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Encyclopedia > Luton
Borough of Luton
Image:EnglandLuton.png

Luton shown within England Luton is a town in Bedfordshire, England A Luton body is a style of commercial vehicle body Luton is a suburb of Chatham, Kent This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links One of the administrative counties of England File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Geography
Status: Unitary, Borough
Region: East of England
Ceremonial County: Bedfordshire
Area:
- Total
Ranked 311th
43.35 km²
Admin. HQ: Luton
ONS code: 00KA
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
Ranked 77th
186,800
4309 / km²
Ethnicity: 71.9% White
18.3% S.Asian
7.86% Black British.
Politics
Leadership: Leader & Cabinet
Executive: Labour
MPs: Kelvin Hopkins (L)
Margaret Moran (L)
Luton Borough Council
http://www.luton.gov.uk/

Luton is a large town and local government district located in the south of England, 32 miles (51 kilometres) north of London. Historically, Luton was within the county of Bedfordshire. However, since 1997, the town has been a unitary authority. Luton, along with its near neighbours of Dunstable and Houghton Regis form the Luton/Dunstable Urban Area, with a population over 230,000.[1] The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... This is a list of districts of England ordered by area. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The figures are mid-year estimates for 2005, unless otherwise stated, from the Office for National Statistics [1]. See also: List of towns and cities in England by population - List of English counties by population - List of ceremonial counties of England by population - List of English districts by area - List... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005 to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the United Kingdom general election, 2005, arranged by constituency. ... Kelvin Peter Hopkins (born 22 August 1941) is an English politician, and Labour member of Parliament for Luton North. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Moran (born on April 24, 1955, in London) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Luton is a large town and local government district situated in the south of England, located 51 kilometres (32 miles) north of London. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... Dunstable is a town in the county of Bedfordshire, England, with a population of 33,805 (2001 census). ... Houghton Regis is a Parish town sandwiched between the major towns of Luton to the East and Dunstable to the West. ... Map to show the Luton and Dunstable Urban Area The Luton/Dunstable Urban Area according to the Office for National Statistics is the conurbation of the settlements: Luton Dunstable Houghton Regis Located in the southern part of the county of Bedfordshire, England, the current population (2001 census) is 236,318. ...


Luton is home to Luton Town Football Club, London Luton Airport, and the University of Bedfordshire. The Luton Carnival, held on the late May bank holiday, is the largest one-day carnival in Europe. The town is famous for hat-making and was home to a large Vauxhall Motors factory for many years: the head office of Vauxhall Motors is still situated in the town. Luton Town Football Club are an English football team based in the town of Luton in Bedfordshire. ... London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport)[3] is an international airport located on the edge of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England approximately north of London. ... University of Bedfordshire - Learning Resources Centre, Luton Campus The University of Bedfordshire is a university created by the merger of the University of Luton and the Bedford campus of De Montfort University on 1 August 2006 following approval by the Privy Council[1]. Bedfordshire is a county in southern England. ... Luton International Carnival in Luton, Bedfordshire is the largest one-day carnival event in Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article describes the festival season. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For information about the football team see Vauxhall Motors F.C. Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ...

Contents

Geography and geology

Luton is located in a gap in the eastern part of the Chiltern Hills. The Chilterns themselves are a mixture of chalk from the Cretaceous period[2] (about 65-146 million years ago) and are thought to be the southernmost points of the ice sheet from the last ice age. The Chiltern Hills are a chalk escarpment in south east England. ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Towards the east of Luton in the Warden Hills area, there are clay deposits, hence in Stopsley, there used to be a brickworks,[3] Bedfordshire had a reputation for brick making which is now significantly reduced. Warden Hills is an area of Luton, which is named after the hills overlooking it. ... Stopsley is a ward (politics) in the north-east of Luton. ... Brickwork is produced when a bricklayer uses bricks and mortar to build up structures such as walls, bridges and chimneys. ...


The River Lea starts in the Leagrave area of the town and is part of the Thames Valley drainage basin. Also, the Great Bramingham Wood, surrounding the source, is classified to be ancient woodland, records mention the wood at least 400 years ago. This article is about the River Lee in England; for the one in the Republic of Ireland see River Lee (Ireland). ... Leagrave is a suburb of Luton in Bedfordshire. ... The Thames Valley is generally the region that drains into the River Thames, England, but is used in a more specific term by the government. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Statistics Population: 7,550 (est. ... Ancient Woodland is a term used in the United Kingdom to refer specifically to woodland dating back to at least 1600 in England and Wales, (or 1750 in Scotland). ...


Due to the position of Luton in the gap of the Chiltern Hills, the opportunity to develop has been high for the town across the centuries, as there are few other passes through the hilly area for some miles. This has led to several major roads, including the M1 and the A5 and a major rail-link to run through and boost the town in its growth and development from very early on. The railway by-passed nearby Dunstable which had been a more prosperous town, with the good transport links industry quickly developed. The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... The A5 is a major road in the United Kingdom. ... Dunstable is a town in the county of Bedfordshire, England, with a population of 33,805 (2001 census). ...


History

Main article: History of Luton

This article is about the History of Luton // Settlements have existed in the area since the Paleolithic era, most notably the henge monument now called Wauluds Bank, which dates from 3000 BC. The Roman settlement in the area was concentrated at Durocobrivis and Verulamium. ...

Early history

The earliest settlements in the Luton area were at Round Green and Mixes Hill, where Paleolithic encampments (about 250,000 years old) have been found[4]. Settlements re-appeared after the ice had retreated in the Mesolithic around 8000 BC: settlements have been found in the Leagrave area. Remains from the Neolithic (4500-2500 BC in this area) are much more common. A particular concentration of Neolithic burials is at Galley Hill[5]. The most prominent Neolithic structure is Waulud's Bank - a henge dating from around 3000 BC. From the Neolithic onwards, the area seems to have been fairly thickly populated, but without any single large settlement. // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Wauluds Bank is a Neolithic Henge in Leagrave, Bedfordshire dating from 3,000BC. Wauluds Bank earthworks lies on the edge of the Marsh Farm Estate in Leagrave, Luton. ... A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ...


The first urban settlement nearby was the small Roman town of Durocobrivis at Dunstable, but Roman remains in Luton itself consist only of scattered farmsteads[6]. Dunstable is a town in the county of Bedfordshire, England, with a population of 33,805 (2001 census). ...


The foundation of Luton is usually dated to the 6th century when a Saxon outpost was founded on the River Lea, Lea tun.[7] For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... This article is about the River Lee in England; for the one in the Republic of Ireland see River Lee (Ireland). ...


Luton is recorded in the Domesday Book as Loitone and also as Lintone;[8] when the town's population was around 700-800. Agriculture dominated the local economy at this time. A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ...

St Marys Church, Luton town centre, founded in 1121 by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester.
St Marys Church, Luton town centre, founded in 1121 by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester.

