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Encyclopedia > Lwów

Lviv coat of arms

A motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of a sociological grouping or organization. Many countries, universities, and other institutions have mottos, as do families with coats of arms. These mottos are traditionally in Latin or Romance languages, as well as in... Motto: Arms of Exeter, showing motto Semper Fidelis is a Latin motto translating to always faithful. It is the motto of: Plymouth Argyle, and the song is played as the team enters the pitch before the start of the game. The City of Exeter, in Devon, England; the motto signifies the... Semper fidelis
Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада)
Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak
This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. The article area (geometry) is more mathematical. Area is a quantity expressing the size of a region of space. Surface area refers to the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object. Units Units for measuring... Area 171,01 km²
In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. Population is studied in a wide variety of ways and disciplines. In population dynamics, size, age and sex structure, mortality, reproductive... Population
   total 2000 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 2000 From Wikipedia 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd... 2000
   Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. However it is most frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular. Population density is usually expressed in terms of items or organisms per unit area. Contents // 1 Definitions of population density 2 Biological population densities 3 Human... density

808,900
4786/km²
Founded
The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. Among the most advanced systems of old Germanic law of the time, in the 13th... city rights
(12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 13th century
Years: 1350 1351 1352 - 1353 - 1354 1355 1356 Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s - 1350s - 1360s 1370s 1380s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. March 3 - Bern signs an alliance with the Swiss Confederation. Births Queen Margaret I of Denmark. Deaths Categories: 1353... 1353
A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. The area code is that part of the dialed telephone number that specifies a telephone exchange system. Telephone numbering plans assign area codes to exchanges, so that dialers may contact telephones... Area code + 0322
Latitude
Longitude
49°51′ N 24°01′ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=49_51_N_24_01_E_)
This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. Town twinning or sister cities is a concept where towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and... Twin towns Corning is a city located in Steuben County, New York, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 10,842. It is named for Erastus Corning, an Albany, N.Y. financier and railroad executive who was an investor in the the company that developed... Corning, This article is about Freiburg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. There is also a village named Freiburg (Elbe) in northwestern Germany. Freiburg (Freiburg im Üchtland) is also the German name of the town of Fribourg, Switzerland. Freiburg landscape Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in... Freiburg, Kraków (Flag) (Coat of Arms) Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est.) 1,200,000 2317.93/km² Founded City rights 8th century... Kraków, Novi Sad - Нови Сад (read more) Motto: none Executive government Mayor (Gradonačelnik) City council (Skupština Grada) Mayor Maja Gojković Area 235.6 km² Population  - total  - density 215,659 (2002) 812/km² Founded City status 1694 1748 Area code... Novi Sad, For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. The correct title is Przemyśl. Przemyśl (Flag) (Coat of Arms) Motto: Libera Regia Civitas (Free Royal City) Voivodship Subcarpathian Municipal government Rada Miejska w Przemy... Przemyśl, Whitstable Administration Borough: Canterbury County: Kent Region: South East England Nation: England Country: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial County: Kent Traditional County: Kent Postal County: Kent Whitstable is a town in Kent, England with a population of 30,000. It is a seaside resort, situated on the North Sea coast, facing... Whitstable, City of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Motto: Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Area: 465.16 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Cdn. Mun. Rank:  - Density 619,544 Ranked 6th 1331.9/km² Time zone Central: UTC-6 Latitude Longitude 49° 53′ N 97° 09... Winnipeg
Municipal Website (http://www.city-adm.lviv.ua/index_e.html)

L'viv ( This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. Discussion about how to improve both the policy and the associated help... Image:Ltspkr.png Львів in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian; This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. Discussion about how to improve both the policy and the associated help... Image:Ltspkr.png Lwów in Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. Polish (Polski) Spoken in: Poland (38 million), also about 6 million speakers in the USA, Lithuania, Belarus, Germany, Ukraine and other countries. Region:  - Total speakers: 44 million Ranking: 27 Genetic classification: Indo-European   Balto-Slavic group... Polish; Leopolis in Latin (lingua Latina) Spoken in: Vatican City Region: Italic peninsula Total speakers: none native Ranking: not ranked Genetic classification: Indo-European   Italic   Latin Official status Official language of: Vatican City Regulated by: Roman Catholic Church Language codes ISO 639-1 la ISO 639-2 lat SIL LTN... Latin; see also cities' alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from suburbs). It is the This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. For alternative meanings see capital (disambiguation) In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or... capital city of the L'viv region and is a main cultural centre of Ukraine.


The city is home to many industries, higher learning institutons (University of Lviv, Lviv Polytechnic (full name Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukrainian Національний університет Львівська політехні... Lviv Polytechnic), a philharmonic orchestra, and the Lviv Opera and Ballet Theatre. The historic city centre is on the Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain range, lake, desert, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated for the international World Heritage... UNESCO World Heritage List.

Contents

Geography

Enlarge
Panorama of Lviv

Location

L'viv is located at geographical co-ordinates 49° 50′ 45″ N 24° 01′ 38″ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=49_50_45_N_24_01_38_E_type:city(800000)_scale:300000_region:ua), on the verge of the Roztocze Upland, approximately 70 kilometres from the The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Polish border. Lviv's altitude averages 289 metres above sea level although there are many hills located within the confines of the city. The highest point inside the city is Vysokyy Zamok (High Castle), a hill 409 metres above sea level.


The historical city was located at the Peltew River, but in the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century the river was converted into the main city sewer (currently under the Prospekt Shevchenka street).


Climate

L'viv's climate is moderate continental. The average temperatures are −4 °C (27 °F) in January and +18 °C (65 °F) in June. Average annual rainfall is 660 mm (26 in), with notable water deficit in the summer months. Average of 66 cloudy days per year.


History

Old town market in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as...
Old town market in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as... Enlarge
Old Town Market

Early history

Recent archaeological excavations show that the area of L'viv has been populated since at least the ( 4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. Attila the Hun conquers large parts of Europe, threatens to attack Rome in 452 Vandals conquer Carthage in 439, sack Rome... 5th century. At the dawn of history, the area became incorporated into the Empire of This article is part of the Czech history series. Samos realm Great Moravia Czech lands: 880s-1198 Czech lands: 1198-1526 Czech lands: 1526-1648 Czech lands: 1648-1867 Czech lands: 1867-1918 Czech lands: 1918-1992 Great Moravia (Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna... Great Moravia, then became an area of contention between two emerging states: The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland (during the reign of Reign From c. 960 until May 25, 992 Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Siemomysł unknown Consorts Dubrawka Oda Children with Dubrawka Bolesław I Chrobry Świętosława with Oda Mieszko Świętopełk Lambert Date of... Mieszko I, ruler of the Polans (also Polanes, Polish Polanie) were a Slavic tribe inhabitating the shores of the Warta river in the 8th century. In the late 9th century the Polanie managed to subdue most of the Slavic tribes between the Odra and Western Bug rivers and between the Carpathians and the Baltic sea... Polans) and the Kyivan Rus'. Mieszko is thought to have controlled the area from Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. Dunstan became Archbishop of Canterbury and Edgars chief adviser. He reformed monasteries and enforced the rule of St Benedict: Poverty, Chastity and Obedience for monks. He attempted to impose celibacy on the secular clergy without noticeable success. Dunstan actively encouraged the... 960 to Years: 976 977 978 979 - 980 - 981 982 983 984 Decades: 950s 960s 970s - 980s - 990s 1000s 1010s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... 980. According to The word may have one of the following meanings. In Greek mythology, Nestor was the son of Neleus, the King of Pylos and Chloris. See Nestor (mythology). Nestor the Chronicler is a compiler of the Primary Chronicle of the East Slavic peoples. In Ornithology, Nestor is a genus of parrots... Nestor's chronicle, in Years: 977 978 979 980 - 981 - 982 983 984 985 Decades: 950s 960s 970s - 980s - 990s 1000s 1010s Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Events Births Princess Theodora, later Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. Deaths Categories: 981 ... 981 this area was conquered by Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c.958–1015) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus. His name is known in... Volodymyr the Great, ruler of Kyivan Rus'.


