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For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christianity
This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics. Roots of Christianity The Jewish background Christianity emerged as one of the many sects of Judaism that existed in the first century of the Common Era. Christianity brought from Judaism its scriptures (the Old Testament), its way... History of Christianity
The Christian Worldview is the worldview of Christianity. Usually it is formulated as a story expressed through either three or four themes: either the triple themes Creation, Fall, and Redemption; or the quadruple themes Creation, Fall, Incarnation, and Redemption. Creation The story begins with creation ex nihilo (creation out of... Christian Worldview
This article is about statements of belief; Creed is also the name of a rock band, and a village in Cornwall A creed is a statement of belief—usually religious belief—or faith.The word derives from the Latin credo for I believe. Christian creeds Christianity, affirming that... Creeds · Christian philosophy is a catch-all expression for a two-millennia tradition of rational thought that attempts to fuse the fields of philosophy with the religious teachings of Christianity. How one can reconcile Christianity with philosophy, or not As with any fusion of religion and philosophy, the attempt is difficult... Philosophy · Christian theology practises theology from a Christian viewpoint or studies Christianity theologically. Given the overwhelminmg influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. Sub-disciplines Sub-disciplines of Christian theology include: bibliology - the study of the Bible... Theology

Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis the first book of the Bible. The text was originally written by the early Hebrews, if not earlier. The text spans Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 of... Creation · In Christian theology the fall is the notion that the original sin of Adam and Eves disobedience of God in the Garden of Eden brought about various changes in the perfectly created world, including illness, strife and death. It is a widely interpreted concept with many implications for other elements... Fall · Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. Incarnation should be carefully distinguished from the phenomenon of apotheosis, which is the temporary manifestation... Incarnation
In Christianity, salvation is arguably the most important spiritual concept, second only to the divinity of Jesus. For many Christians, the primary goal of religion is to attain salvation. (Others maintain that the primary goal of Christians is to do the will of God, or that the two are equivalent... Salvation · Christian Eschatology is the study of Christian beliefs concerning final events and ultimate purposes (from eskhatos, last). In Christian theology, eschatology studies the conclusion of Gods purposes, and therefore the concluding destiny of created things and especially of Man and of the Church, according to the purposes of God... End Times · Divine grace consists of favors received from God, that God is under no need or obligation to grant. The concept of grace is of central importance in the theology of Christianity. Because it is central to salvation, grace has proven to be one of the most contentious issues in the... Divine grace ·
This article discusses faith in a religious context. For other uses, see faith (disambiguation). The best starting point, before digging into subjective human associations with the heavily-loaded word, is reviewing the very simple dictionary definitions of faith. The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is equivalent to... Faith · This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. Liturgical Elements of the oldest Christian liturgies may be found in liturgies such as the modern Roman Catholic Mass, the Orthodox Divine Liturgy and Anglican services. Seasonal prayers Seasonal prayers such as found in the Breviary, which provides prayer... Prayer · Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from all food and in some cases drink, or in other cases from certain types or groups of food (e.g. meat). Fasting for Religious Reasons Fasting for spiritual reasons has been known for ages. It is mentioned in the Quran, in the... Fasting · Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Eastern Rite, e.g.: Eparchy of Krizevci Ruthenian Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox church Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom... Liturgy