In 1121 Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester started work on St Mary's Church in the centre of the town, which was completed by 1137.[9] A motte and bailey type castle which gives its name to 'Castle Street' was built in 1139. The castle was demolished in 1154.[10] The site is now home to Matalan. During the Middle Ages Luton is recorded as being home to six watermills. Mill Street, in the town centre, takes its name from one of them. Image File history File linksMetadata StMarysLuton. ... Image File history File linksMetadata StMarysLuton. ... For other churches by this name, follow the link St. ... Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. ... Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. ... For other churches by this name, follow the link St. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... Matalan is a discount clothing and homeware store in the United Kingdom. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century) A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). ... The town centre is usually the commercial or geographical centre of a town. ...


King John (1166-1216) had hired a mercenary soldier, Falkes de Breauté, to act on his behalf. (Breauté is a small town near Le Havre in France.) When he married, he acquired his wife, Margaret's London house which came to be known as "Fawkes Hall", subsequently corrupted over the years to "Foxhall", then "Vauxhall". In return for his services, King John granted Falkes the manor of Luton. He was also granted the right to bear his own coat of arms and chose the mythical griffin as his heraldic emblem. The griffin thus became associated with both Vauxhall and Luton in the early 13th century.[11] This article is about the King of England. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Falkes de Breauté (d. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...


By 1240 the town is recorded as Leueton. The town had an annual market for surrounding villages in August each year, and with the growth of the town a second fair was granted each October from 1338. Roundabouts (or carousels) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairs. ...


In 1336, much of Luton was destroyed by a great fire, however the town was soon rebuilt.


The agriculture base of the town changed in the 16th century with a brick making industry developing around Luton, many of the older wooden houses were rebuilt in brick. For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ...


17th century

During the English Civil War of the 17th century there were two incidents in Luton. The first of which took place in 1645 when royalists entered the town and demanded money and goods. Parliamentary forces arrived and during the fighting four royalist soldiers were killed and a further 22 were captured. A second skirmish occurred three years later in 1648 when a royalist army passed through Luton. A small number of which were attacked by parliamentary soldiers at an inn on the corner of Bridge Street. Most of the group of royalists escaped but nine were killed. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... °°°°°°°°°°°→→→→→→→→→→→→§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§ Prince Rupert, an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ...


18th century

It was in the 17th century when the hat making that became synonymous with the town began. By the 18th century the hat making industry, especially straw hat manufacture, dominated the town as its only significant industry. Hats are still produced in the town on a smaller scale. A hat is an item of clothing which is worn on the head; a kind of headgear. ... A straw hat is a large brimmed hat that is woven out of straw. ...


Luton Hoo, a nearby large country house was built in 1767 on the site of an earlier house, however little of the original house remains as much of it was rebuilt after a fire in 1843. South-west facade of Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. ... A country house is a large dwelling, such as a mansion, located on a country estate. ...


19th century

A map of Luton from 1888
A map of Luton from 1888

The town grew strongly in the 19th century; in 1801 the population was 3,095.[12] By 1850 it was over 10,000 and by 1901 it was almost 39,000. A railway connection was essential for this growth, and there was a long delay before this was provided. The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) had been built through Tring in 1838, and the Great Northern Railway was built through Hitchin in 1852, both bypassing Luton, the largest town in the area. A branch line connecting with the L&BR at Leighton Buzzard was proposed, but because of objections to release of land, the branch only reached Luton's much smaller rival, Dunstable, in 1848. It was another ten years before the branch was extended to Bute Street Station, and the first train to Dunstable ran on 3rd May, 1858[13]. The line was later extended to Welwyn and from 1860 direct trains to King's Cross ran. The Midland Railway was extended from Bedford to St Pancras through Leagrave and Midland Road station and opened on 9th September 1867[14]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2666x1786, 1468 KB)Luton map from 1888. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2666x1786, 1468 KB)Luton map from 1888. ... The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom from 1833 until 1846, at which date it became a constituent part of the London and North Western Railway. ... Map sources for Tring at grid reference SP924117 Tring is a small market town in the Chiltern Hills in Hertfordshire, England with a population of 13,000. ... The Great Northern Railway (GNR) was a British railway company, founded by the London & York Railway Act of 1846. ... , Hitchin is a town in Hertfordshire, England, and has an estimated population of 30,360. ... Leedon redirects here. ... Luton Bute Street railway station was built by the Luton, Dunstable and Welwyn Junction Railway Company in 1858, which was an extension of the Welwyn and Hertford Railway. ... Kings Cross station (often spelt Kings Cross on platform signs) is a railway station in the district of the same name in northeast central London. ... This article is about the historical British railway company. ... St Pancras railway station, now officially known as St Pancras International, is a major station located in the St Pancras area of central London, between the new British Library building to the west and Kings Cross station to the east. ... Leagrave railway station is located in the north part of Luton, Bedfordshire. ... Luton railway station is located in Luton, Bedfordshire, England. ...


Luton had a gas supply in 1834, and the gas street lights were erected and the first town hall opened in 1847. Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... For the railway station in Sydney, Australia, see Town Hall railway station, Sydney. ...


Newspaper printing arrived in the town in 1854, coincidentally the year the first public cemetery was opened. Following a cholera epidemic in 1848 Luton formed a water company and had a complete water and sewerage system by the late 1860s. The first covered market was built (the Plait Halls - now demolished) in 1869. Luton was made a borough in 1876[15] and the football club was founded in 1885 following the passing of a resolution at the Luton Town Hall that the 'Luton Town Club be formed' .[16] Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Luton Town Hall is situated at the the junction between Manchester Street, Upper George Street and George Street, Luton, England;[1] the current building was completed in 1936 on the site of the older Town Hall which was burnt down 19 July 1919, following the peace day riots. ...


In 1876 the town was granted its own coat of arms, (see illustration above). The wheat sheaf was used on the crest to represent agriculture and the supply of wheat straw used in the local hatting industry, the straw-plaiting industry was brought to Luton by a group of Scots under the protection of Sir John Napier of Luton Hoo.The bee is traditionally the emblem of industry and the hive represents the straw-plaiting industry of which Luton was famous. The rose is from the arms of the Napier family, whereas the thistle is a symbol for Scotland. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other people with the same name, see John Napier (disambiguation). ... South-west facade of Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. ... Milk thistle flowerhead Thistledown a method of seed dispersal by wind. ... This article is about the country. ...


The crest also includes a hand holding a bunch of wheat, either taken again as a symbol of the straw-plaiting industry, or from the arms of John Whethamsteade, Abbott of St Albans who rebuilt in the 15th century the chancel of St Mary's Church. STRAW and STRAW MANUFACTURES. Straw (from strew, as being used for strewing), is the general term applied to the stalky residue of grain-plants (especially wheat, rye, oats, barley). ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ... For other churches by this name, follow the link St. ...


20th century

In the 20th century, the hat trade severely declined and was replaced by more modern industries. In 1905, Vauxhall Motors opened the largest car plant in the United Kingdom in Luton. Electrolux built a household appliances plant which was followed by other light engineering businesses. Image File history File links Wardownmuseum. ... Image File history File links Wardownmuseum. ... Luton Museum & Art Gallery. ... Luton Museum & Art Gallery, Wardown Park, Luton. ... Millinery is womens hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women. ... For information about the football team see Vauxhall Motors F.C. Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... This article is about the current worldwide manufacturer of Electrolux products. ...