However, the city itself was founded in the (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant... 13th century by Danylo King of Rus or Danylo of Galicia (properly Danylo Romanovich or Даниил Романович), (1201-1264) Knyaz of Halych (1205–1206, 1211–1212, 1229–1231, 1233–1235, 1238–1255), Peremyshl (1211, today... King Danylo of the Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. Essentially, the word is a Latin rendering of the ancient place name Rus. See Etymology of Rus and derivatives... Ruthenian duchy of Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. Among the rulers of this state... Halych-Volynia, and named in honor of his son, Lev. Other sources mention that it was his son himself who founded the city. Thus the toponym might best be translated into The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English as Leo's lands or Leo's City (hence the Latin (lingua Latina) Spoken in: Vatican City Region: Italic peninsula Total speakers: none native Ranking: not ranked Genetic classification: Indo-European   Italic   Latin Official status Official language of: Vatican City Regulated by: Roman Catholic Church Language codes ISO 639-1 la ISO 639-2 lat SIL LTN... Latin name Leopolis).

Ossolineum in Lwow According to the non-retroactive copyright law of July 10, 1952, of the Peoples Republic of Poland, all photographs published prior to May 23, 1994 without a clear copyright notice are considered to be public domain. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the...
Ossolineum in Lwow According to the non-retroactive copyright law of July 10, 1952, of the Peoples Republic of Poland, all photographs published prior to May 23, 1994 without a clear copyright notice are considered to be public domain. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Enlarge
Ossolineum Institute

The first mention of Lviv in early chronicles is from Years: 1253 1254 1255 - 1256 - 1257 1258 1259 Decades: 1220s 1230s 1240s - 1250s - 1260s 1270s 1280s Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century 1256 state leaders Events Hanseatic League formed. Births Deaths September 1, Kujo Yoritsune Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from... 1256. It soon displaced the town of Halych as the capital of the duchy. In Years: 1320 1321 1322 - 1323 - 1324 1325 1326 Decades: 1290s 1300s 1310s - 1320s - 1330s 1340s 1350s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Canonization of Saint Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Births Deaths Categories... 1323, the Romanovich dynasty (local branch of the The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Russia from 862 to 1598. More precisely, though, Russia per se did not exist during this time. The state that existed from 862 until 1240 (see Mongol invasion of Russia) is called the Kievan Rus. The Mongols forced the Rurikid rulers to... Rurik Dynasty) died out. The city was inherited by the heir of the Romanovich dynasty (on his mother's side) - Bolesław Jerzy II Mazowiecki (Boleslaus George II of Masovia, also known as Yuriy II of Halicz and Bolesław Trojdenowicz) (1308-1340) was a ruler of the Piast dynasty. Bolesław was born in 1308 to Trojden I of Masovia Duke of Czersk and Maria, daughter... Boleslaus of Masovia (also from the The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. The branches of the Piasts continued to rule Polish splinter duchies in Masovia until 1526 and Silesia until 1675. Piast was the legendary ancestor of these nobles... Piast dynasty on his father's side). He took the name of Yuriy and converted to Eastern Orthodoxy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Eastern Orthodoxy From Wikipedia The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, with a growing presence in the western world... Eastern Orthodoxy, but failed to gain the support of the local nobles and was soon poisoned.


City development

After his death in Years: 1337 1338 1339 - 1340 - 1341 1342 1343 Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s - 1340s - 1350s 1360s 1370s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events January 26 - King France June 24 - The Battle of Sluys is fought between the naval fleets of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France... 1340, the rights to Lviv were claimed by his cousin Casimir the Great Casimir III or the Great (Kazimierz Wielki), (1310-1370), King of Poland , son of Władyslaw I Łokietek (Wladyslaw the Elbow High), 1305-1333 and Jadwiga. Contents // 1 Biography 1.1 The Great King 1.2 Concession to szlachta 1.3 Relationship with Polish Jews... Casimir III of Poland, who successfully invaded the duchy and occupied it by -1... 1349. In Years: 1353 1354 1355 - 1356 - 1357 1358 1359 Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s - 1350s - 1360s 1370s 1380s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England September 19 - Battle of Poitiers The English defeat the French in... 1356 he granted the city with The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. Among the most advanced systems of old Germanic law of the time, in the 13th... Magdeburg rights which implied that all city issues were to be solved by a city council, elected by the wealthy citizens. This started a period of fast development: among other facilities the Latin Cathedral was built. Also, new self-government attracted a big Armenian may refer to: The Armenian people. The Armenian language. The Armenian alphabet. A former Soviet Caucasian Republic, now independent. See Armenia. The system of Armenian numerals. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article... Armenian community that built its Armenian Cathedral in Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. Haakon VI... 1363.


In Years: 1383 1384 1385 - 1386 - 1387 1388 1389 Decades: 1350s 1360s 1370s - 1380s - 1390s 1400s 1410s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Hapsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Lithuania and Poland. Dan I is succeeded as ruler of Wallachia... 1386, this area was directly included into the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. The term Crown was... Polish Crown by Hedwig, from Gallery of Polish Kings by Jan Matejko (1838-1893) Hedwig (ca.1374 – 1399) was a Polish monarch from 1384 to 1399, venerated in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Hedwig the Queen. She is known as Hedvig in Hungarian, Jadwiga in Polish, Jadvyga in Lithuanian, and Hedwigis... Jadwiga of Poland. The city later served as the coronation site of some of the Poland was ruled by dukes (c.962–1025, 1032–1076, 1079–1295, 1296–1300 and 1306–1320) and kings (1025–1032, 1076–1079, 1295–1296, 1300–1305 and 1320–1795). The best-known dynasties are the Piast (c.962–... Kings of Poland.

Museum of Industry in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as...
Museum of Industry in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as... Enlarge
Museum of Industry (now National Gallery)

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

As a part of The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland (and later Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów Coat of Arms of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, combining Coat of Arms of Poland (eagle) and Coat of Arms of Lithuania The Commonwealth around 1619 Official languages Polish and Latin Established church Roman Catholic Capitals Cracow (until 1596) Warsaw (from 1596) Largest City Gdańsk... Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Lwów became the capital of the The Ruthenian Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Ruskie) (1366-1772) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland. Together with the Bełz Voivodship it formed the Red Ruthenia province. Later this region was mainly included into Austrian province of Galicia and today the... Ruthenian Voivodship, which included five regions: Lwów, Chełm is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). Situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999), previously capital of Chelm Voivodship (1975-1998). It lies to the east of Lublin, about 20 km from the border with Ukraine. The city is famous for its Zywiec... Chełm ( The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian Kholm), Sanok (in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,400 inhabitants (1995). Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodship (since 1999), previously in Krosno Voivodship (1975-1998). External links http://www.sanok.pl/ Królewskie Wolne Miasto... Sanok, town of Halych (Галич in Ukrainian or Russian [pronounced Halych and Galich]; Halicz in Polish; העליטש [Helitsh or Heylitsh] in Yiddish) is a town in Ukraine. It was the capital of historic Galicia from its foundation in the mid-11th century until the... Halych and For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. The correct title is Przemyśl. Przemyśl (Flag) (Coat of Arms) Motto: Libera Regia Civitas (Free Royal City) Voivodship Subcarpathian Municipal government Rada Miejska w Przemy... Przemyśl ( The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian Peremyshl). City was granted with the right of transit and started to gain significant profit from the goods transported between the Black Sea - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Black Sea From Wikipedia Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS Cities of the Black Sea The Black Sea (known as the Euxine Sea in the antiquity) is an... Black Sea and the The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of east and central Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Öresund, the Great Belt and the Little Belt. Kattegat then continues in the Skagerrak into the... Baltic. In the following centuries, the city's population grew rapidly and soon Lwów became a multi-ethnic and muli-religious city and an important centre of culture, science and trade.


