experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Sainte-Rose is a commune on the east coast of the French island and department of Réunion. ...


Gallery

References

  • Chinese New Year Parade and Festivals - Community - Plants
  1. ^ http://www.clicanoo.com/article.php3?id_article=160576

See also

Binomial name Dimocarpus longan Lour. ... Binomial name K.D.Koenig The Ackee or Akee (Blighia sapida) is a member of the Sapindaceae (soapberry family), native to tropical West Africa in Cameroon, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote DIvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. ... Binomial name Nephelium hypoleucum The Korlan (Nephelium hypoleucum) is a tree in the family Sapindaceae and the fruit of this tree. ... Binomial name Melicoccus bijugatus P.Browne The Mamoncillo Melicoccus bijugatus, also known as the Quenepa, Chenet, Genip, Spanish Lime, or Kinnip, is a fruit-bearing tree in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, native to a wide area of the American tropics including Central America, Colombia and the Caribbean. ... Binomial name Nephelium lappaceum L. The Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae, native to southeast Asia, and the fruit of this tree. ... Chinese food therapy (Simplified Chinese: 食疗; Traditional Chinese: 食療; pinyin: Shí Liáo) is a practice of healing using natural foods instead of medications. ... Lychee wine (Chinese: 荔枝酒)photo is a full-bodied Chinese dessert wine made of 100% lychee fruit. ... A bottle of Lichido Lichido is a lychee liqueur made with vodka, Cognac, lychee and guava, essences and white peach juice. ... Here are lists of fruits considered edible in some cuisines. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Litchi chinensis
Look up Lychee in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Fruits of Warm Climates: Lychee
  • California Rare Fruit Growers: Lychee Fruit Facts
  • Lychees in Australia

  Results from FactBites:
 
LYCHEE Fruit Facts (1112 words)
Origin: The lychee is native to low elevations of the provinces of Kwangtung and Fukien in Southern China.
Growth Habit: The lychee tree is handsome, dense, round-topped and slow-growing with smooth, gray, brittle trunk and limbs.
Lychees are eye-catching in spring when the huge sprays of flowers adorn the tree.
Lychee (9426 words)
The lychee is the most renowned of a group of edible fruits of the soapberry family, Sapindaceae.
Lychee pollen has remained viable at room temperature for 10 to 30 days in petri dishes; for 3 to 5 months in desiccators; 15 months at 32° F (0° C) and 25% relative humidity in desiccators; and 31 months under deep-freeze, -9.4° F (-23° C).
Lychee jelly has been made from blanched, minced lychees and their accompanying juice, with 1% pectin, and combined phosphoric and citric acid added to enhance the flavor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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