In 1904 councillors Asher Hucklesby and Edwin Oakley purchased the estate that became Wardown Park, and then donated the property to the people of Luton. Hucklesby went on to be Mayor of Luton. The main house in the park became Luton Museum & Art Gallery. Asher Hucklesby Asher Hucklesby was fives-time mayor of Luton, Bedfordshire between 1892 and 1906 and a major hat manufacturer in the town. ... Luton Museum & Art Gallery, Wardown Park, Luton. ... Luton Museum & Art Gallery. ...


The town had a tram system from 1908 until 1932 and the first cinema was opened in 1909. By 1914, the population had reached 50,000. This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...


The original town hall was destroyed in 1919 during the Peace Day celebrations at the end of World War I; local people including many ex-servicemen were unhappy with unemployment and had been refused the use of a local park to hold celebratory events, and so stormed the town hall setting it on fire. (See Luton Town Hall) A replacement town hall was completed in 1936. London Luton Airport opened in 1938, owned and operated by the council. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Luton Town Hall is situated at the the junction between Manchester Street, Upper George Street and George Street, Luton, England;[1] the current building was completed in 1936 on the site of the older Town Hall which was burnt down 19 July 1919, following the peace day riots. ... London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport)[3] is an international airport located on the edge of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England approximately north of London. ...


In World War II, the Vauxhall Factory built Churchill tanks[17] as part of the war effort and was heavily camouflaged. The Vauxhall factory made Luton a target for the Luftwaffe and the town suffered a number of air raids, although only 107 people died[18] there was extensive damage to the town and over 1,500 homes were damaged or destroyed. Other industry in the town such as SKF (producing ball bearings), made a vital contribution to the war effort. Although a bomb landed at the SKF Factory[19] no major damage was inflicted. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Tank, Infantry, Mk IV (A22) was a heavy British infantry tank of the Second World War, best known for its heavy armour and its use as the basis of many specialist vehicles. ... In military affairs, the war effort refers to the harnessing of economic and human resources towards support of a military force. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... SKF, Svenska Kullagerfabriken AB, later AB SKF, is a Swedish bearing company founded in 1907, supplying bearings, seals, lubrication and lubrication systems, maintenance products, mechatronics products, power transmission products, customer solutions and related services globally. ... Working principle for a ball bearing. ...

Luton Town Centre still has many of the old hat factorys, many of which have been converted into apartments or office space
Luton Town Centre still has many of the old hat factorys, many of which have been converted into apartments or office space

Post-war, the slum clearance continued and a number of substantial estates of council housing were built, notably at Farley Hill, Stopsley, Limbury, Marsh Farm and Leagrave, (Hockwell Ring). The M1 passed just to the west of the town in 1959. In 1962 a new library (to replace the Carnegie Library) was opened by the Queen in the corner of St Georges Square. In the late 1960s a large part of the town centre was cleared to build a large covered shopping centre, the Arndale Centre, which was opened in 1972.[20] The Arndale Centre has had a major refurbishment, including a new glass roof, which has transformed the area. Image File history File linksMetadata LutonTownCentre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LutonTownCentre. ... Urban Renewal redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... , Farley Hill is a post-war housing estate in south Luton, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom . ... Stopsley is a ward (politics) in the north-east of Luton. ... Limbury is a post-war housing development in west Luton, Bedfordshire, UK. Category: ... Marsh Farm is a large housing estate in Luton, Bedfordshire near to Leagrave and Limbury, mainly of council and social housing. ... Leagrave is a suburb of Luton in Bedfordshire. ... , Hockwell Ring is a 1950s and 1960s built council estate in the Leagrave area of Luton, Bedfordshire. ... The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Arndale Centres are a large chain of shopping centres in the United Kingdom - they were the first American-style malls to be constructed in the UK. The first centre was built in Jarrow in 1961, and was followed by developments in Leeds, Luton, London, Bradford, Aberdeen, Poole and other British...


In 2000, Vauxhall announced the end of car production in Luton; the plant closed in March 2002.[21] At its peak it had employed in excess of 30,000 people.


21st century

A major regeneration programme for the town centre is planned, which will include upgrades to the town's bus and train stations as well as general improvements the town's streetscape. St George's Square has been transformed into a modern town square [22] with its new look being completed in Spring 2007. The new square won a Gold Standard Award for the Town Centre Environment from the annual British Council of Shopping Centres awards.[23]


Planning applications for a £15million extension to The Mall Arndale shopping centre[24] [25] and also for a new centre in Power Court[26] (near to St Marys Church) have been submitted. It is hoped this will breathe life into the town, which has been flagging with the decades of decline of the manufacturing industry in Great Britain, which Luton once thrived upon. For other churches by this name, follow the link St. ...


On the edge of Luton, near to Putteridge Bury a new high-technology office park is under construction called Butterfield Green. The former Vauxhall site is also to be re-developed as a mixed use site called Napier Park, this is to feature housing, retail and entertainment use, including a new casino. Putteridge Bury Putteridge Bury is a country house on the edge of the built-up area of Luton, Bedfordshire, England but actually over the county boundary in the parish of Offley in Hertfordshire. ... For other uses, see Luton (disambiguation). ... A Regional casino, more commonly known as a Super Casino (or occasionally known as Mega Casino or variants) is the term given to the largest category of casino permitted under United Kingdom law. ...


Places within Luton

Main article: Places within Luton

Over the years Luton has expanded, taking in former neighbouring villages and hamlets, as well as by the construction of new estates and localities. Image File history File links Lutonwardmap. ... List of places within Luton is a link page for places in Luton, England. ...


Former villages and hamlets: Biscot, Crawley Green, Leagrave, Limbury, Round Green, Stopsley Statistics Population: 13,660(including Bury Park). ... , Crawley Green is a ward in the southern part of Luton near to London Luton Airport. ... Leagrave is a suburb of Luton in Bedfordshire. ... Limbury is a post-war housing development in west Luton, Bedfordshire, UK. Category: ... Statistics Population: 10,850(est. ... Stopsley is a ward (politics) in the north-east of Luton. ...


Early expansion of Luton: Bury Park, High Town, New Town Bury Park is located one mile due east of Luton town centre on the road to Dunstable. ... High Town is a hilly district of Luton adjacent to Luton railway station and extends in a north easterly direction towards Hitchin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


New estates: Bramingham, Bushmead, Farley Hill, Hockwell Ring, Lewsey, Marsh Farm, Sundon Park, Warden Hills, Wigmore Statistics Population: 7,550 (est. ... , Bushmead is an area within the Barnfield ward of Luton, England. ... , Farley Hill is a post-war housing estate in south Luton, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom . ... , Hockwell Ring is a 1950s and 1960s built council estate in the Leagrave area of Luton, Bedfordshire. ... Statistics Population: 8,000 (est. ... Marsh Farm is a large housing estate in Luton, Bedfordshire near to Leagrave and Limbury, mainly of council and social housing. ... , Sundon Park is an area of north Luton in Bedfordshire. ... Warden Hills is an area of Luton, which is named after the hills overlooking it. ... For other locatations called Wigmore see Wigmore. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics in Luton

Luton is represented by two Members of Parliament. The constituency of Luton North has been held by Kelvin Hopkins since 1997 and Luton South by Margaret Moran also since 1997. Luton is within the East of England (European Parliament constituency). Luton Town Hall This article is based around Politics in Luton Luton is a unitary authority, and remains part of the ceremonial county of Bedfordshire. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Luton North is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Kelvin Peter Hopkins (born 22 August 1941) is an English politician, and Labour member of Parliament for Luton North. ... Luton South is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Margaret Moran (born on April 24, 1955, in London) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... East of England is a constituency of the European Parliament. ...