The city's fortifications were strengthened and Lwów became one of the most important Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. Nakhal Fort, one of the best-preserved forts in Oman. Photographed by Andy Carvin, October 2003. Contents // 1... fortresses guarding the Commonwealth from the south-east. Three archbishoprics were once located in the city: The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Roman Catholic (est. Years: 1372 1373 1374 - 1375 - 1376 1377 1378 Decades: 1340s 1350s 1360s - 1370s - 1380s 1390s 1400s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. Births Deaths October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark December... 1375), The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. Or it may apply to these particular Churches themselves... Greek Catholic and After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. In 1195 during the Crusades, the church of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia entered into a union with... Armenian Catholic. The city was also settled by numerous populations from other foreign lands, including The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germans, The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews, The Italians are a Latin ethnic group primarily associated with Italy and the Italian language. There are around 62 million autochthonous Italians in Italy, around 550,000 in Switzerland, as well as some smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia. There is a notable Italian diaspora in the United States (cf... Italians, The English are people descended for a wide variety of roots, and who are associated, either by birth or by choice, with the culture of England (Latin: Anglia). The OED defines an English person as: one who is English by birth, descent or naturalization Some English trace their heritage back... Englishmen, The Scots tribe originated from Ireland, from the now-called counties Antrim and Down. In 500 under King Fergus, the Scots invaded Argyll and established the realm known as Dál Riata (Dalriada) in the Pictish lands known as Caledonian by the Romans. However, the relationship between these two peoples... Scotsmen and many others. Since the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age... 16th century, the religious mosaic of the city also included strong Protestant communities.

Lwow School of Technology This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as soon...
Lwow School of Technology This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as soon... Enlarge
Lviv University of Technology (now Lviv Polytechnic National University)

By the first half of the (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power... 17th century, the city had approximately 25-30 thousand inhabitants. About 30 craft organizations were active by that time, involving well over a hundred different specialities.


Decline of the Commonwealth

In (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power... 17th century Lwów was besieged several times yet to no effect. Constant struggle against the invading armies gave it the motto Arms of Exeter, showing motto Semper Fidelis is a Latin motto translating to always faithful. It is the motto of: Plymouth Argyle, and the song is played as the team enters the pitch before the start of the game. The City of Exeter, in Devon, England; the motto signifies the... Semper fidelis. In Years: 1646 1647 1648 - 1649 - 1650 1651 1652 Decades: 1610s 1620s 1630s - 1640s - 1650s 1660s 1670s Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century 1649 in literature 1649 in science Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland... 1649, the city was besieged by the This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891. Cossack (Polish Kozak; plural, Kozacy, Russian Kazak (Казак); plural, Kazaki (К... Cossacks under Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as... Bohdan Chmielnicki, who seized and destroyed the local castle. However, the Cossacks did not retain the city and withdrew after receiving a ransom. In Years: 1652 1653 1654 - 1655 - 1656 1657 1658 Decades: 1620s 1630s 1640s - 1650s - 1660s 1670s 1680s Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century 1655 in literature 1655 in science Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian... 1655 the The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Swedish armies invaded Poland and soon took most of it and laid siege to the city, yet were forced to retreat before capturing it. The following year saw Lwów invaded by the armies of the Transylvania ( Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvania, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. Contents // 1 Geography 2 Economy 3 Population 4 Etymology 5 History... Transylvanian Duke George I Rákóczy, but the city was not captured. In Years: 1669 1670 1671 - 1672 - 1673 1674 1675 Decades: 1640s 1650s 1660s - 1670s - 1680s 1690s 1700s Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century 1672 in literature 1672 in science Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year... 1672 Lwów was again besieged by the The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October... Turkish army of Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (January 2, 1642—1693), also known as Dördüncü(fourth) and Avci(hunter), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He was the son of Ibrahim I. Known as Avci, the hunter, outdoor exercise took up much of the... Mehmed IV, however the Treaty of Buczacz ended the war before the city was taken. In Years: 1672 1673 1674 - 1675 - 1676 1677 1678 Decades: 1640s 1650s 1660s - 1670s - 1680s 1690s 1700s Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century 1675 in literature 1675 in science Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim August 10 - Building of the Royal Greenwich Observatory began November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh... 1675 the city was attacked by the Ottomans and the Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. Most Tatars live in the central and southern parts of Russia, Ukraine, and in Bulgaria, China, Kazakhstan, Romania, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. They collectively numbered more than 8 million in the late 20th century... Tatars, but Jan III Sobieski Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Danił... king John III Sobieski defeated them on August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... August 24 in what is called the Battle of Lwów.


In Years: 1701 1702 1703 - 1704 - 1705 1706 1707 Decades: 1670s 1680s 1690s - 1700s - 1710s 1720s 1730s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1704 in literature 1704 in music 1704 in science List of state leaders in 1704 List of religious leaders in 1704 Events Building of the Students... 1704, during the Not to be confused with the Northern Wars (1655–1661) The Swedish Victory at Narva, 1700 by Gustaf Cederström, painted 1910 Battle of Poltava fragment of mosaic, by Mikhail Lomonosov, 1717 The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony... Great Northern War, the city was captured and pillaged for the first time in its history - by the armies of Charles XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 - November 30, Sweden (1697 - 1718). He came to the throne at the age of fifteen and left the country three years later to embark on a series of battles overseas, that briefly made Sweden the predominant power in Northern Europe... Charles XII of Sweden.


Partitions

In Years: 1769 1770 1771 - 1772 - 1773 1774 1775 Decades: 1740s 1750s 1760s - 1770s - 1780s 1790s 1800s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1772 in art 1772 in literature 1772 in music 1772 in science List of state leaders in 1772 List of religious leaders in 1772 Events February 17... 1772, following the The Partitions of Poland ( Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). They involved Prussia, Russia and Austria dividing up the Polish lands between themselves. The three partitions occurred... First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Austrian province, the so-called Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. The region takes its name from the earliest regional capital, the city of Halicz in... Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. The official language was changed to German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern German Official status Official language... German and most of the posts in city's administration were taken by Germans and Czechs, yet the city remained an important centre of both Polish and Ukrainian cultures. Initially the The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It borders Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy... Austrian rule was somewhat liberal. In Years: 1781 1782 1783 - 1784 - 1785 1786 1787 Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s - 1780s - 1790s 1800s 1810s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1784 in art 1784 in literature 1784 in music 1784 in science List of state leaders in 1784 List of religious leaders in 1784 Events January 6... 1784, the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 - February 20, 1790) was a Holy Roman Emperor (1765 - 1790). He was the eldest son of the empress Maria Theresa and her husband Francis I. Joseph was one of the so-called enlightened monarchs. Joseph was born in the midst... Emperor Joseph II reopened the University. Lectures were held in Latin (lingua Latina) Spoken in: Vatican City Region: Italic peninsula Total speakers: none native Ranking: not ranked Genetic classification: Indo-European   Italic   Latin Official status Official language of: Vatican City Regulated by: Roman Catholic Church Language codes ISO 639-1 la ISO 639-2 lat SIL LTN... Latin, German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern German Official status Official language... German, Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. Polish (Polski) Spoken in: Poland (38 million), also about 6 million speakers in the USA, Lithuania, Belarus, Germany, Ukraine and other countries. Region:  - Total speakers: 44 million Ranking: 27 Genetic classification: Indo-European   Balto-Slavic group... Polish and (from 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events May 21 - Trial of the Necklace affair ends in Paris August 8 - Mont Blanc was climbed for the first time by Dr. Michael-Gabriel Paccard and Jacques Balmat. September 2 – Hurricane in England Choctaw Treaty Chickasaw... 1786) also in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian. Wojciech Bogusławski opened the first public theatre in Years: 1791 1792 1793 - 1794 - 1795 1796 1797 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1794 in art 1794 in literature 1794 in music 1794 in rail transport 1794 in science List of state leaders in 1794 List of religious leaders in... 1794 and in Years: 1814 1815 1816 - 1817 - 1818 1819 1820 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1817 in art 1817 in literature 1817 in science 1817 in music 1817 in sports List of state leaders in 1817 List of religious leaders in 1817... 1817 the Ossolineum scientifical institute was founded. Early in the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century, the city became the new seat of the primate of the The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is a successor church to the acceptance of Christianity by Prince Volodymyr (also Vladimir) in Kyiv (Kiev), in 988. By the beginning of the 21st century, this church was the second-largest church in the Catholic Communion and the largest Catholic Eastern Rite Church. The... Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, the Archbishop of Kyiv, Halych and Rus, the Metropolite of Lviv.