This article focuses on the monotheistic concept of a singular God. See deity or goddesses for details on divine entities in specific religions and mythologies. The term God designates a universal Supreme Being. There are countless variant definitions of God, however. For example: Many religious and philosophic systems consider God... Divine This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. For other uses of trinity, see disambiguation. The Blessed Trinity is God according to the doctrine of most branches of Christianity. The doctrine says that though God is one God, He exists in three distinct persons, usually referred to as God the... Trinity
In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. In many forms of polytheism, the highest god has been conceived as a father of gods and of men. In the Israelite religion and modern Judaism, YHWH is called Father because he is the creator, law... The Father · This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... The Son (Jesus) · The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. The Christian and Jewish views of the Holy Spirit vary greatly. In the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) the Hebrew term Ruach HaKodesh is used many times; it is translated literally as... Holy Spirit
Texts & Law
The Bible (From Greek βιβλιος biblios, meaning book, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is a word applied to sacred scriptures. Although most often... Bible : The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures constitutes the first major part of the Christian Bible, usually divided into the categories law, history, poetry (or wisdom books) and prophecy. All of these books were written before the birth of Jesus. Canon of the Old Testament Main article: Biblical canon The... Old · The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. The term is a translation of the Latin Novum Testamentum, which translates the Greek Η Καινη Δια... New testaments · In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. When most in the Western world refer to the Apocrypha, they are typically referring to the 14 books excluded from Protestant Bibles (see below). Definition The word apocrypha, from the Greek α... Apocrypha
In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. The Eastern Orthodox concept of canon law is similar to but not identical to the more legislative and juridical model of the West. In both traditions, a canon is a rule adopted by a council... Canon law · This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. For the 1956 film with Charlton Heston, see The Ten Commandments (1956 movie) The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that feature prominently in Judaism and Christianity. The name decalogue is derived from... Commandments · The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the name given to a well-known portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. In this section, Jesus lists specific blessings given to individuals with specific qualities. The word traditionally translated into English as blessed... Beatitudes
Holy Cities Events
Jerusalem ( Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. Sephardi Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, Arabic: القدس al-Quds, see also names of Jerusalem) is... Jerusalem · This article is about the city in the West Bank. For other articles subjects named Bethlehem, see Bethlehem (disambiguation). Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم Bayt Laḥm house of meat; בית לחם house of bread, Standard Hebrew Bet léḥem / Bet... Bethlehem
This is about the Middle East city of Nazareth. For other uses, see Nazareth (disambiguation). Nazareth (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣirah; Hebrew נצרת) is an ancient town in Northern Israel. It is the capital of the northern region of... Nazareth · The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign enclave within Rome, is the seat... Rome
Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople · This is about one of the cities called Antioch in Asia Minor, now Turkey. See Antioch (disambiguation) for other places called Antioch. The city of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (modern Antakya) is located in what is now Turkey. It was founded near the end of the 4th century BC by... Antioch
This is a list of cities that various groups regard as holy. Cities may be either considered holy in themselves (as Mecca for Muslims), important sites for worship or study (Fatima for Catholics), or the high seat of particular religions (Moscow for Russian Orthodox). Within each section the cities are... List of Holy Cities
The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. Distinct liturgical colours may appear in connection with different... Liturgical year
Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. According to the Christian gospels, Jesus was born to Mary in Bethlehem, where she and her... Christmas
Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Easter · In Western Christianity, Lent is the period preceding the Christian holy day of Easter. Eastern Christianity calls this period Great Lent, to distinguish it from the Winter Lent or Advent that precedes Christmas. The remainder of this article will discuss Lent as it is understood and practiced in Western Christianity... Lent
In the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy Days of Obligation are the days, other than Sundays, on which the faithful are required to attend Mass. The 1983 Code of Canon Law standardized ten days to be observed as Holy Days of Obligation throughout the Church. These days are: The Immaculate... Day of Obligation
Buildings Religious Roles
This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. For other uses of the word, see Church (disambiguation). The Memorial Church at Stanford University. A church building is a building used in Christian worship. See also altar, altar rails, confessional, dome, nave, pew, pulpit, sanctuary, lych gate. Etymology The word... Church · -1... Steeple · Categories: Stub | Churches ... Pulpit
A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. As cathedrals are often particularly impressive edifices, the term is sometimes also used loosely as a... Cathedral · This article is about an abbey as a religious building. See also Abbey (bank), Abbey Theatre and Abbey, Saskatchewan An abbey (from the Latin abbatia, which is derived from the Syriac abba, father), is a Christian monastery or convent, under the government of an Abbot or an Abbess, who serve... Abbey
The Basilica of St. Francis Xavier, Dyersville, Iowa. This is one of only a handful a basilicas in the United States, and the only one outside a major metropolitan area. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek basiliké stoà, royal stoa), was originally used to describe a Roman public building... Basilica
Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. Priests have been known since the earliest times and in the simplest societies (see shaman and oracle). There are priests... Priest · The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. It is sometimes also used by ministers of other religions. It comes from the Latin reverendus meaning that which is to be revered. English usage is for deacons and priests to be the Reverend, deans... Reverend
Bishop (disambiguation). A bishop is an ordained priest who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. Bishops in the New Testament The bishops role is typically called the episcopacy, because the word bishop is derived ultimately from the Greek word episkopos (ε... Bishop · Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. The Pope is the Catholic bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches (note that the name within the communion is simply the one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church). In addition to... Pope
The diaconate is one of three ordained offices in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches. The other two offices are those of priest and of bishop. It is also an office in many Protestant denominations. The word deacon ( and deaconess) is derived from the Greek word... Deacon · Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. The term comes from Greek κληρος (fortune, or metaphorically, heritage). Depending on the religion, clergy usually take care of the ritual aspects of the religious life, teach or otherwise... Clergy
Western Christianity refers to Catholicism and Protestantism. As opposed to Eastern Christianity, it dominated mostly and was historically developed in the western part of Europe, hence the name. Some of the principal respects in which Western Christianity differs from Eastern Christianity are: Western Christianitys doctrine of original sin. Some... Western Christianity Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions which developed in Greece, the Near East and Eastern Europe. Its division from Western Christianity is as much to do with culture and politics as theology; a definitive date for the commencement of schism cannot be given. Families of churches Eastern Christians... Eastern Christianity
The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Roman Catholic
Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the Reformation of the 16th century, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity... Protestantism
Restorationism is not a single religious movement, but a wave of comparably motivated movements that arose in the eastern United States and Canada in the early 19th century in the wake of the Second Great Awakening. These movements attempted to transcend the divisions of Protestant denominationalism, and to restore Christianity... Restorationism
The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. Or it may apply to these particular Churches themselves... Eastern Catholic
Eastern Orthodoxy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Eastern Orthodoxy From Wikipedia The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, with a growing presence in the western world... Eastern Orthodoxy
The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. The Oriental Orthodox churches rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. Thus, despite potentially... Oriental Orthodoxy
Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the Reformation of the 16th century, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity... Protestant groups Movements
Lutherans · The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. Each of the nations in which the Reformed movement was established had originally its own church government. Several of these local churches have expanded to worldwide denominations... Reformed
Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an evangelical, protestant denomination. Baptists emphasize a believers baptism by full immersion, which is performed after a profession of faith in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. A congregational governance system gives autonomy to individual local Baptist churches... Baptists · The term Anglican (from the Angles or English) describes those people and churches following the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England. The Anglican Communion codifies the Anglican relationship to the Church of England as a theologically broad and often diverging community of churches, which holds the English... Anglicans
The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. The Wesleyan revival The Methodist revival originated in England. It was started by John Wesley, his younger brother Charles and George Whitefield as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century, focused on Bible study, and... Methodists · The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. Quakers are counted among the historic peace churches, and have congregations scattered across the world. Since its origins in England, Quakerism has spread to other countries, chiefly the... Quakers
Modernism, modernist Christianity, and liberalism are labels applied to proponents of a school of Christian thought which rose as a direct challenge to more conservative traditional Christian orthodoxy. The terminology was coined during the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy, which began near the close of the 19th century in the Evangelical Protestant... Modernism
Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. The term, Fundamentalist, tends to have a variable meaning. Historically, and for those who use the name to describe themselves, a Fundamentalist Christian is one who holds to all of the five Fundamentals of the Faith as a bare-minimum... Fundamentalism
Neo-Evangelicalism is the trend that started in the Fundamentalist movement in the middle of the twentieth century, among conservative Protestants, as a rejection of Fundamentalist separatism. Fundamentalism had arisen in reaction to liberal accommodation of the principles of the Enlightenment (in theology, called Modernism; in ethics, referred to as... Neo-evangelicalism
The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Pentecostalism is similar to the Charismatic movement, but developed earlier and separated from the mainstream church. Charismatic Christians, at least in the early days of the movement, tended to remain in their respective denominations... Pentecostalism
The Christian Left encompasses those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing or socialist ideals. Many such people derive their left-wing views derive directly from their Christian faith, and some cite Jesus as the first socialist. History Early Christianity as anti-establishment movement It is requested... Liberalism
Famous Figures Origins
This article presents a critical reconstruction of the historical Jesus, as based on the four canonical gospels. Other related articles present different descriptions and perspectives of Jesus. Childhood and family background Two of the Gospels (Matthew and Luke), refer to Joseph as Jesus (foster) father. Joseph does not feature in... Jesus · A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. 1st century AD) is considered by many Christians to be the most important disciple of Jesus, and next to Jesus the most important figure in the development of Christianity... Paul
Alternate meanings: See Apostle (Mormonism), The Apostle (1997 movie) The Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and... Twelve Apostles
Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. Painting by El Greco (1575) In Christianity and Islam, Mary (Judæo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Arabic: Maryem, مريم) is the... Mary · Mary Magdalene, which probably means Mary of Magdala, a town on the western shore of the Lake of Tiberias, is described in the New Testament as a follower of Jesus both in the canon and in the apocrypha. Nothing is known about her outside of Scripture. Her feast day is... Mary Magdalene
For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. The Star of David, a common symbol of Jews and Judaism Judaism is the religion and culture of the Jewish people and one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths. It is also one of... Judaism
Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. His story... Abraham
This article is about religious concept of Messiah. For the musical work by Handel, see Messiah (Handel). For the BBC television drama series, see Messiah (television). In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Mā... Messiah

The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the Reformation of the 16th century, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity... Protestant For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christianity by the original definition. See Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the Reformation of the 16th century, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity... Protestantism for further discussion.