Historically Luton was part of the county of Bedfordshire, but since 1997 the town has been an administratively independent unitary authority. Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ...


The town remains part of Bedfordshire for ceremonial purposes and is in the East of England region, but was formerly in South East England region, and in common usage is still often considered to be in the South East. The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ...


The local authority is Luton Borough Council (see www.luton.gov.uk local council website). The town is split into 19 wards, represented by 48 councillors. Elections are held for all seats every four years, with the most recent local elections held in May 2007 and the next due in May 2011. Luton Town Hall This article is based around Politics in Luton Luton is a unitary authority, and remains part of the ceremonial county of Bedfordshire. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods...


Demographics

The United Kingdom Census 2001 showed that Luton had a population of 184,371, a 5.8% increase from the last census. Of this, 43,324 were under 15, 131,660 were between 16 and 74 and 9387 were over 74.[27] UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ...


In total, 80.7% of Luton's population claim to be born in the UK.[28]


Local inhabitants are known as Lutonians.


Ethnicity

Overall, 71.9% of the inhabitants in Luton are White, and of that 64.97% claim to be White British, 4.65% claim to be of Irish descent and 2.28% claim to be White Other. 18.27% of Luton's population claim to be Asian or of Asian descent, and of this, the largest majority is those of Pakistani descent at 9.23%. In total, 6.34% claim to be Black or of Black descent, and of this, the largest majority is those of Caribbean descent at 4.15%.[29] See also: Demography of England; Demography and politics of Northern Ireland; Demography of Scotland; Demography of Wales According to the 2001 census, the United Kingdoms population was 58,789,194 - the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and metropolitan France) and the 21st-largest in the world. ... See also: Demography of England; Demography and politics of Northern Ireland; Demography of Scotland; Demography of Wales According to the 2001 census, the United Kingdoms population was 58,789,194 - the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and metropolitan France) and the 21st-largest in the world. ... See also: Demography of England; Demography and politics of Northern Ireland; Demography of Scotland; Demography of Wales According to the 2001 census, the United Kingdoms population was 58,789,194 - the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and metropolitan France) and the 21st-largest in the world. ...


Religion

The stated religions, in order of prevalence, are:

For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...

Economic activity

Of all the working population (classified 16-74 years of age by the Office for National Statistics), 63.3% is currently employed, including self-employed, students and part-time employment. 10.9% are retired, 7.6% look after the family/take care of the home and 4.9% are unemployed, including long term unemployment.[31] Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ...


Crime

In common with many urban areas Luton has higher crime levels that the national average, in particular vehicle-related crime (theft of and from motor vehicles), which is approximately twice the national average.[32]


Economy

Main article: Economy of Luton
Luton Town Hall, George Street, Luton
Luton Town Hall, George Street, Luton

Historically, Luton's economy has focused on several different areas of industry including Car Manufacture and millinery. However, today, Luton is moving towards a service based economy mainly in the retail and the airport sectors, although there is still a focus of light industry in the town. This article is about the Economy of Luton Over the centuries, due to technological and economic change, Lutons economy has changed and developed to keep pace with the rest of the UK. Major industries that are related to Luton include Brickmaking, Millinery or Hat making, Automobile production and it... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (426x640, 107 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (426x640, 107 KB) http://www. ... Luton Town Hall is situated at the the junction between Manchester Street, Upper George Street and George Street, Luton, England;[1] the current building was completed in 1936 on the site of the older Town Hall which was burnt down 19 July 1919, following the peace day riots. ... Automakers, also known as carmakers, automobile manufacturers, motor manufacturers, or the automobile industry are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... Millinery is womens hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women. ... Retail redirects here. ...


The central business district and the surrounding areas are currently going through a regeneration project to boost and redevelop the area to attract new businesses and to attract visitors from outside into the town. The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ...


History

Luton's economy has changed focus several times across the centuries, but has always primarily been an industrial town. The first major change in the towns economy was in the 16th century when the predominant industry of agriculture changed to brick making. This lasted about 100 years before again it changed to the millinery, or hat making industry the town is renowned for in the 17th century.


Over the 18th century, this industry became Luton's main focus, however, with the decline in the trade for hats by the end of the 19th century, the town's economic focus moved to car manufacturing for Vauxhall Motors. This lasted the town nearly a century, and at its peak, Vauxhall employed 35,000 people. However, this again began to decline, and in 2002, the plant shut down.


The current regeneration of the economy in Luton is focused around its airport, London Luton Airport. There are plans for expansion and this shall boost the local economy, which has been flagging on the decline of manufacturing in the town. London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport)[3] is an international airport located on the edge of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England approximately north of London. ...


Today Luton is increasingly home to service sector organisations with specific office developments at Capability Green[33] and the new Butterfield Green business parks. For other uses, see Luton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Luton (disambiguation). ...


Notable firms with offices in Luton include:

Anritsu is a Japanese corporation that is a major presence in the test and measurement market. ... AstraZeneca PLC (LSE: AZN, OMX: AZN), is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group PLC. Zeneca was part of Imperial Chemical Industries prior to a demerger in 1993. ... , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, UK, which has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ... Ernst & Young is one of the largest professional services firms in the world, and one of the Big Four auditors, along with PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (Deloitte) and KPMG. Ernst & Young is a global organization consisting of many member firms. ... Category: ... Siemens redirects here. ... Thomson Holidays is a UK based travel operator and part of TUI AG. The company was founded as part of the Thomson Travel Group in 1965 following the acquisiton of various package holiday companies and the airline Britannia Airways by Roy Thomson. ... This article is about the Whitbread company. ... For information about the football team see Vauxhall Motors F.C. Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ...

Shopping

The main shopping area in Luton is situated in The Mall Arndale. Originally built in the 1960s/70's and opened as an Arndale Centre, construction of the shopping centre led to the demolition of a number of the older buildings in the town centre including the Carnegie library and the Corn exchange. Today, shops in the centre include Debenhams, Marks & Spencer, Next, Woolworths and Boots as well as many other shops, totalling 118 stores.[34] The Mall logo. ... Arndale Centres are a large chain of shopping centres in the United Kingdom - they were the first American-style malls to be constructed in the UK. The first centre was built in Jarrow in 1961, and was followed by developments in Leeds, Luton, London, Bradford, Aberdeen, Poole and other British... A Carnegie library, opened in 1913 in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, designed in Spanish Colonial style Carnegie libraries for both public use and academic institutions were built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman Andrew Carnegie, earning him the nickname, the Patron Saint of Libraries. ... Corn Exchange may mean: The Corn Exchange, Maidstone. ... Debenhams plc (LSE: DEB) is a retailer with a chain of department stores based in the United Kingdom, and franchised stores in a number of other countries. ... Marks & Spencer (M&S) is a British retailer, with 760 stores in more than 30 countries around the world. ... Next on Oxford Street Next plc is a British clothes retailer, with its headquarters in Enderby, Leicester, England. ... This article is about the British Woolworths Group plc, and its stores. ... This article is about a former British company which has now merged to form Alliance Boots, as a result, information on this page may be out of date. ...