However, in the beginning of the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century the The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It borders Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy... Austrian authorities started a campaign of Germanisation as a verb means to expand the German language and culture. It was the name given to the policy of Imperial Germany and Nazi Germany to expand the German language in areas populated by non-Germans. The means of the policy was eradication of non-German languages from public... Germanization. The University was closed in Years: 1802 1803 1804 - 1805 - 1806 1807 1808 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1805 in art 1805 in literature 1805 in music 1805 in science 1805 in sports List of state leaders in 1805 List of religious leaders in 1805... 1805 and re-opened in Years: 1814 1815 1816 - 1817 - 1818 1819 1820 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1817 in art 1817 in literature 1817 in science 1817 in music 1817 in sports List of state leaders in 1817 List of religious leaders in 1817... 1817 as a purely German academy, without much influence over the city's life. Most of other social and cultural organizations were banned as well. The harsh laws imposed by the Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. Their principal roles were as: Holy Roman Emperors (several centuries to 1806), and rulers of Austria (as dukes 1282– 1453, archdukes 1453– 1804, and emperors 1804– 1918), Kings... Habsburg dynasty led to an outbreak of public dissent in 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Years: 1845 1846 1847 - 1848 - 1849 1850 1851 Decades: 1810s 1820s 1830s - 1840s - 1850s 1860s 1870s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1848 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport... 1848. A petition was sent to the Emperor asking him to re-introduce local self-government, education in Polish and Ukrainian and granting Polish with a status of official language.

Galician Parliament in Lwow The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles, assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under...
Galician Parliament in Lwow The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles, assert that this qualifies as fair use of the material under... Enlarge
Galician Parliament (now University of Lviv)

Most of these pleas were accepted twenty years later: in 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. Years: 1858 1859 1860 - 1861 - 1862 1863 1864 Decades: 1830s 1840s 1850s - 1860s - 1870s 1880s 1890s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1861 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - South Africa - Sport Lists of... 1861 a Galician parliament (Sejm Krajowy) was opened and in Years: 1864 1865 1866 - 1867 - 1868 1869 1870 Decades: 1830s 1840s 1850s - 1860s - 1870s 1880s 1890s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1867 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - South Africa - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1867 was a... 1867 The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. It was created from the territories taken from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the partitions of Poland and... Galicia was granted vast autonomy, both cultural and economical. The University was allowed to start lectures in Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. Polish (Polski) Spoken in: Poland (38 million), also about 6 million speakers in the USA, Lithuania, Belarus, Germany, Ukraine and other countries. Region:  - Total speakers: 44 million Ranking: 27 Genetic classification: Indo-European   Balto-Slavic group... Polish. The province of Galicia became the only part of the former Polish state with some cultural and political freedom, and Lwów then served as a major Polish political and cultural centre. Similarly, the city also served as an important centre of the Ukrainian patriotic movement and culture. Other parts of Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine were at that time occupied by The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia, and all publications in The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Ukrainian (українська мова / Ukraïnska Mova) Spoken in: Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia Region: Total speakers: 41 million Ranking: 26 Genetic classification: Indo... Ukrainian were strictly prohibited there.


The city was also granted with a right to delegate MPs to the parliament in This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. For other places or things called Vienna, see Vienna (disambiguation). State Coat of Arms General Information State Capital: Vienna ISO 3166-2: AT-9 Vehicle Registration: W Community Identification Number: 90101 - 92301 Postal code: 1010 - 1230 Area code: 01... Vienna, which made many prominent cultural and political leaders move to the city, which served as a meeting place of Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish and German cultures.


20th century

Population of Lwów, 1931

Roman Catholics 198,212 (63.5%)
Jews 75,316 (24.1%)
Greek Catholics 35,137 (11.3%)
Other denominations 3,566 (1.1%)
Total 312,231

Source: 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s Years: 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1931 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics... 1931 Polish census

During the Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I the city was captured by the The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russian army in September 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. (see link for calendar) Years: 1911 1912 1913 - 1914 - 1915 1916 1917 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1914 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology Aviation - Rail... 1914, but was retaken the following year (in June) by Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k.u.k. monarchy), was a dualistic state (1867–1918) in which the Kingdom of Hungary enjoyed self-government and representation in joint affairs (principally foreign relations and defence) with the western and northern lands of the Austrian Empire... Austria-Hungary. With the collapse of the Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. Their principal roles were as: Holy Roman Emperors (several centuries to 1806), and rulers of Austria (as dukes 1282– 1453, archdukes 1453– 1804, and emperors 1804– 1918), Kings... Habsburg Empire at the end of Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I, the local Ukrainian population proclaimed Lviv as the capital of the Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late... Western Ukrainian Republic on the November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. November Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... November 1st, 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January-February 1.2 March-April 1.3 May-July 1.4 August-October 1.5 November 1.6 December 1.7 Unknown dates 2 Births 2.1 January-February 2.2 March... 1918.


Polish-Ukrainian conflict

Main article: Polish-Ukrainian War

The withdrawing Austro-Hungarian and German armies agreed to hand over the city to Ukrainian authorities. However, the same day the Polish population of Lviv started an armed uprising and soon took control over most of the city centre; unable to break into the central areas, Ukrainian forces besieged the city, defended by Polish irregular forces including the Lwów Eagles. After the Inter-Allied Commission in The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. Paris is the capital city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. The city of Paris proper is also a dé... Paris agreed to leave the city under Polish administration until its future was resolved by a post-war treaty or a A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a... referendum, the regular Polish forces reached the city on November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 42 days remaining. November Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... November 19. However, the heavy fights in the city's vicinity, with several minor cease-fire periods, did not end until July 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Table of contents // 1 Events 1.1 January 1.2 February-April 1.3 May-June 1.4 July-November 1.5 December 1.6 Unknown dates 2 Births 2.1 January-April 2.2 May-December 3... 1919. Both Polish and Ukrainian victims of this conflict are buried at the Lychakivskiy Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz Łyczakowski) is a famous cemetery in Lviv. Since its creation in 1787 it has been the main necropoly of the citys inteligentsia, middle and upper classes. Initially the cemetery was located on several hills in the borough of Łyczaków, following the... Lychakivskiy Cemetery. Ashes of one of the unknown soldiers killed in the fighting are buried in the Unknown Soldier Monument in Warsaw ( Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. It is located on the Vistula river roughly 350 km from both the Baltic Sea coast and the Carpathian Mountains. Its... Warsaw.