Contents

History of Lutheranism

Early history

Lutheranism as a movement traces its origin to the work of For other people named Martin Luther see: Martin Luther (disambiguation), or here for Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther (originally Martin Luder or Martinus Luther) (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German theologian of the Christian religion and an Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant Reformation... Martin Luther, a German religious scholar who sought to reform the practices of the The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Roman Catholic Church in the early (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age a cooling period that resulted in lower crop yields across the world, and harsher... 16th century.


The symbolic beginning of the The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Roots of the Reformation Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity of the... Protestant Reformation occurred on October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. Events 475 - Romulus Augustus was proclaimed Roman Emperor. 1517 - Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg... October 31, Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. February 3 - Capture of Cairo by the Turks. First contact of organized western merchants with China. August 15 - Portuguese merchant Fernao Pires de Andrade met Chinese officials through... 1517, when professor Luther posted an open invitation to debate his The Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, known as the 95 Theses, challenged the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in... 95 theses (statements) involving current Catholic dogma and practices upon the door of All Saints Church (customarily used as a notice board by the The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. It was merged in 1817 from the University of Halle (founded 1694) and the University of Wittenberg (founded 1502, closed in 1813 by Napoleon). It is named after the Protestant reformer... University) attached to the castle in Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12°59 east, 51°51 north. It has a population of about 50,000 inhabitants. Wittenberg is interesting chiefly on account of its close connection with Martin Luther and the dawn of the Reformation; and... Wittenberg, Saxony (Germany).


Between 1517 and 1520, Luther preached and published his scathing criticisms of the Catholic Church in books and pamphlets. His ideas were supported by many other Christian theologians, and they also had a certain Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... populist appeal. As a result, Luther gained many supporters and followers from all levels of society, from peasants who considered him a folk hero, to knights who swore to protect him, to rulers of German lands who wanted more independence from papal interference in their domestic policies. Luther also gained some powerful enemies, including the Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. The Pope is the Catholic bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches (note that the name within the communion is simply the one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church). In addition to... Pope in Rome and the youthful The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. The terminology of the title is somewhat confusing. The title of emperor was considered to have passed from... Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V ( 24 February 1500– 21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of Castile who... Charles V.


Concerned about the "problem" of Luther, the Pope and Catholic officials decided to send Luther the A Papal bull is a written communication from the Vatican Chancery, bearing a formal papal seal. The title of a bull is its opening words. The term is derived from the Latin bulla referring to the seal impressed onto wax which was contained in a hemisphere of gold about the... papal bull called the "Exsurge Domine" in 1520, which called on Luther to recant and abandon his ideas.


Angered, Charles V wanted to outlaw Luther and his followers, but he was warned by advisors that doing so outright would cause a revolt, since Luther had become so popular. More importantly, the ruler of Luther's land, Friedrich III (January 17, 1463 — May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. Frederick was the son of Ernest, Elector of Saxony and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Albert, Duke of Bavaria. He succeeded... Frederick the Wise, refused to allow any of his subjects to be condemned without trial. So instead, Luther was to be summoned to appear before the The phrase Diet of Worms comes from the word Diet, a general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire and Worms, which is the name of the place the meeting was held. With Emperor Charles V presiding, it took place in Worms, Germany, a small town on the... Diet of Worms, where he was to recant his ideas publicly. Luther went to Worms (pronounced Vorms), but when called upon by Catholic officials to recant, Luther made a historic stand, saying the following: "I cannot submit my faith either to the Pope or to the Councils, because it is clear as day they have frequently erred and contradicted each other. Unless therefore, I am convinced by the testimony of Scripture ... I cannot and will not retract ... Here I stand, I can do no other. So help me God, Amen!" --Martin Luther, April 16, 1521


Luther had been granted a Safe Conduct to travel to and from his trial, but remembering how a similar promise had been violated in the case of Jan Hus, Luther's supporters prevailed upon him to escape from Worms in the dark of night, before he too could be seized and executed. Luther remained in hiding for some time, all the while continuing to write and develop his ideas. Shortly after Luther escaped, Charles V issued the This article or section should be merged with Diet of Worms The Edict of Worms was issued by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on May 25, 1521 at Worms, at the end of the Diet of Worms. It contained a condemnation of Martin Luther and declared him to be an... Edict of Worms, which outlawed Luther and his followers, declared Luther and his followers heretics, and banned Luther's writings.


Other Protestant reformers

The Lutheran movement was bolstered by the work of several reformers, primarily among the early leaders was Melancthon, in a portrait engraved by Albrecht Dürer, 1526 Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. Early Life and Education Melanchthon was born at Bretten, near Karlsruhe, where his father, Georg Schwarzerd... Philipp Melanchthon (a colleague of Luther's at the Leucorea University in Wittenberg), Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). He did not replace Zwingli as the political head man of the canton... Huldreich Zwingli, and John Calvin John Calvin (July 10, 1509–May 27, 1564) founded Calvinism, a form of Protestant Christianity, during the Protestant Reformation. He was born Jean Chauvin or Cauvin in Noyon, Picardie, France, and French was his mother tongue; Calvin derives from the latin version of his name, Calvinus. Martin... John Calvin (the founder of the Calvinist movement).