Another major shopping area is Bury Park, where a lot of ethnic shops including grocers, clothes, jewellers and newsagents have developed together to serve the local communities Bury Park is located one mile due east of Luton town centre on the road to Dunstable. ...


Food and drink

As an ethnically diverse town, Luton has a huge variety of restaurants and eateries from different cultures to offer inhabitants and visitors. To name a few include English, Italian, Chinese, Indian, Caribbean, Thai and Malaysian. There is no specific area in Luton that is restaurant orientated, but you will find that certain areas in the town with examples such as Bury Park have more specific cuisines than others. English cuisine is shaped by the countrys temperate climate, its island geography and its history. ... Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, Amerindian, French, Indian, and Spanish cuisine. ... Bury Park is located one mile due east of Luton town centre on the road to Dunstable. ...


There has recently been an influx of clubs and pubs to the town centre, due to the increasing student population and demand for good nightlife skyrocketing. However, there are still many traditional pubs across the whole town, each with its own unique background. Pub redirects here. ...


Industry

Perhaps the most notable industry to have operated in Luton is the motor industry. Vauxhall built a car factory in the town in 1904 and remained there for 100 years, producing millions of cars during this time. The factory finally closed in 2004 and since then all of Vauxhall's British-built cars have been produced at Ellesmere Port, although Vauxhall's headquarters are still situated in the town. For information about the football team see Vauxhall Motors F.C. Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Luton
University of Bedfordshire - Luton
University of Bedfordshire - Luton

Luton is home to the University of Bedfordshire. The main campus of the University is in Luton town centre with a further campus based on the edge of town in Putteridge Bury, an old Victorian manor house. Campuses also exist in Bedford. Here is a list of every Educational Institute in Luton. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 557 KB)[edit] Summary University of Bedfordshire [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 557 KB)[edit] Summary University of Bedfordshire [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... University of Bedfordshire - Learning Resources Centre, Luton Campus The University of Bedfordshire is a university created by the merger of the University of Luton and the Bedford campus of De Montfort University on 1 August 2006 following approval by the Privy Council[1]. Bedfordshire is a county in southern England. ... Putteridge Bury Putteridge Bury is a country house on the edge of the built-up area of Luton, Bedfordshire, England but actually over the county boundary in the parish of Offley in Hertfordshire. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... This article is about the English county town. ...


The town is also home to several Further Educational Institutes including Luton Sixth Form College and Barnfield College, of which both are recognised as one of the best further education institutes in England having both being awarded the Learning & Skills Beacon Status by the Department for Children, Schools and Families.[35][36] Luton Sixth Form College is a sixth form college situated in Luton, England. ... Barnfield College is the largest college in Bedfordshire and Luton, with four centres in Luton and one in Bedford. ... The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) is a British government department created on 28 June 2007 on the disbanding of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). ...


In total, there are 98 educational institutes in Luton. Of these, there are 7 Nurseries, 70 Primary schools (9 Voluntary-Aided, 2 Special Requirements), 13 Secondary Schools (1 Voluntary-Aided, 1 Special Requirements), 4 Further Educational Institutes and 4 other Educational Institutes.[37] Child picking up book. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... In a voluntary aided school (many of which are church schools) the governing body, as opposed to the Local Education Authority, employs the staff, and decide admission arrangements but the school is nevertheless funded by the state and does not charge fees. ... This article is about educating students with disabilities or behavioral problems. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ...


Culture

Main article: Culture in Luton

As a town, Luton has a large cultural base due to the many backgrounds of the people who live there. This means that the culture in the town is rich and diverse, and this shows in many of the festivals, parks and nightlife of the town. This article focuses on Culture in Luton // Main article: Wardown Park Wardown Park is situated on the River Lea in Luton and is an oasis of calm within walking distance of the town centre offering everything from sporting facilities to museum, gallery and formal gardens. ...


Luton Town Football Club

Main article: Luton Town F.C.

Luton is the home town of Luton Town Football Club who currently play in the Coca-Cola Football League One,[38] the 3rd Flight of the English league structure. Their nickname, "The Hatters", dates back to when Luton had a substantial millinery industry. Luton Town Football Club are an English football team based in the town of Luton in Bedfordshire. ... Luton Town Football Club are an English football team based in the town of Luton in Bedfordshire. ... Football League One (often referred to as League One for short or Coca-Cola Football League 1 for sponsorship reasons) is the second-highest division of The Football League and third-highest division overall in the English football league system. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Millinery is womens hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women. ...


Their only piece of major silverware to date is the Football League Cup, which they won in 1988 under the management of Ray Harford. The Football League Cup, commonly known as the League Cup, is an English football competition. ... Ray Harford (June 1, 1945 - August 9, 2003) was an English footballer, better known for his successes as a coach and manager than as a player. ...


Sport

Motorcycle speedway took place in Luton at the greyhound stadium in Skimpot Lane in 1935. It is reputed that Tommy Price, who went on to ride for Wembley Lions and win the Speedway World Championship in 1949, started out at the Luton track.[39] Motorcycle speedway, normally referred to as Speedway, is a motorcycle sport that involves usually 4 and sometimes up to 6 riders competing over 4 laps of an oval circuit. ... Several greyhounds before a race. ... The World Championship of Speedway is an international competition between the highest ranked motorcycle speedway riders of the world. ...


Parks

Wardown Park

A pedestrian suspension bridge spans the boating lake in Wardown Park.
A pedestrian suspension bridge spans the boating lake in Wardown Park.
Main article: Wardown Park

Wardown Park is situated on the River Lea in Luton and is an oasis of calm within walking distance of the town centre offering sporting facilities, a museum, gallery and formal gardens. The park is situated between Old Bedford Road and the A6, New Bedford Road and houses the museum.[40] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... Luton Museum & Art Gallery, Wardown Park, Luton. ... This article is not about the River Lee that flows through Cork, in the Republic of Ireland; see River Lee (Ireland). ... Luton Museum & Art Gallery. ...


At the centre of the park is a lake, which is formed from the River Lea. The lake contains small island which is not accessible to the public, and is home to various waterfoul, swans, ducks and geese. This article is not about the River Lee that flows through Cork, in the Republic of Ireland; see River Lee (Ireland). ...


Wardown Park and the museum were a gift to the town from the then Mayor Asher Hucklesby.[41] A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Asher Hucklesby Asher Hucklesby was fives-time mayor of Luton, Bedfordshire between 1892 and 1906 and a major hat manufacturer in the town. ...