A house facade in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as...
A house facade in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as... Enlarge
Art Nouveau architecture

In the following months, other territories of The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. It was created from the territories taken from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the partitions of Poland and... Galicia controlled by the government of the Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late... Western Ukrainian Republic were captured, either by Polish Armed Forces Military manpower Military age 18 years of age Availability males age 15-49: 10,354,978 (2003 est.) Reaching military age annually males: 343,500 (2003 est.) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3.5 billion (FY2002 est.) Percent of GDP 1.71% (FY2002 est.) Polish Army (Polish Wojsko... Polish Army advancing from the west, or by the Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army advancing from the east. Following the agreement with Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelt Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. Petlyura was a socialist leader of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian revolutions... Semen Petlura, the government of the Ukrainian Peoples' Republic decided to enter into a military alliance with Poland and recognized Poland's right to the city and agreed for a border at the Zbruch river in exchange for Polish military assistance against the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... bolsheviks.


Polish-Soviet War

Main article: Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919– 1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory Combatants Russia Poland Notable Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef Piłsudski Strength ~800,000 on the Polish front (August, 1920) ~738,000 (August, 1920) Casualties 30,337 KIA and... Polish-Soviet War

During the Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919– 1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory Combatants Russia Poland Notable Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef Piłsudski Strength ~800,000 on the Polish front (August, 1920) ~738,000 (August, 1920) Casualties 30,337 KIA and... Polish-Soviet War of 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Years: 1917 1918 1919 - 1920 - 1921 1922 1923 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1920 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology... 1920 the city was attacked by the Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... forces of Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. Yegorov (sometimes spelled Egorov) was born... Aleksandr Yegorov. Since mid-June 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Years: 1917 1918 1919 - 1920 - 1921 1922 1923 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1920 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology... 1920 the 1st Cavalry Army of Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler... Semyon Budyonny was trying to reach the city from the north and east. At the same time Lwów was preparing the defence. The inhabitants raised and fully equipped three regiments of infantry and two regiments of cavalry as well as constructed defensive lines. The city was defended by an equivalent of three Polish divisions aided by one Ukrainian infantry division. Finally after almost a month of heavy fighting on August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 137 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... August 16 the Red Army crossed the Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західни... Bug river and, reinforced by additional 8 divisions of the so called Red Cossacks, started an assault on the city. The fighting occurred with heavy cassualties on both sides, but after three days the assault was halted and the Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army retreated. For the heroic defence the city was awarded with the Order of Virtuti Militari The Order of Virtuti Militari (Military Virtue) is Polands highest military decoration for valour in the face of the enemy, equivalent to the British Victoria Cross or the US Congressional Medal of Honor. Contents // 1 History 1.1 The beginnings 1.2 Duchy of Warsaw... Virtuti Militari medal.


Interbellum

Following the The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga Background Amidst the Russian Civil War the Poles were eager to retake... Peace of Riga the city remained in The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland as the capital of the Lwów Voivodship. The city became one of the most important centres of science and culture of Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 Polish statehood See also Polish history series Kingdom of Poland (Piasts) Kingdom of Poland (Jagiellonian) Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Duchy of Warsaw Congress Poland Grand Duchy of Poznań Free City of Kraków Kingdom of Poland Second Polish Republic Polish government-in-exile People... Poland.


World War II

Nazi forces invaded Poland on September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). There are 121 days remaining. September Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... September 1, 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January-June 1.2 July-September 1.3 October-November 1.4 December 1.5 unknown dates 1.6 Ongoing events 2 Year in topic 3 Births 3.1 January-February... 1939 and the German 1st Mountain Division reached the suburbs of Lwów on September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). There are 110 days remaining. September Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... September 12 and began a siege. The city's garrison was ordered to hold out at all cost since the strategic position prevented the enemy from crossing into the The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. During the Polish Defence War of 1939, on September 14 the Polish Commander in Chief Marshal of Poland Edward Rydz-Śmigły ordered all Polish troops fighting... Romanian Bridgehead. Also, a number of Polish troops from Central Poland were trying to reach the city and organise the defence there. Thus a 10 days long defence of the city started and later became known as yet another Battle of Lwów. On September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). There are 103 days remaining. September Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... September 19 a Polish diversionary attack under General Władysław Langner was launched and was unsuccessful. Soviet troops (part of the forces which had invaded on September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). There are 105 days remaining. September Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... September 17 under the Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. It was signed in Moscow on August 23... Nazi-Soviet pact) replaced the Germans around the city. On the 23rd Langner formally surrendered to Soviet troops under Marshal Timoshenko.


The Soviet and Nazi forces divided Poland between themselves and a forged plebiscite absorbed the Soviet half of Poland, including Lwow, into the Українська Радянська Соціалістична Республіка (In Detail) (In Detail) State motto: Пр... Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Depolonisation tactics began immediately, with huge numbers of Poles deported eastwards into the Soviet Union. When the Nazis turned on their Soviet ally and invaded on June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. June Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... June 22, Years: 1938 1939 1940 - 1941 - 1942 1943 1944 Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1941 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science Other topics Canada - Ireland - South Africa - Sport Lists of leaders... 1941, the NKVD spent a week executing prisoners held in the Brygidki and Zamarstynów prisons. Many thousand were killed.


Since the beginning of the German occupation of the city, the situation of the city's inhabitants became tragic. The Jewish inhabitants of the area were rushed into a newly-created The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. The word historically referred to restricted housing zones for Jews; however, it now commonly labels any... ghetto and then mostly sent to various See also the related article on Nazi concentration camps The following is a list of German concentration camps during World War II. are marked with pink, while major concentration camps of are marked with blue. Name of the camp Country (today) Type of camp Operation time Estimated number of prisoners... German concentration camps. Also the Polish population of the city was subject to harsh policies, which resulted in a number of mass executions both in the city and in the Janów camp. Among the first to be murdered were the professors of the city's universities and other members of Polish The intelligentsia is a social class of intellectuals and social groups close to them (e.g. artists, school teachers), which can be also seen as a class of mental workers in opposition to non-working aristocracy or business owners on the one hand and to manual laborers on the other... inteligentsia.


As the Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army wasnearing the city in 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 World War II 1.1.1 January 1.1.2 February-March 1.1.3 May 1.1.4 June 1.1.5 July-August 1.1.6 September 1.1... 1944, on July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. July Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... July 23 the local commander of the For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) This article is part of the series: Polish Secret State History of Poland The authorities Government Administration Parliament Courts Political organizations 1PPS (socialists) 2SL (agrarian party) 3SN (right-wing party) SP (Christian democrats) 4PPR (communists) 5Bund and Hatzoar (Jewish left... Home Army ordered all his forces to commence the This article is part of the series: Polish Secret State History of Poland Operation Tempest (Polish Plan Burza, sometimes also translated as Operation Storm) was a series of planned local uprisings prepared by the Polish Home Army during World War II. The main aim of the operation was to seize... Operation Tempest. An armed uprising was started and after 4 days of city fights the city was captured by the Poles. After that the civil and military authorities were summoned for a meeting with Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army commanders and arrested by the Black Ravens by Boris Vladimirski, a depiction of the cars used by NKVD agents. Curiously, this painting was approved by Stalins censors. The Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del (or NKVD) (Russian: Народный комиссариат... NKVD. The remaining forces of Colonel Władysław Filipkowski were either forcibly conscripted to the Red Army, sent to Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Ла... Gulag or returned to the underground.


Soviet Lviv

The city, and the surrounding area, were then incorporated into the Українська Радянська Соціалістична Республіка (In Detail) (In Detail) State motto: Пр... Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic after Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II. Most of the remaining Polish population was expelled (especially to present day Wrocław, Poland, where the German population had been expelled) or left the city in fear of Soviet repression. The city became a major centre of Ukrainian national resistance to This article is about the political term. For localization of computers and software, see Russification (computers). Russification refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia and Soviet Union with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia proper aimed at Russian domination. In a narrow... Russification. Large demonstrations then presaged the advent of Ukrainian independence in the Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s Years: 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Contents // 1 Events and trends 1.1 Technology 1.2 Science 1.3 War, peace and politics 1.4 Economics 1.5 Culture 1... 1990s.