Religious war

What had started as a strictly theological and academic debate had now turned into something of a social and political conflict as well, pitting Luther and his German supporters against the king of The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino da España) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra. To the... Spain (the A Francophone is a person who speaks French natively or by adoption (i.e., the person uses it in everyday life). As an adjective, it means French-speaking, whether referring to individuals, groups or places. Francophone countries include France, Belgium, Canada, and Switzerland, Haiti and the French West Indies, and... francophone Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V ( 24 February 1500– 21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of Castile who... Charles V who also ruled the The Low Countries are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine and Meuse rivers— usually used in modern context to mean the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (an alternate modern term, more often used today, is Benelux). The Low Countries were the scene of the... Low Countries, the The New World is one of the names used for the continents of North and South America and adjacent islands collectively, in use since the 16th century. The continents were new to the Europeans, who knew the world consisting only of Europe, Asia, and Africa (the Old World). Carte d... New World and the The Holy Roman Empire ( German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) ( Italian: Sacro Romano Impero) ( Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium) ( Czech: Svatá říše římská) ( French: Saint Empire Romain Germanique) ( Polish: Święte Cesarstwo Rzymskie Narodu Niemieckiego) ( Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk) was a political... Holy Roman Empire -- of which Germany was then a part), and the Italian Pope, as well as the supporters of the latter two. The conflict would erupt even further into a religious war, fueled by the political climate of the Holy Roman Empire and strong personalities on both sides.


At the Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. Peace between Francis I of France and Charles V. Francis agrees to cede Burgundy to Charles, and abandons all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan. May 22 - Francis repudiates the Treaty of Madrid and forms the League of Cognac against Charles, including the... 1526 session of the The term Reichstag (in English: Imperial Diet) is a composition of German Reich (Empire) and tag (which does not mean day here, but is a derivate of the verb tagen, which means assembling for debate). The Latin term, a direct translation, was (Still today, the parliaments on the various federal... Diet, meeting that year in Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. 50000 inhabitants, located on the Rhine river. It neighbours Worms and Mainz. Speyer cathedral History Archaeological data suggests that the site of the city was originally inhabited by Celts around 500 BC. Under the Romans the city... Speyer, it was decided that, until a In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. The word is from Greek Οικουμένη (oikumene), which literally means inhabited, i.e... General Council could meet and settle the theological issues raised by Martin Luther, the This article or section should be merged with Diet of Worms The Edict of Worms was issued by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on May 25, 1521 at Worms, at the end of the Diet of Worms. It contained a condemnation of Martin Luther and declared him to be an... Edict of Worms would not be enforced and each Prince could decide if Lutheran teachings and worship would be allowed in his territories ( Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. The principle was as old as state Christianity, established in Armenia and in the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine. In the Reformation, the old principle gained new life. It was the terminology used... Cuius regio, eius religio). But the Events April 22 - Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues west of the Moluccas. May 10 - The Turkish army under Suleiman I leaves Constantinople to once again invade Hungary. September 8 - Recapture of Buda by the invading Turkish forces. September 23 - Vienna is besieged by Turkish... 1529 session, also meeting Speyer, the decision the previous The term Diet of Speyer refers to any of several sessions of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire when it chose to meet in the city of Speyer, Germany. The most famous sessions occurred in 1526 and 1529. Contents // Categories: Stub ... Diet of Speyer was reversed — despite the strong protests of the Lutheran princes and free cities (giving rise to the term protestant).


Lutheranism would become known as a separate movement after the Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. August 12 - Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert of Orange. The Medici are restored in the person of the Popes nephew Alessandro de Medici. Knights of Malta are formed when the Knights Hospitaller... 1530 The Diet of Augsburg was an assembly convened by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1530 in Augsburg now in central Germany. Its purpose was to calm rising tensions over Protestantism. See also Diet Augsburg Confession Augsburg Categories: Stub ... Diet of Augsburg, which was convened by Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V ( 24 February 1500– 21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of Castile who... Charles V to try to stop the growing Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the Reformation of the 16th century, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity... Protestant movement. At the Diet, Melancthon, in a portrait engraved by Albrecht Dürer, 1526 Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. Early Life and Education Melanchthon was born at Bretten, near Karlsruhe, where his father, Georg Schwarzerd... Philipp Melanchthon presented a written summary of Lutheran beliefs called the The Augsburg Confession, in Latin Confessio Augustana, is the central document of the Lutheran reformation, which was a reaction against the Roman Catholic Church. It was presented at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had called upon the Princes and Free Territories of Lutheran... Augsburg Confession. Several of the German princes (and later, kings and princes of other countries) signed the document to define "Lutheran" territories. These princes would ally to create the The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. The League was assembled by Philipp I of Hesse and John Frederick, Elector of Saxony at Schmalkalden in 1531, pledging to defend each other if their territories were attacked by... Schmalkaldic League in Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. Huldreich Zwingli, the Swiss religious reformer, is killed. Our Lady of Guadeloupe: The Virgin Mary appears to Aztec convert Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin... 1531, which lead to the Schmalkald War that pitted the Lutheran princes of the Schmalkaldic League against the Catholic forces of Charles V.


After the conclusion of the Schmalkald War, Charles V attempted to impose Catholic religious doctrine on the territories that he had defeated. However, the Lutheran movement was far from defeated. In Events The church in San Pedro in the Atacama Desert in Chile was built. Births April 12 - King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway June 12 - Habbakkuk Guldin later known as Paul Guldin, Swiss Jesuit mathematician June 28 - Peter Paul Rubens, painter November 25 - Piet Hein (Netherlands), Dutch naval officer... 1577, the next generation of Lutheran theologians gathered the work of the previous generation to define the doctrine of the persisting Lutheran church. This document is known as the Formula of Concord, and in Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. They are published later the same year. September 26 - Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe 1580- 1764 First session of Jewish Waad ( Sejm of 4 countries) in Lublin, Poland. 70 delegates of Jewish local kahals... 1580, all documents were bound and distributed in a volume titled The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. This book is still used today, and is referred to as The Book of Concord was published in 1580 and is a compilation of Lutheran beliefs. It and related documents can be found at Project Wittenberg. The Book of Concord contains: The Three Ecumenical Creeds (the Apostles Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed), The Augsburg Confession from 1530, Apology of... the Book of Concord.


Results of the Lutheran Reformation

Luther and his followers began a large exodus from the Catholic Church known as the Protestant Reformation. In the years and decades following Luther's posting of the 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg church, large numbers of Europeans left the Roman Church, including the vast majority of The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Germanic people (the only Germanics who remained in the Catholic church were those under the domain and/or influence of Catholic Austria). Because Luther sparked this mass movement, he is known as the father of the Protestant Reformation, and the father of Protestantism in general.


Today, approximately 1 out every 4 Christians in the world is a Protestant, and 1 out of every 5 Protestants in the world is a Lutheran. Thus, approximately 1 out of every 20 Christians in the world is a Lutheran.