Stockwood Park

Main article: Stockwood Park

Stockwood Park is a large municipal park near to Junction 10 of the M1 and is acclaimed for its period formal gardens, sporting and golfing facilities. The park also houses a craft museum and the Mossman Collection. Image File history File linksMetadata Stockwoodpark. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Stockwoodpark. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... Stockwood craft museum is based in Stockwood Park, Luton. ... The Mossman Carriage collection is held at Stockwood Park, Luton, Bedfordshire and is the largest and most significant vehicle collection of its kind in the country, including originals from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. ...


The park was originally the estate and grounds to Stockwood house, which was demolished in 1964.


Luton Carnival

Main article: Luton Carnival

Luton Carnival is the largest one-day carnival in Europe, which usually takes place on the late May Bank Holiday. Crowds usually top 150,000[42] on each occasion, with it being a huge multicultural event attended by people from all over the country. The procession starts at Wardown Park in Luton before making it way down New Bedford Road, around the Town Centre via St George's Square, and back down New Bedford Road to finish up back in Wardown Park. In the park and around the town are various music stages and stalls. Luton International Carnival in Luton, Bedfordshire is the largest one-day carnival event in Europe. ... Luton International Carnival in Luton, Bedfordshire is the largest one-day carnival event in Europe. ... This article describes the festival season. ... Luton Museum & Art Gallery, Wardown Park, Luton. ...


Local attractions

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Abbeys and priories in England is a link page for any abbey, priory, friary or other monastic religious house in England. ... Access Land icon for use on UK lists of places of interest, created by Joe D. File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of amusement parks which are or were based in the UK. Alton Towers Adventure Island American Adventure Barry Island Pleasure Park Blackpool Pleasure Beach Blackgang Chine Brean Leisure Park Brighton Pier Camelot Theme Park Chessington World of Adventures Clarence Pier Crealy Dobwalls Diggerland Drayton Manor Dreamland... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Castles in England is a link page for any castle in England. ... Image File history File links Country_Park1. ... A country park is an area designated for people to visit and enjoy recreation in a countryside environment. ... English Heritage icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest. ... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... Forrestry Commision logo for use on UK lists of places of intrest. ... The Forestry Commission (established in 1919) is a non ministerial Government Department responsible for forestry in Great Britain. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... A scene on a heritage railway. ... Historic House icon For use with Template:EngPlacesKey or any other use. ... Historic houses in England is a link page for any stately home, country house or other historic house in England. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... Small National Trust for England logo for use on UK lists of places of interest. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The following is a partial list of zoological gardens (zoos): // Egypt Giza Zoo Alexandria Zoo Qariyet El Assad (Lions Village) South Africa National Zoo, Pretoria Johannesburg Zoo[1] East London Tanzania Saa Nane Museum and Zoo, Mwanza Afghanistan Kabul Zoo, Kabul Bangladesh Dhaka Zoo, Mirpur, Dhaka China Beijing Zoo Chengdu... Small National Trust for England logo for use on UK lists of places of interest. ... Dunstable Downs are part of the Chiltern Hills, in southern Bedfordshire. ... Access Land icon for use on UK lists of places of interest, created by Joe D. File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK... The Chiltern Hills are a chalk escarpment in south east England. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... Closed|| 1969 The Leighton Buzzard Light Railway (LBLR) is a narrow-gauge light railway in the town of Leighton Buzzard in Bedfordshire, England. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... Luton Museum & Art Gallery. ... Historic House icon For use with Template:EngPlacesKey or any other use. ... South-west facade of Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... The Mossman Carriage collection is held at Stockwood Park, Luton, Bedfordshire and is the largest and most significant vehicle collection of its kind in the country, including originals from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. ... Someries castle (sometimes spelled Summeries castle) is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, in Bedfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... Stockwood craft museum is based in Stockwood Park, Luton. ... Access Land icon for use on UK lists of places of interest, created by Joe D. File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK... Luton Museum & Art Gallery, Wardown Park, Luton. ... Access Land icon for use on UK lists of places of interest, created by Joe D. File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK... Wauluds Bank is a Neolithic Henge in Leagrave, Bedfordshire dating from 3,000BC. Wauluds Bank earthworks lies on the edge of the Marsh Farm Estate in Leagrave, Luton. ... Small National Trust for England logo for use on UK lists of places of interest. ... Whipsnade Tree Cathedral is a 9. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... Whipsnade Wild Animal Park is a zoo located at Whipsnade, near Dunstable in Bedfordshire, England. ... icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest, created by Joe D File links The following pages link to this file: Cornwall Isle of Wight Bristol Somerset Buckinghamshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire County Durham Template:EngPlacesKey Wikipedia:Counties of England List of places in Dorset Wikipedia talk:UK Wikipedians notice... Woodside Farm and Wildfowl Park is a rare breeds farm and wildfowl park at Slip End near Luton in South Bedfordshire. ... English Heritage icon for use on UK lists of places of intrest. ... Wrest House c. ...

Transport

Main article: Transport in Luton

Luton is well connected by transport links and is less than 30 miles from the centre of London. This article is based around Transportation in Luton Midland Mainline train approaching Luton Parkway station Luton is about 30 miles north of London, giving it good links with the City and other major cities through the network of road and rail. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Air

Main article: London Luton Airport

The town is famous for its airport, London Luton Airport, which is currently the fastest-growing airport in the United Kingdom.[43] The airport is renowned for being a hub for budget airlines offering cheap flights. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3528x1572, 1033 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London Luton Airport Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3528x1572, 1033 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London Luton Airport Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport)[3] is an international airport located on the edge of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England approximately north of London. ... London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport)[3] is an international airport located on the edge of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England approximately north of London. ... London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport)[3] is an international airport located on the edge of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England approximately north of London. ... A Cebu Pacific Airbus A319 parked on the apron at Ninoy Aquino International Airport. ...


An airport was first opened on the current airport site as Luton Municipal Airport on the 16 July 1938[44] by the Secretary of State for Air, Kingsley Wood. The airport is owned by the local council. (It is currently managed by an arms-length Spanish Airport Operator, on behalf on Luton Council.) During the Second World War Luton Airport was a base for the Royal Air Force 264 Fighter Squadron.[45] is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position, in charge of the Air Ministry. ... Sir Howard Kingsley Wood (19 August 1891 - 21 September 1943) was a Conservative British politician. ... RAF redirects here. ...


Flights from the airport increased substantially from the 1960s as new charter airlines (e.g. Court Line) flew from there rather than the London airports. Despite problems in the 1970s, a new terminal was added in 1985 by the Prince of Wales.[46] The airport was renamed London Luton Airport in 1990, just before Ryanair took its business to Stansted. The growth of new low-cost flights rejuvenated the airport and passenger numbers more than doubled from 1992 to 1998. In 1999, a new terminal was added and a new railway station, Luton Airport Parkway, opened.[47] A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ... Court Line was a prominent British holiday charter airline during the early 1970s based at Luton Airport in Bedfordshire. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Ryanair (ISEQ: RYA, LSE: RYA, NASDAQ: RYAAY) is an Irish airline headquartered in Dublin, with its biggest operational base at London Stansted Airport in the UK. It is Europes largest low-cost carrier and is one of the worlds largest and most successful airlines (whether in terms of... The lawn in front of Stansted Airport used to attract large numbers of people waiting for their flight during the summer. ... Luton Airport Parkway railway station is the railway station for London Luton Airport in Bedfordshire. ...