Independent Ukraine

Today Lviv is still considered to be one of the main centres of Ukrainian culture and much of the political class in Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. As of 2003, Kiev officially had 2,642,486 inhabitants, although the large number... Kyiv originates from Lviv.


Historical population

Famous Leopolitans

  • Roman Abraham, general of the Polish army
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  • Categories: Poland-related stubs | 1794 births | 1850 deaths | Polish generals ... Józef Bem, Polish and Hungarian national hero
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  • Martin Buber (8 February 1878 - 13 June 1965) was a renowned Jewish philosopher, story-teller, and pedagogue. Martin (Hebrew name: Mordechai) Buber was born on February 8, 1878 in Vienna into a Jewish family. His grandfather, Salomon Buber, in whose house in Lemberg (Lviv, now Ukraine) Buber spent much... Martin Buber, philosopher
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  • Count Aleksander Fredro (1793–1876) was a Polish poet and writer, author of social comedies about Polish nobility lifestyle. He made his debut in 1817, but he wasnt interedsted in the problems of Romanticism. In his comedies, Fredro has shown mastership in characters profile, in action forming, and... Aleksander Fredro, comic writer
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  • Works Poetic works: Linie i dźwięki (1897) Śpiewnik historyczny (1904) Głosy ciszy (1906) Z liryk i obrazków (1909) Novels: Cztery nowele (1888) Moi znajomi (1890) Na drodze (1893) Ludzie i rzeczy (1898) For children: Śpiewnik dla dzieci O Janku Wę... Maria Konopnicka, Polish writer
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  • The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. The correct title is Jan Łukasiewicz. Jan Łukasiewicz (born 21 December 1878 - 13 February 1956) was a mathematician born in Lwów, Galicia (now Lviv, Ukraine). His major mathematical work centred on mathematical logic. He... Jan Łukasiewicz, philosopher and logician
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  • Kornel Makuszyński, Polish writer of books for children
  • Book cover for Venus in Furs Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch (January 27, 1836 - March 9, 1895), writer and journalist, was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine). He was the son of the police director in Lemberg and Charlotte von Masoch, a Ukrainian lady of noble birth... Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, writer, author of Venus in Furs
  • Kazimierz Michałowski (1901 - 1981) was a Polish archeologist and Egyptologist, founder of Nubiology. Michałowski studied classical archaeology and art history at the University of Lwów; he studied at the Universities and Archaeological Institutes of Berlin, Heidelberg, Munster, Paris, Rome, Athens and Cairo. In 1939-1981... Kazimierz Michałowski, Egyptologist is the designation given to an archaeologist or historian who specialises in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. Significant Egyptologists include: Living Zahi Hawass Manfred Bietak Kenneth Kitchen David Rohl Kent Weeks Christian Jacq Deceased Joseph Bonomi James Henry Breasted Howard Carter Frederick Catherwood Jean... Egyptologist, founder of Nubiology is the designation given to the primarily archaeological science that specialises in the scientific study of Ancient Nubia and its antiquities. It is sometimes also applied to scientists who study other ancient lands and cultures south of Ancient Egypt. The term was coined by Kazimierz Michałowski. Categories... Nubiology
  • Jerzy Michotek, ethnologue
  • The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. The correct title is Ignacy Mościcki. Ignacy Mościcki Term of Office from June 1, 1926, until September 30, 1939 Profession Professor of chemistry Political Party none (until 1892, Proletariat) First Lady Maria, née... Ignacy Mościcki, chemist and Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. (See also List of Polish rulers and List of Polish Prime Ministers.) All below were titled President of the Republic of Poland, except as otherwise stated. Contents // 1 Republic of Poland (1918-1939) 2 Polish Government in Exile (1939-1990) 3... President of Poland ( Years: 1923 1924 1925 - 1926 - 1927 1928 1929 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1926 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science Other topics Canada - Ireland - South Africa - Sport Lists of leaders... 1926- 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January-June 1.2 July-September 1.3 October-November 1.4 December 1.5 unknown dates 1.6 Ongoing events 2 Year in topic 3 Births 3.1 January-February... 1939)
  • Andrzej Mostowski (born 1 November 1913 in Lwów, Poland - 22 August 1975 in Canada) was a Polish mathematician. Mostowski entered University of Warsaw in 1931. He was influenced by Kuratowski, Lindenbaum and Tarski. His Ph.D. came in 1939, officially directed by Kuratowski but in practice directed by Tarski... Andrzej Mostowski, mathematician
  • Mieczysław Boruta-Spiechowicz, general of the Polish army
  • Paul Muni photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1932 Paul Muni (September 22, 1895 - August 25, 1967) was a versatile actor from the Golden Age of Hollywood, nominated for five Academy Awards. Born Meshilem Meier Weisenfreund in Lwow, Galicja, autonomus province of Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine), his family emigrated to... Paul Muni, actor
  • Janusz Onyszkiewicz (born 1937) is a Polish mathematician, alpinist, politician and a vice-president of the European Parliament (since 20 July 2004). Biographical note Janusz Onyszkiewicz was born on 18 December 1937 in Lwów (now Lviv in Ukraine). He graduated in mathematics from the Warsaw University. He became a... Janusz Onyszkiewicz, politician, Vice President of the The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. Together with the Council of Ministers, it comprises the legislative branch of the institutions of the Union. It meets in two locations: Brussels and Strasbourg. The European Parliament cannot... European Parliament
  • Jan Parandowski, writer
  • Teodor Parnicki, historian
  • Wojciech Pszoniak (born in 1942 in Lwów, Poland) is a movie and theatrical actor. He gained international visibility following Andrzej Wajdas 1975 Ziemia obiecana movie (Promised Land) where he played Max, one of the three main characters (the other being portrayed by Andrzej Seweryn and Daniel Olbrychski). This... Wojciech Pszoniak, actor
  • Eugeniusz Romer, geographer and geologist
  • Henryk Samsonowicz, historian
  • Count Stanisław Skarbek, city's benefactor
  • Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski Noble Family Sieniawski Coat of Arms Leliwa Parents Mikołaj Hieronim Sieniawski Cecylia Maria Radziwiłł Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Maria Zofia Sieniawska Date of Birth 1666 Place of Birth Lwów Date of Death February... Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski, hetman
  • Wacław Sobieski (b. October 10, 1872 in Lwów - April 3, 1935 in Kraków, Poland) was a Polish historian, professor of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, member of the Polish Academy of Skills (Polska Akademia Umiejętności (PAU), and author of many works... Wacław Sobieski, historian
  • Leopold Staff (November 14, 1878 – May 31, 1957) was a Polish poet. He was born in Lwów and died in Skarżysko-Kamienna. See also: Young Poland Categories: Literature stubs | 1878 births | 1957 deaths | Polish poets | Polish writers ... Leopold Staff, poet
  • The conductor Stanisław Skrowaczewski (born October 3, 1923) was born in Lwow, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine) and became best known for his work with the Minnesota Orchestra. As a child, he studied piano and violin; he was a very good pianist, making his debut in that capacity... Stanisław Skrowaczewski, composer
  • Julian Stryjkowski, writer
  • Tadeusz Sygietyński, contemporary Polish composer
  • Wacław Szybalski (born 1921 in Lwów, Poland - now Lviv, Ukraine) is a Professor of Oncology at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School. Wacław Szybalski was born in a family from intelligentsia. His father, Stefan, was an engineer and... Wacław Szybalski, medical researcher
  • Alfred Tarski, original name Alfred Teitelbaum (b. January 14, 1901 in Warsaw - October 26, 1983 in USA) was a Polish logician considered to be one of the greatest logicians of all time in a manner after Aristotle, Gottlob Frege, and Kurt Gödel. Tarski made contributions to algebra, measure theory... Alfred Tarski, Polish logician
  • Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Polish historian of philosophy
  • Kazimierz Jerzy Skrzypna-Twardowski, Ritter von Ogonczyk (b. October 20, 1866 in Vienna, Austria - February 2, 1938 in Lwów, Poland) was a Polish philosopher and logician. Twardowski studied philosophy in Vienna with Franz Brentano and Robert Zimmermann. In 1891/1892 he received his doctorate with his dissertation Idee und... Kazimierz Twardowski, philosopher, founder of Lwow-Warsaw philosophical school
  • Stanisław Marcin Ulam (April 13, 1909–May 13, 1984) was a Polish-American mathematician who helped develop the key theory behind the hydrogen bomb. Contents // 1 Biography 2 Books 3 See also 4 External Links 5 Further Reading Biography Ulam was born in Lwów, Poland (then... Stanisław Ulam, mathematician
  • Rudolf Weigl Professor Rudolf Stefan Weigl (1883 - 1957) was a famous Polish biologist and inventor of the first effective vaccine for epidemic typhus. Born in Prerov, Moravia, Weigl graduated in 1907 from the University of Lwów with a degree in Natural Sciences. He founded the Weigl Institute in Lw... Rudolf Weigl, scientist, invented the This is about the disease Typhus. See Typhus (monster) for the monster in Greek mythology, or typhoid fever for a totally different disease that because of its similar name is often confused with it. Typhus is a name given to several similar diseases caused by Rickettsiae bacteria. It comes from... typhus vaccine
  • Julian Zachariewicz, architect and rector of the Lviv University
  • Adam Zagajewski, poet
  • Gabriela Zapolska: pseudonym of the Polish novelist and actress Maria G. Śnieżko-Błocka (born March 30, 1857, in Podhajce, Austrian Galicia, now Pidhaytsi, Ukraine - died December 17, 1921, in Lwów, Poland, now Lviv, Ukraine). She was buried at the Lychakivskiy Cemetery in Lw... Gabriela Zapolska, writer
  • Andrzej Zulawski (born November 22, 1940) is a film director He was born in Lwow, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine). Zulawski was an assistant of Andrzej Wajda, the famous Polish film director. When his second film Diabel was banned in Poland he went to France, where he made LImportant... Andrzej Żuławski, The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. A film director directs the artistic and dramatic aspects of a film. The role typically includes: Defining the overall artistic vision of the film. Controlling the... film director