Lutheran doctrine

lutheran seal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 16:01, 29 Nov 2004 . . Smith03 (16360 bytes) (lutheran seal) File... Lutheran Seal

The Holy Scripture and the The Book of Concord was published in 1580 and is a compilation of Lutheran beliefs. It and related documents can be found at Project Wittenberg. The Book of Concord contains: The Three Ecumenical Creeds (the Apostles Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed), The Augsburg Confession from 1530, Apology of... Lutheran Confessions ( In Christian theology, a formal principle is the authority which forms or shapes the doctrinal system of a religion, religious movement or tradition or a religious body or organization. Formal principles tend to be texts or revered leaders of the religion or tradition. If the formal principle is properly identified... formal principle)

One of the signature teachings of the The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Roots of the Reformation Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity of the... Lutheran Reformation is the teaching named Sola scriptura -- "Scripture alone." Lutherans believe that the The Bible (From Greek βιβλιος biblios, meaning book, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is a word applied to sacred scriptures. Although most often... Bible is Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. Eytmology The word inspiration comes by way of the Latin and the King James translations of the Greek word theopneustos (literally, God-breathed) found in 2 Timothy... divinely inspired and is the only standard by which teachings and doctrines can be judged. Lutherans also hold that the Holy Scripture is explained and interpreted by The Book of Concord was published in 1580 and is a compilation of Lutheran beliefs. It and related documents can be found at Project Wittenberg. The Book of Concord contains: The Three Ecumenical Creeds (the Apostles Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed), The Augsburg Confession from 1530, Apology of... the Book of Concord -- a series of Confessions of faith composed by Lutherans in the 16th Century. Traditionally, Lutheran pastors, congregations and church bodies agree to teach in harmony with the Book of Concord because it teaches and faithfully explains the Word of God. For this reason, Lutherans who follow the Book of Concord closely, especially conservative Lutherans, often refer to themselves as Confessional Lutherans are Christians committed to believing, teaching and confessing the doctrines taught in the Book of Concord because they believe them to be faithful to the teachings of the Bible. The confessional Lutheran movement arose in the 1830s as a reaction to pietism on the one side and rationalism... Confessional Lutherans. Other Lutherans, who agree with the main teachings of the The Book of Concord was published in 1580 and is a compilation of Lutheran beliefs. It and related documents can be found at Project Wittenberg. The Book of Concord contains: The Three Ecumenical Creeds (the Apostles Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed), The Augsburg Confession from 1530, Apology of... Lutheran Confessions, but may take exception to some of its doctrine, subscribe to the Book of Concord in so far as they are in harmony with Holy Scripture.


Some Lutheran church bodies also teach Biblical inerrancy is the view that the Bible is the Word of God and is in every detail infallible and without error. This view was ably expressed in 1978 in the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, an interdenominational statement of evangelical scholars and leaders to defend Biblical inerrancy against the... Biblical inerrancy. Others adopt the viewpoint that the Bible contains God's Word, but is essentially a human document, subject to error in non-spiritual matters. Those who hold to the former reject modern liberal scholarship, while those that hold to the latter embrace it.


Central doctrines ( In Christian theology, a material principle is the central teaching of a religion, religious tradition or movement, religious body or organization. If properly identified and understood, the material principle helps a scholar understand all the teachings of a religious group. All of the tenets of a doctrinal system can be... material principle)

The central teaching of Lutheranism is the doctrine of salvation by God's grace alone (Sola Gratia), through faith alone (Sola Fide) for the sake of Christ's merit alone (Solus Christus). Lutherans believe that God made the world perfect, holy and sinless. However, God creates Adam, by Michelangelo. The mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is one of the most famous works of art in the world. According to the Book of Genesis of the Bible and to the Quran, Adam was the first man created by God. Adams... Adam and Eve chose to disobey God, trusting in their own strength, knowledge and wisdom. Because of this Essentially, original sin is the doctrine, shared in one form or another by most Christian churches, that the sin of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden changed or damaged human nature, such that all human beings since then are innately predisposed to sin, and are powerless to overcome... Original Sin -- the sin from which all other sins come -- all of human beings are born sinful and sinners. For Lutherans, it is not In Christian theology, actual sins are individual, concrete evil actions, performed in violation of the Law of God as recorded in the Bible. These are seen as the result of Original Sin, or the sinful nature possessed by all human beings. Categories: Theology | Stub ... actual sins -- the sinful acts committed by an individual -- that earn God's wrath. It is who they are that condemns them.


Lutherans teach that sinners cannot do anything to satisfy God's justice. Every human thought and deed is believed to be colored by sin and sinful motives. God must intervene in this world because He loves sinners and, by His Grace may stand for: favors received from God, see divine grace a short prayer said before a meal to bless and give thanks for it, in folk practices of Christianity and other religions. Grace, a 1994 album by Jeff Buckley. a synonym for reformed; so the Grace Baptist Assembly is... grace alone -- His free gift of mercy -- a person is forgiven, adopted as a child of God and given eternal salvation.


Lutherans believe that individuals receive this gift of salvation by This article discusses faith in a religious context. For other uses, see faith (disambiguation). The best starting point, before digging into subjective human associations with the heavily-loaded word, is reviewing the very simple dictionary definitions of faith. The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is equivalent to... faith alone -- a full and complete trust in God's promises to forgive and to save. Even faith itself is seen as a gift of God, created in the hearts of Christians when they hear God's Word preached and when they are baptized.


Lutherans teach that salvation is possible only because of the birth, perfect life of obedience, sufferings, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In the person of Jesus Christ, Lutherans believe God and Man meet. Because He is God, He is sinless and so a worthy sacrifice, without spot or blemish. Because He is a man, He could die. In His death, death is destroyed, our debt paid for and our sins forgiven.


Lutherans believe that all who trust in Jesus alone can be sure of their salvation. They teach that, at death Christians are immediately taken into the presence of God in Heaven, where they await the resurrection of the body at the second coming of Christ.


Most Lutherans also teach:

  • Single Predestination: God chose to save His children before the world was created, but does not predestine the lost to be damned. Unlike Calvin, who explained how the reprobate come to be damned (double predestination), Luther said it was a mystery-something which humanity cannot, and probably should not, comprehend.
  • Infant Baptism
  • Baptismal Regeneration
  • The Real Presence is a term encapsulating belief that Jesus is truly present, body, blood, soul, and divinity, in the Eucharist. This is a doctrine regarding Holy Communion, is maintained in Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran and Methodist traditions of Christianity. According to the Catholic and Orthodox traditions,the bread and wine... Real Presence of Christ's Body and Blood "in, with and under" the Bread and wine of the Lord's Supper.
  • Amillennialism (or nunc-millennialism) is a partial preteristic form of Christian Eschatology which teaches a very symbolic interpretation of the Biblical prophecy of the end times. It teaches an inaucurated kingdom of Christ, and a spiritual understanding of many of the prophecies of what is to come. It was taught... Amillennialism

For an overview of Lutheran Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. History of the term The term theologia is used in Classical Greek literature, with the meaning... theology, see:


ELCA Perspective: Braaten, Carl E., Principles of Lutheran Theology Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983.