The England national football team regularly fly from the airport[48] when playing matches abroad. The airport was mentioned in a 1970s advert for Campari featuring Lorraine Chase[49]; when asked "Were you truly wafted here from paradise?" she replied "Nah, Luton Airport!" which became a catchphrase for her for many years. First international  Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win  Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat  Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... A bottle of Campari Campari is an alcoholic aperitif obtained from the infusion of bitter herbs, aromatic plants and fruit in alcohol and water. ... Lorraine Chase is a british actress and model. ...


Luton Airport's operator is proposing an expansion scheme, enlarging the apron (aircraft parking) and the realignment (and lengthening) of the single runway, away from the Luton Townsfolk. Luton Council is currently constructing a dual carriageway from junction 10A (of the M1) up to the airport. This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ...


Rail

Luton enjoys good rail connections via its three stations (Luton, Luton Airport Parkway and Leagrave) to London and through to Brighton and Sutton on First Capital Connect's Thameslink line and north to Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield, Leeds and other cities on the Midland Main Line, provided by East Midlands Trains. There are plans to introduce 24-hour rail services to Luton and Luton Airport Parkway.[50] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 582 KB) Main station building on Platform 4 at Leagrave. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 582 KB) Main station building on Platform 4 at Leagrave. ... Leagrave railway station is located in the north part of Luton, Bedfordshire. ... Luton railway station is located in Luton, Bedfordshire. ... Luton Airport Parkway railway station is the railway station for London Luton Airport in Bedfordshire. ... Leagrave railway station is located in the north part of Luton, Bedfordshire. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... First Capital Connect is a train operating company in England that began its passenger operations on the National Rail network at 02:00 BST 1 April 2006. ... Thameslink is a fifty-station line in the British railway system running 225 km (140 miles) north to south across London from Bedford to Brighton through the Snow Hill tunnel. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... The Midland Main Line is a main railway line in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Norwich will be at the eastern tip of the franchise area. ...


Road

Luton is connected to the motorway network by two junctions of the M1 motorway, (Junctions 10 and 11). The M1 was built on the west of the town in 1959, and provides access to London and the North. The A6 passes through the town heading north to Bedford and south to St Albans (although south of the town the road has been re-numbered as the A1081). The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... This article is about the A6 road in England. ... This article is about the English county town. ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ...


The A5 passes though nearby Dunstable, and the A505 provides a connection towards the East and the A1(M). The A5 is a major road in the United Kingdom. ... Dunstable is a town in the county of Bedfordshire, England, with a population of 33,805 (2001 census). ... The A505 is an A-class trunk road in the United Kingdom. ... This page is about the A1 road in Great Britain. ...


In 2006 work started on widening the M1 past Luton and to the South, and work also started on upgrading the access from the M1 to the Airport.[51]


Twin towns

Luton participates in international town twinning; its current partners are:[52] Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Categories: Germany geography stubs | Cities in Germany ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...   Coordinates Administration Country France Région Rhône-Alpes Département Isère Arrondissement La Tour du Pin Canton Bourgoin-Jallieu Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Pays dAix Mayor Alain Cottalorda  (PS) (2001 - 2008) Statistics Land area¹ 54. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Eskilstuna River and Gamla Stan (Old Town) Klosters church of Eskilstuna. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wolfsburg is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...

Famous people from Luton

People who are Luton-born or are strongly associated with the town.

Michael Timothy Mick Abrahams (born 7 April 1943, in Luton, Bedfordshire, England) was the original guitarist for Jethro Tull. ... David Arnold (born February 27, 1962 in Luton in Bedfordshire, England) is one of the most popular and successful young British composers[citation needed]. He is probably best known for the film scores to Stargate (1994), Independence Day (1996) and four James Bond films. ... John Badham (born August 25, 1939, UK) is a film director. ... Stefan Bailey, born 10th October, 1987, is an English professional footballer who plays for QPR. External links Stefan Bailey career stats at Soccerbase Categories: | | | | ... Leon Barnett is an English footballer, he plays in defence and is a footballer for Luton Town, he was born 30th November 1985. ... Kevin Patrick Blackwell (born 21 December 1958) is an English former professional football goalkeeper. ... Charles Bronson (born 1955) is the adopted name, of Michael Peterson, british criminal. ... Danny Cannon (born 1968, in Luton, England) is a film and television screenwriter, director and producer. ... Ian Cashmore - Promotional photograph - Sept 2005 Ian Cashmore (born 1970) is a British television personality specializing in paranormal phenomena. ... Kerry Michael Dixon (born 24 July 1961, in Luton) is a retired English professional footballer who played most notably for Chelsea and England. ... Diana Dors (October 23, 1931 – May 4, 1984) was an English actress and sex symbol. ... Kevin Foley (born November 1, 1984 in Luton) is a professional footballer, currently playing for Wolverhampton Wanderers. ... Ian Dury, in a look combining Gene Vincent with a Cockney pearly king. ... Dazzle Rebel aka Darren Loczy. ... Sean Gallagher (born 1967 in Kent) is an English actor. ... Liam George (born February 2, 1979) is an Irish footballer, who represented Ireland in the Under 18 European Youth Championship, and who currently plays for UniBond Division One North club FC United of Manchester. ... John Gosling (born 6 February 1948, in Paignton, South Devon), is a classically trained organist and pianist. ... Arthur Hailey (April 5, 1920 – November 24, 2004) was a British/Canadian novelist. ... John Hegley (born 1 October 1953) is a popular English performance poet, musician and songwriter whose poems and songs have appeared both in print and on the radio. ... Hilda Beatrice Hewlett (17 February 1864–21 August 1943) was the first British woman aviator to earn a pilots licence. ... Professor Sir Alec John Jeffreys, FRS, (born in 9 January 1950 at Luton in Bedfordshire) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling. ... Mudhsuden Singh Panesar (born 25 April 1982 in Luton, Bedfordshire), popularly known as Monty Panesar, is an English cricketer. ... Phil Read (born in 1939 in Luton, England) was a British motorcycle roadracer nicknamed the Prince of Speed. ... David Renwick (born September 4, 1951 in Luton, Bedfordshire, UK) is a British television writer, best known for creation of the sitcom One Foot in the Grave and the mystery series Jonathan Creek Before beginning his full-time comedy writing career, he worked as a journalist on his home town... Stu Riddle (born 23 May 1976 in Luton, England) is a New Zealand soccer player. ... Lee Ross, as he appeared on the opening credits of Press Gang Lee Ross (born 1972) is an English actor known for roles in The Catherine Tate Show and as Owen Turner in the BBC soap opera EastEnders. ... Colin Salmon (1962) is an English actor best known for playing the fictional character Charles Robinson in three James Bond films. ... Vaughan Savidge (1956-) is a freelance newsreader and continuity announcer on BBC Radio 4, also working on the World Service and BBC Radio 3. ... Billy Schwer was born in Luton, Bedfordshire on 12 April 1969. ... KMFDM drummer Andy Selway and a fan at The Starlite Room on October 9th, 2004 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Andy Selway is the drummer for KMFDM, a German industrial band. ... Peter Smith Peter Smith (born November 8, 1975 in Luton in Bedfordshire, England) is a composer and sound designer, probably best known for his solo performances and sound design for sample libraries, TV commercials and films. ... Edward Tudor-Pole (born December 6, 1955 in London) is an English musician, singer (as Eddie Tenpole) and actor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Paul Young, see Paul Young (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Media

Newspapers

Two weekly newspapers are delivered free to all the houses in Luton. They are:

There is also a weekly sister paper of the Herald and Post which is not free. The Herald & Post is a weekly freesheet that delivers to households in much of the UK. It is published by a variety of publishers and each version consists mainly of advertising and promotional pieces, with news items sourced from sister publications. ...