Contemporary Lviv

Government

Administrative division

Lviv is divided in 6 distinct entities called See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. A raion, or rayon (район in Russian and Ukrainian), is a subnational entity of Belarus, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, or the former Soviet Union. A raion is an entity two steps below the national level. It... raions with their own administrative bodies:

  • Halyts'ky (Галицький район)
  • Zaliznychny (Залізничний район)
  • Lychakivs'ky (Личаківський район)
  • Sykhivsky (Сихівський район)
  • Frankivs'ky (Франківський район)
  • Shevchenkivs'ky (Шевченківський район)

Notable suburbs are:

  • Vynnyky (місто Винники)
  • Brokhovychi (селище Брюховичі)
  • Rudne (селище Рудне)

Mayor

Municipal government

Population

Transport

Transit

Airports

Lviv has an international airport. Lviv Airport Website (http://avia.lviv.ua)


Public Transportation

Buses

As in most Ukrainian cities, the public bus network is not well-developed and the number of lines is limited.


A cheap alternative to the public transport are the "marshrutky", which are small private-run buses cruising around the city and the suburbs. Marshrutky do not have any fixed bus-stops nor timetables, yet their services are relatively cheap, fast and efficient. The marshrutky also run on suburban lines to most towns of the region including the line to Shehyni (Шегині) at the The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Polish border.


Tramways

The first A Tram or Light rail system Historically, a railway, particularly one used for the carriage of minerals. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back... tramway lines were opened on May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). There are 240 days remaining. There are usually 92 days in Spring. We are considered halfway through Spring on May 5. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4... May 5, 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January - April 1.2 May - August 1.3 September - December 1.4 Unknown date 2 Births 3 Deaths Events January - April January 1 - Construction of the Panama Canal begins February 1 - First edition... 1880. On May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years). There are 214 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 31, 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Births 2.1 January-March 2.2 April-June 2.3 July-September 2.4 October-December 2.5 Unknown date 3 Deaths 4 Fictional events of the year Events January 7 - W.K... 1894 the last horse-powered line has been electrified. In 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Year in topic 3 Births 3.1 January to June 3.2 July to December 4 Deaths 5 Nobel Prizes 6 Heads of state in 1922 7 See also Events January Su Mo Tu... 1922 the tramways were switched to right-hand-side system. After the Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II and the annexation of the city by the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... Soviet Union several lines were closed for service, yet most of the tramway infrastructure was preserved. However, many of the tram stops were cancelled and currently an average distance between them exceeds 2 kilometres.


Currently the Lviv tramway operator runs approximately 220 cars on 75 kilometres of tracks. Most of the tracks are in a very bad shape and so are the streetcars themselves. Most of the cars are of KT4 type, produced by the Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). On January 1, 1993, it peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in what was known as the... czechoslovak Tatra mountains - a mountain range, part of the Carpathian Mountains, between Poland and Slovakia. Tatra - a car brand from the Czech Republic. Tatra - a producer of tramways from the Czech Republic. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Tatra-Works. Newer T4+T4 are operating only on line 2. Pre-war Gothaer Waggonfabrik (Gotha, GWF) was a German manufacturer of rolling stock established in the late nineteenth century at Warnemünde. During the two world wars, the company expanded into aircraft building. In World War I, Gotha manufacturer a highly successful series of bombers based on a 1914 design by Oskar... Gothaer Waggonfabrik cars (built after 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January-April 1.2 May-October 1.3 November-December 1.4 unknown dates 2 Births 2.1 January-April 2.2 May-December 3 Deaths 4 Nobel Prizes Events January Su Mo... 1910) are used for maintenance and utility purposes.


Trolleybuses

After the war and the expulsion of the majority of the city's inhabitants, the city started to grow rapidly. The cancelled tramway lines in the city centre were replaced with A trolleybus in Arnhem An electric trolleybus (also known as trolley bus or trackless trolley or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which the bus draws electricity using two trolley poles. Two poles are required in order to accommodate the return current, which can... trolleybusses on November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year. There are 34 days remaining. November Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... November 27, Years: 1949 1950 1951 - 1952 - 1953 1954 1955 Decades: 1920s 1930s 1940s - 1950s - 1960s 1970s 1980s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1952 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1952. In the later period new lines were opened for communication with the blocks-of-flats areas at the city outskirts. Currently the trolleybus network runs some 200 cars, mostly of the Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Contents // 1 Events and trends 1.1 Technology 1.2 Science 1.3 War, peace and politics 1.4... 1960s 14Tr type.


Railway

Modern L'viv retains its nodal position, with nine railways converging on the city. There are many destinations, both within Ukraine and international. Most cities in Ukraine can be reached from the main train station. Due to the proximity of the Polish-Ukrainian border there are several trains going to The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland (mostly via For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. The correct title is Przemyśl. Przemyśl (Flag) (Coat of Arms) Motto: Libera Regia Civitas (Free Royal City) Voivodship Subcarpathian Municipal government Rada Miejska w Przemy... Przemyśl and Rava Ruska) for example the luxurious Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. As of 2003, Kiev officially had 2,642,486 inhabitants, although the large number... Kyiv- Kraków (Flag) (Coat of Arms) Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est.) 1,200,000 2317.93/km² Founded City rights 8th century... Kraków link.