LCMS Perspective: Pieper, Franz. Christian dogmatics. Saint Louis, Mo. : Concordia Pub. House, 1950-1957.


Lutheran religious practices

Lutherans generally place great emphasis on a From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate... liturgical approach to worship services; This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Music is a word whose accepted definitions vary with time, place and culture. It is said to be an art, a form of entertainment, and is also often defined by contrast with noise... music also forms a large part of a traditional Lutheran service. Lutheran See also hymn - a program to decrypt iTunes music files. A hymn is a song specifically written as a song of praise, adoration or prayer, typically addressed to God. A writer of hymns is known as a hymnist or hymnodist, and the process of singing a hymn is called hymnody... hymns are sometimes known as A chorale is a hymn of the Lutheran church sung by the entire congregation. Chorales tend to have quite simple and easy to sing tunes. They generally have rhyming words and are in a strophic form (with the same melody being used for different verses). Some chorale melodies were written... chorales, and Luther himself composed hymns and hymn tunes, the most famous of which is "A Mighty Fortress is Our God" ("Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott"). Many Lutheran churches have active music ministries, including choirs, hand-bell choirs, children's choirs and sometimes The Netherlands Carillon in Arlington, Virginia, USA A carillon is a keyboard percussion instrument composed of a range of bells controlled by a keyboard. Carillons are normally housed in towers and are among the largest musical instruments in the world. Carillons originated in the 15th century in Flanders, when bell... carillon societies (to ring bells in a bell tower). For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). Johann Sebastian Bach, 1748 portrait by Elias Gottlob Haussmann Johann Sebastian Bach (March 21, 1685 (O.S.) – July 28, 1750 (N.S.)) was a German composer and organist of the Baroque period, and is universally... Johann Sebastian Bach, a devout Lutheran, composed music for the Lutheran church.


Children's ministries are considered fundamental in most Lutheran churches. Almost all maintain Sunday School is the generic name for many different types of religious education pursued on Sundays (traditionally, though not exclusively, in the morning) by various Christian denominations, especially in the United States. Most Protestant churches operate Sunday Schools. Sunday Schools, contrary to the name, are virtually never recognized educational institutions... Sunday Schools, and many host or maintain private nursery-schools, primary schools, regional high schools and universities. Lutheran pastors and staff are repeatedly reminded that most Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. The word evangelist comes from the Greek word (eu-aggelos) for bringing good news (εὐάγγελος). As a specialised usage, Evangelist can designate each of the authors of the four Gospels in the New Testament... evangelism occurs within the church, with children.


Pastors usually teach in the common language of the parish. In the U.S., some congregations and synods traditionally taught in German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. It is the language with the most native speakers in the European Union. It is spoken... German or Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. Norwegian is closely related to, and generally mutually intelligible with Swedish and Danish. Together with these two languages, Norwegian belongs to the Northern, or Scandinavian group of the Germanic languages. Proficient speakers of any of the three languages can understand the others... Norwegian, but this custom has been in significant decline since the early/middle 20th century.


Pastors almost always have substantial theological educations, including The Greek language (Greek Ελληνικά, IPA – Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of some 3,000 years. Ancient Greek in its various forms was the language both of classical Greek civilisation and of the origins of Christianity, and... Greek and The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. What makes it unique is that the original Hebrew Bible, the Torah, that Orthodox Judaism teaches to have been recorded in the time of Moses 3,300 years ago, was written in Biblical Classical Hebrew. Jews... Hebrew so that they can refer directly to the canonical Christian scriptures in the original language. Lutheran pastors may marry and have families.


Lutheran Churches in the United States use a number of hymnals. The most widely uses are: Christian Worship (WELS), The Lutheran Book of Worship (ELCA), The Lutheran Hymnal (LCMS and WELS)and Lutheran Worship (LCMS). The Lutheran Church -- Missouri Synod recently approved a new hymnal, Lutheran Service Book, which will be available in 2007.


Lutheran The Christian flag is one symbol of Christian unity. Christian ecumenism is the promotion of unity or cooperation between distinct religious groups or denominations of the Christian religion, more or less broadly defined. For the purposes of this article, ecumenism in this sense is distinguished from interfaith pluralism, for reasons... ecumenism

Lutherans believe in the idea that there should be a One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase in the Nicene Creed (μίαν αγίαν καθολικήν καί αποστολικήν Έκκλη... single Christian church, and a single Christian faith. This belief is ingrained in the Lutheran confessions, and reflects the history of Lutheranism as a reform movement rather than a separatist movement.


For that reason, a number of modern Lutheran denominations, now largely separated from state control, are reaching out to other Lutheran denominations as well as other Christian denominations. However, more conservative varieties of Lutheran strive to maintain historical distinctiveness, emphasizing doctrinal purity over ecumenical outreach.


The largest organizations of Lutheran churches around the world are the The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global association of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The federation was founded in the aftermath of the Second World War to coordinate the activities of the many differing Lutheran churches. The LWF now has 136 member churches in 76... Lutheran World Federation and the The International Lutheran Council is a worldwide association of confessional Lutheran denominations. Among its members are the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod and the Lutheran Church—Canada. List of members Argentina - Evangelical Lutheran Church of Argentina Australia - Lutheran Church of Australia (associate) Bolivia - Christian Evangelical Lutheran Church of Bolivia Brazil... International Lutheran Council, which include the great majority of Lutheran denominations around the globe.