  • Luton News[55] - Published every Wednesday

Additionally once a month there is a council produced newspaper called LutonLine,[56] usually delivered with Luton on Sunday.


Radio

The local BBC station, BBC Three Counties Radio broadcasts from its office in Hastings Street, Luton to Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire.[57] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that BBC Radio Bedfordshire be merged into this article or section. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ...


Chiltern Radio is the local independent station and broadcasts from Chiltern Road in Dunstable. Based on Chiltern Road in Dunstable, Bedfordshire. ... Dunstable is a town in the county of Bedfordshire, England, with a population of 33,805 (2001 census). ...


The university's radio station, Luton FM, runs for 28 days during May In addition, Ramadan FM broadcasts during the month of Ramadan. Diverse FM,[58] another local radio station, has recently been awarded a community radio license from Ofcom and hopes to start broadcasting full-time in April 2007. Luton FM is a student radio station, managed, produced and presented by students at the Luton Town Centre campus of the University of Bedfordshire in Luton, Bedfordshire. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ...


As well as these radio stations, Luton also has a few unlicensed pirate radio stations such as RAW 107.9 and LUR (Luton Urban Radio) The term Pirate Radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmission. ...


Media references

In the TV series One Foot in the Grave there are often references to places within Luton. The script-writer David Renwick was from Luton. One Foot in the Grave was a popular BBC television situation comedy series written by David Renwick. ... David Renwick (born September 4, 1951 in Luton, Bedfordshire, UK) is a British television writer, best known for creation of the sitcom One Foot in the Grave and the mystery series Jonathan Creek Before beginning his full-time comedy writing career, he worked as a journalist on his home town...


One episode of the 1975 science fiction television series Space: 1999 was called The Rules of Luton. Although the show was produced in the UK, that episode was written by US-born producer Fred Freiberger, who had seen the town's name on a road sign, and chose it for his fictional alien planet.[59] In the episode, the planet of Luton is portrayed as a hostile world of living plants. Left to right: Barbara Bain, Catherine Schell and Martin Landau from Space:1999s second season. ... Fred Freiberger, 1976 Fred Freiberger (born on February 19, 1915; died March 2, 2003) was an American television producer and script writer. ...


The town has been mentioned multiple times in the television show Monty Python's Flying Circus; in one sketch where a rather half-hearted hijacker demands that a plane headed for Cuba be istead taken to Luton in addition to Luton being one of the constituencies returning a "Silly Party" victory (specifically Tarquin Fin-tim-lin-bin-whin-bim-lim-bus-stop-F'tang-F'tang-Olé-Biscuitbarrel) in the famous sketch Election Night Special. This article is about the television series. ... Tarquin Fin-tim-lin-bin-whin-bim-lim-bus-stop-Ftang-Ftang-Olé-Biscuitbarrel was the name of a candidate for the British parliament in 1981. ... Election Night Special is a Monty Python sketch parodying the coverage of United Kingdom general elections, specifically the 1970 general election on the BBC by including hectic (and downright silly) actions by the media and a range of ridiculous candidates. ...


Comic book character Kev Hawkins is from Luton. He wanted to escape the town so much that he joined the army, and later the Special Air Service. Kev Hawkins is a comic book anti-hero who first appeared in a Authority-oneshot in 2002. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ...


References

  1. ^ Local Transport Plan: The Luton, Dunstable and Houghton Regis Conurbation
  2. ^ Map of soil distribution in Beds
  3. ^ ISBN 1-871199-94-8
  4. ^ Dyer J, Stygall F, Dony J, The Story of Luton, Luton, 1964, p 20
  5. ^ Dyer ibid, p 23
  6. ^ Dyer ibid, p 31
  7. ^ Early history of Luton
  8. ^ Doomsday book record
  9. ^ History of St Mary's Church
  10. ^ Luton Castle only lasted 15 years
  11. ^ Vauxhall history
  12. ^ Population figures for 1801, 1901 and 1901
  13. ^ Dyer, ibid, p 141
  14. ^ Dyer, ibid, p 142
  15. ^ Luton was made a borough
  16. ^ Formation of Luton Town
  17. ^ Churchill Tanks at Vauxhall
  18. ^ Deaths during WWII
  19. ^ See book Luton at War volume II,compiled by The Luton News, 2001, ISBN 1-871199-49-2
  20. ^ tant-car-hire.co.uk/england/luton.html Arndale opened in 1972
  21. ^ Vauxhall closure
  22. ^ St Georges Square on Luton Council Site
  23. ^ Award won by St Georges Square
  24. ^ Luton Council website with Arndale plans
  25. ^ News of planning application
  26. ^ Website for the development of Power Court
  27. ^ 2001 Census
  28. ^ National Office for Statistics
  29. ^ Ethnic groups %
  30. ^ National Stats Office Religion
  31. ^ Employment statistics
  32. ^ Luton Crime Statistics 2001/2002
  33. ^ Capability Green
  34. ^ The Mall Arndale
  35. ^ Barnfield Newsletter
  36. ^ Luton Sixth Form College
  37. ^ Luton Borough LEA School List
  38. ^ Luton Town homepage
  39. ^ John Jarvis and Robert Bamford, Homes of British Speedway, editions one and two, Tempus Publishing.
  40. ^ Wardown Park museum
  41. ^ History of Wardown Park and Hucklesby's gift
  42. ^ Luton Carnival Coverage on the BBC
  43. ^ Luton Airport - fastest growing in the UK
  44. ^ Luton Airport Opening
  45. ^ Luton Airport - history
  46. ^ Luton Airport history
  47. ^ Luton Airport Parkway opening
  48. ^ England players leaving from Luton
  49. ^ Lorraine Chase advert
  50. ^ First Capital plans
  51. ^ Widening of the M1
  52. ^ Current town twinning
  53. ^ Herald and Post
  54. ^ Luton on Sunday
  55. ^ Luton News
  56. ^ Lutonline homepage
  57. ^ Three Counties Radio
  58. ^ Diverse FM
  59. ^ Space: 1999 Episode Guide

External links

England Portal
  • Luton Borough Council
  • Luton - 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
  • A defence of Luton, the crappiest city in England in The Guardian
  • Luton pubs Customer ratings and reviews of pubs in Luton
  • Luton Shopping centre – The MallThe Mall Company
  • Luton Town centre website run by Luton town centre manager

Coordinates: 51°54′N, 0°26′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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