For more details see: Lviv Railway Station Website (http://www.railway.lviv.ua/)


Sport

Historically Lviv was one of the most important centres of sports in Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region of Europe between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. There are no physical landmarks that would commonly be seen as its borders. Rather, it is a concept of shared history, in opposition against the East represented by the Ottoman... Central Europe. The first professional The striker (wearing red jersey) has run past the defender (in white jersey) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to stop the ball. Football is the most widely played and watched team sport in the world. The game is often known... football club, Czarni Lwów, was opened in 1903 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 1903 From Wikipedia 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since... 1903, and the first stadium was opened in 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. (click on link for calendar) Years: 1910 1911 1912 - 1913 - 1914 1915 1916 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1913 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology Aviation... 1913. Currently L'viv is home to several major professional football clubs and a number of smaller clubs. Currently the only one playing in the first division (Vysha Liha) is the FK Karpaty L'viv (founded in Years: 1960 1961 1962 - 1963 - 1964 1965 1966 Decades: 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1963 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1963).


Like most of Ukrainian sport clubs, those based in Lviv have also branches that specialize in other disciplines. The following lists the major sport clubs and the discipline the club is famous for:

  • Karpaty Lviv ( The striker (wearing red jersey) has run past the defender (in white jersey) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to stop the ball. Football is the most widely played and watched team sport in the world. The game is often known... football)

<-- needs expansion -->


Culture

Music

Theatre

Theatre in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as soon as...
Theatre in Lwow This image may not have information on its source. It may be usable under fair use but this has yet to be verified. It might be public domain or under a licence compatible with the GNU FDL. To the uploader: Please provide licensing information as soon as... Enlarge
Grand Theatre (now L'viv Opera and Ballet Theatre)

Museums and art galleries

There are many museums and art galleries in Lviv, most notable are the National Gallery, Museum of Religion (formerly Museum of Atheism) and National Museum (formerly Museum of Industry).


Education

L'viv is one of the most important education centres of Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine. It is home to three major A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education. University is derived from the Latin universitas, meaning corporation since the first medieval European universities were often groups of scholars-for-hire. Contents // 1 History 2 Selective... universities and a number of smaller schools of higher education. There are 8 institutes of the National Science Academy of Ukraine, more than 40 research institutes, 3 academies and 11 state-owned colleges.


The most important are:

  • University of Lviv (Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка)
  • Lviv Polytechnic (full name Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukrainian Національний університет Львівська політехні... Lviv Polytechnic (Національний університет "Львівська політехніка")

for links to their sites see: This is a partial list of universities in Ukraine. Kyiv Kyiv International University ([1]) National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy ([2]) National Technical University of Ukraine Kyiv Polytechnic Institute ([3]) National Aviation University ([4]) Lviv University of Lviv ([5]) Lviv Polytechnic ([6]) Categories: Stub | Lists of colleges and universities... List of universities in Ukraine


Business

Industry

Tourist attractions

  • the Old Town
    • Rynok square (Old Town Market; 185,000 square metres)
      • Black House
    • Armenian Cathedral
    • Greek Cathedral
    • Latin Cathedral
    • St. Yur church
    • Dominican abbey
    • Boim Chapel
  • Vysoky Zamok hill overlooking the historical centre
    • The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania... Union of Lublin mound
  • Lychakivskiy Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz Łyczakowski) is a famous cemetery in Lviv. Since its creation in 1787 it has been the main necropoly of the citys inteligentsia, middle and upper classes. Initially the cemetery was located on several hills in the borough of Łyczaków, following the... Lychakivskiy Cemetery

Films and books featuring Lviv

Portions of Schindler's List were shot in the Lviv city center, as it was less expensive to do so than in Krakow.


See also:

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Please see its description page there. File links The following pages link to this file: Abu Dhabi Abraham Lincoln Australia Adolf Hitler Andorra Anatomy Asia Albert Einstein Asterales Automobile Aircraft Alexander Graham Bell Apple Computer American Civil War Ancient Egypt Asteraceae Alps...
The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free images, sound and other multimedia files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. Files uploaded to this repository can be used as local files by other projects on the Wikimedia servers, including Wikipedia, Wikibooks and Wikinews... Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
Category:Lviv
  • The Lwów School of Mathematics was a group of mathematicians in the corresponding Polish city (now Lviv, Ukraine) who worked together, meeting partcularly at the Scottish Café to discuss mathematical problems. Their journal was Studia Mathematica (founded 1929). Many of these scholars, especially those with Jewish background, fled the... Lvov school of mathematics
  • The murder of Lwow professors was the mass execution of approximately 45 Polish professors of the University of Lwów, their families and guests, committed in July 1941 in Lwów. The mass murder was a continuation of AB Action, or Ausserordentliche Befriedungsaktion started in 1940. Contents // 1 History 2... Murder of Lwow professors
  • Smirnoff is a famous vodka distillery founded in Moscow. The Smirnoff company dates back to its creation in the 1860s by Piotr Arsenieyevich Smirnov. His distillery was the first in the world to use charcoal filtering process. By 1886 the Smirnov factory received the official purveyors to the Imperial Russian... Smirnoff
  • Red Ruthenia (Polish: Ruś Czerwona, Latin: Ruthenia Rubra or Russia Rubra) is the name used since the medieval times to refer to the area known as Eastern Galicia prior to World War I. Contents // 1 History 2 Administrative division (14th century-1772) 2.1 The Ruthenian Voivodship 2.2... Red Ruthenia
  • Tourism > Tourism in Ukraine Ukraine is a country on the crossroads between central and eastern Europe, between north and south. It borders Russia and is not far from Turkey, it has mountain ranges, suitable for skiing and hiking in the Carpathian Mountains, nature (fishing and hunting) and a coastline... Tourism in Ukraine
  • On 27 July 2002, 84 people were killed and over 100 injured at an airshow in Sknyliv (Скнилів) airport near Lviv, Ukraine. A Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 aircraft crashed during aerobatics presentation. It was the worlds worst airshow disaster to date... Ukraine airshow disaster
  • Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 Polish statehood See also Polish history series Kingdom of Poland (Piasts) Kingdom of Poland (Jagiellonian) Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Duchy of Warsaw Congress Poland Grand Duchy of Poznań Free City of Kraków Kingdom of Poland Second Polish Republic Polish government-in-exile People... Second Polish Republic
  • Arms of Exeter, showing motto Semper Fidelis is a Latin motto translating to always faithful. It is the motto of: Plymouth Argyle, and the song is played as the team enters the pitch before the start of the game. The City of Exeter, in Devon, England; the motto signifies the... Semper fidelis
  • After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. In 1195 during the Crusades, the church of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia entered into a union with... Armenian Catholic Church
  • Massacre of prisoners was a massacre committed by Soviet NKVD on prisoners in cities from which the Red Army was withdrawing after the German invasion in 1941. Most of the prisoners were innocent and waiting deportation. Normally prisoners were shot and prisons burned down. One of the cases occurred in... Massacre of prisoners
  • The Curzon line was a boundary line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a border between Poland, to the west, and Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine, to the east. It lay approximately along the border which was established between Prussia and Russia in 1797... Curzon line
  • Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. The term Tatars was often confusingly applied to different peoples. Mongol-Tatar Golden Horde forces led by Batu Khan began attacking Europe in 1223, starting with Kyivan... Tatar invasions
  • Battle of Lwów
  • Lwów Eagles

External links

In English

  • Lviv City Council (http://www.city-adm.lviv.ua/index_e.html)
  • Lvivbest.com (http://www.lvivbest.com)
  • State of Environment in L'viv institution (http://www.city-adm.lviv.ua/lviv/lviv_eng/index.htm)
  • Lemberg - Jewish Encyclopedia (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=175&letter=L)

In Ukrainian

  • Business in L'viv (http://www.today.lviv.ua/)
  • Free mail (http://www.lviv.name/)

In Polish

  • Guidebook to history of Polish Lwów (http://www.lwow.com.pl)
  • Guidebook to contemporary L'viv (http://www.piotr-szczepanski.org/lwow/)
  • Lwów 1929 address book (http://www.lwow.com.pl/ksiegaadr.html)

 
 
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