Lutheranism in the United States

In the U.S., congregations are grouped into over 20 different List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. (See also: Christianity; Christian denominations). It should be noted that some denominations are large (eg. Roman Catholic, Lutherans, Anglicans or Baptists) while others are just a few small churches. It should also be noted that modern movements such as Fundamentalist... denominations. The three largest Lutheran bodies in the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States are, in order of size: the The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America or ELCA is a mainline Protestant denomination headquarted in Chicago, Illinois. With about 5 million members, it is the largest and most liberal of all the Lutheran denominations in the United States. The Church also has congregations in the Caribbean region. Before 1986, some... Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), the more conservative Official cross symbol of the Missouri Synod The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS) is the second-largest Lutheran body in the United States. It is a conservative, confessional Lutheran Christian denomination with German immigrant roots. The LCMS is headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri and counts about 2.6 million baptized... Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS), and the even more conservative Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) is a United States religious denomination belonging to the Lutheran tradition within Christianity. Characterized as theologically conservative, it was founded in 1850 in Wisconsin. Currently (2004), it has congregations in all 50 states and 24 other countries. With a membership of over 400,000 in... Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS). These denominations provide A seminary is a specialised university-like institution for the purpose of training candidates for positions within a religious context. This usually, though not always, applies to Christian education. Roman Catholic seminaries usually have their degrees conferred by a Pontifical University. Although the primary purpose of a seminary is to... seminaries, pastoral care, and Sunday School and liturgical materials. Local congregations contribute funds to support them and receive services and materials. Denominations help to start new congregations affiliated with them.


Denomination organization

The ELCA is divided into 64 geographical and one non-geographical A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine or administration. An ecumenical council is so named because it is a synod of the whole church (or, more accurately, of what those who call it... synods or dioceses. The ELCA has established relationships of Full communion is a kind of relationship between two or more organizations of Christians. It implies a unity between them unbroken by heresy or schism. Complete uniformity in theology and usage is not necessary for full communion: instead, different understandings and emphases are seen as mutually enriching. But agreement on... full communion with The Episcopal Church may refer to several members of the Anglican Communion, including: Episcopal Church in the United States of America Scottish Episcopal Church Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Episcopal Church of Cuba idk of the Sudan Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church ... The Episcopal Church, the A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. This was brought to the United States in the early 1700s by immigrants originating from settlements on the estates of Count Nicolas Ludwig von Zinzendorf in what is now Germany The original attempt to... Moravian Church, the The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States, formed in 1957 by the merger of two denominations, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches. The Congregational churches trace their origins to the separatist Pilgrims who established Plymouth Colony in... United Church of Christ, the This article needs cleanup. This article needs to be edited to conform to a higher standard of article quality. After the article has been cleaned up, you may remove this message. For help, see How to Edit a Page and the style and How-to Directory. (add new) The Presbyterian... Presbyterian Church (USA) and the The Reformed Church in America (RCA) is a Calvinist Reformed Protestant denomination that was formerly known as the Dutch Reformed Church. The denomination has about 300,000 members and has congregations in both the U.S. and Canada. The RCA is a founding member of the National Council of Churches... Reformed Church in America. The ELCA ordains both men and women to the pastoral office, and is currently studying the issue of Holy Roman Catholic Church officials presiding over the torture of a man suspected to be homosexual before his subsequent execution during the Spanish Inquisition. Circa 1700 AD. According to Herrera Puga the authorities: placed no limits on the means; in this way they used the rack, the lash, fire, etc... homosexuality, and will decide at its 2005 Churchwide assembly whether to bless same-sex marriage and clergy in active same-sex relationships.


The LCMS is divided into 35 districts, including 2 non-geographical districts. It permits only qualified men to serve as pastors. It encourages women to be active in the church and has affirmed women's sufferage within congregations since 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). For other uses, see Number 1969. For the movie, see 1969 (movie). Events January January 1 - Australian media baron Rupert Murdoch purchases the largest selling British Sunday newspaper The News Of The World January... 1969. In 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... 2004, the synod decided that women may also "serve in humanly established offices" such as congregation president, reader, or usher. The LCMS does not permit active homosexuals to serve in the ministry, and it has affirmed an exclusively Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. In addition to referring to a sexual orientation, the terms heterosexuality or heterosexual may also refer to sexual... heterosexual definition of marriage. The LCMS teaches "Levels of Fellowship," closed communion (also called "close" communion), and has undergone recent internal struggles regarding participation of its clergy in interfaith "events." Particularly controversial was the post-911 event "A Prayer for America", held at Yankee Stadium, in which the church's Atlantic District President offered a Christian prayer alongside representatives of various non-Lutheran Christian, and non-Christian faiths.


The WELS is also divided into districts. As with the LCMS, it permits only qualified men to serve as pastors and adopts similar positions on homosexuality and marriage. WELS does not support women's sufferage in the church. WELS teaches the "Unit Concept" of fellowship. Strict adherence to this requires members to refrain from all worship, including prayer, with those not in fellowship with WELS.


There are at least 20 smaller Lutheran Denominations in the U.S., with many of them being cultural or doctrinal offshoots of the main three.


Inter-denomination relations

U.S. denominations differ on doctrine and practice. Doctrinally, the differences are primarily based on the degree of authority denominations place on the written text of Scripture. The ELCA subscribes to the " Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. Higher criticism in particular focuses on the sources of a document and tries to determine the authorship, date, and place of composition of the text. This term... Historical-Critical Method" of Scripture interpretation, which attempts to interpret the text while taking account of the historical, cultural, and scientific limitations or biases imposed by the original writers. Many members of the ELCA believe that such higher criticism represents the best efforts of modern scholarship.


The LCMS and WELS follow the traditional "historical-grammatical" method of interpreting the Scripture text, which seeks to understand the text as it is written within the context of history, culture, and language.


As a result of doctorinal differences, cooperation between different denominations varies: there is collaboration on some forms of outreach (for example, Lutheran World Relief is an Lutheran organization for charity and disaster response. It is the largest global Lutheran organization of its kind. Lutheran World Relief works with partners in 50 countries to help people grow food, improve health, strengthen communities, end conflict, build livelihoods and recover from disasters. With people... Lutheran World Relief); in worship practice, however, the conservative demoninations typically practice Closed Communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, or sect. Though the meaning of the term varies slightly in different Christian theological traditions, it generally means a... closed communion, limiting celebration of the eucharist to those within their own denominations out of concern for doctrinal differences.


Lutheran publishers

English-language publishers of books on Luther and Lutheran theology

  1. Concordia Publishing House (http://www.cph.org/) (LCMS)
  2. Augsburg Fortress (http://www.augsburgfortress.com/) and Fortress Press (http://www.fortresspress.com/) (ELCA)
  3. Northwestern Publishing House (http://www.nph.net/) (WELS)
  4. Openbook Publishers (http://www.openbook.com.au/) (Lutheran Church of Australia)
  5. Ambassador Publications (http://www.aflconline.org/parish-ed/index.html) (AFLC)

Modern Lutheranism in Europe

Lutheranism is the See also civil religion. A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. The term state church is most closely associated with Christianity, although it is sometimes used in the context of other faiths as well. Closely... state religion of several Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian countries are Norway, Sweden and Denmark, which recognize each other as parts of Scandinavia. The collective label Scandinavia reflects the cultural similarity, and the strong historical ties, between these countries despite their political independence. The terms Fennoscandia... Scandinavian countries in Northern World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europe, including The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. It has a very elongated form and has an extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean, where Norways famous fjords... Norway, Denmark (disambiguation). The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. It is located in Scandinavia, which is in northern Europe. Denmark borders the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and consists of a peninsula attached to Northern Germany named Jutland (Jylland... Denmark, The Republic of Finland ( Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland and Iceland (disambiguation). The Republic of Iceland ( Icelandic: Lýðveldið Ísland) is a borderless country in the northern Atlantic Ocean, located between Greenland, Scotland and Norway. National motto: None Official language None. Icelandic de facto. Capital and largest city Reykjavík President Ólafur Ragnar Gr... Iceland. In these countries, the churches are supported directly by taxes. The church tax, an income tax of about 1–2%, is collected only from the members of the church, but the church also gets its share from other taxes such as the municipal Jim Callaghan, the Chancellor of the Exchequer who introduced corporation tax in 1965. Corporation tax is a direct tax levied in the United Kingdom on the profits made by companies or associations that are either tax resident in the UK, or which are trading in the UK through a permanent... corporation tax. Priests are educated at the Faculties of Theology of the state universities. With the extension of the The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. The Union was established under that name by the Treaty on European Union (commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty) in 1992. However, many aspects of the EU existed before that date through... European Union, the status of state churches is largely revised; they remain a State Church but win greater autonomy. In The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Sweden, Lutheranism was the state religion up until the year 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Popular culture also holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, however, this distinction falls to the year 2001. The year 2000 is... 2000. The church is no longer supported by taxes, but the fees are collected along with taxes.


Lutheranism is also prominent in Estonia (disambiguation). The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. Estonia has land borders with its fellow Baltic state, Latvia, to the south, with Russia to the east, and maritime border with Finland... Estonia, and The Republic of Latvia ( Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia ( Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. Latvia has land borders with its two fellow Baltic states — Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south — and Russia and Belarus to the east. In the west Latvia shares... Latvia. Members of the predominant churches in Germany, whether Lutheran, Reformed or Catholic is a term generally used in relation to the members, beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. More broadly, it can be applied to Christian churches in general. Early Christians used the term to describe the whole undivided Church, the words literal meaning is universal or whole... Catholic are also required by the state to pay a church tax in addition to their normal income tax. Certain parts of Germany are traditionally Lutheran (generally towards the north and east) while others are historically Catholic (especially With an area of 70,553 km² and 12.4 million inhabitants, the Free State of Bavaria ( German Bayern or Freistaat Bayern) forms the southernmost of the 16 Bundesländer of Germany. Its capital is Munich. Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. Neighbouring... Bavaria and areas along the The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1.320 km Elevation of the source 1.602 m Average discharge 2.200 m³/ s Area watershed 185.000 km² Origin Hinterrhein in Switzerland Mouth The North Sea Basin countries Switzerland - Liechtenstein - Austria - Germany- France - Netherlands... Rhine). Modern mobility and a decrease in religiosity have, however, been instrumental in shifting the demographic situation, as did the movements of German refugees from areas lost to Poland and Russia as a result of Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War Two.


Notably, the European churches have very low attending memberships at the offices; due to the history of those European churches, most parts of them knew persecution during the 17th and 18th centuries. The church attendance on Sunday is not decisive and houses offices are still perennial, particularly in southern Europe. Most people feel it is more important to attend to the lot of conference and training and Biblical studies. So, in northern Europe many attend religious services only for Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. The word baptize derives from the Greek word βάπτειν (the infinitive; also listed as the 1st person singular present active indicative βα... baptisms, Roman Catholic views In the Roman Catholic church confirmation is one of the seven sacraments. Confirmation is seen as granting the receiver an extra-natural source of wisdom, knowledge and courage, should the person desire it with an open heart. As such, Confirmation is the fulfillment of the words of... confirmations, This article is about the marriage ceremony. For the former borough in Berlin, see Wedding, Berlin. Nubian wedding with some international modern touches, near Aswan,Egypt A wedding is a civil or religious ceremony at which the beginning of a marriage is celebrated. In most societies, a number of wedding... weddings, Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. Funerary customs comprise the complex of beliefs and practices used by a culture to remember the dead, from the funeral itself, to various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in their honor... funerals and possibly at Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. According to the Christian gospels, Jesus was born to Mary in Bethlehem, where she and her... Christmas. Confirmation is treated seriously and is usually delayed until the end of the high school courses. The Lutheran confirmation training usually constitutes the largest exposure of Northern Europeans to Christian doctrines.


Except in Northern Europe (see above), very few seminaries are state-supported. Due to large agreements like the Concorde de Leuenberg ( 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - Western Samoa becomes independent from New Zealand January 3 - Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro January 4 - New York City introduces a train that operates without a crew on-board January 5... 1962), involving many churches raising from the The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Roots of the Reformation Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity of the... Reformation the training for students in Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. History of the term The term theologia is used in Classical Greek literature, with the meaning... theology embraces a wide range of theologies including modern and contemporary movements in biblical criticism and theology.


Many major seaports contain the outposts of the respective Nordic Lutheran churches (e.g. Norwegian and Finnish) to provide aid, social opportunities and pastoral care for visiting seamen — in their own language. Few Lutheran pastors achieve their pastoral care in foreign countries such as The French Republic or France ( French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. France is a democracy organised as a... France.


Number of Lutherans worldwide

Europe – 49.3 million

  • Germany – 25.8 million1
  • Sweden – 7.2 million
  • Denmark – 4.6 million
  • Finland – 4.6 million
  • Norway – 3.9 million
  • Latvia – 560,000 2
  • Austria – 380,000
  • Slovakia – 370,000
  • Hungary – 300,000
  • Iceland – 270,000
  • Russia, Belarus, Ukraine combined – 270,000
  • France – 260,000
  • Estonia – 200,000
  • Czech Republic – 150,000
  • United Kingdom – 120,000
  • Poland – 80,000
  • Romania – 50,000
  • Serbia – 50,000
  • Lithuania – 20,000
  • Netherlands – 20,000
  • Slovenia – 20,000
  • Others – 30,000

North America – 14.2 million

  • USA – 13.6 million 3
  • Canada – 640,000 4

Africa – 10.5 million

  • Ethiopia – 4 million
  • Tanzania – 2.5 million
  • Nigeria – 1.3 million
  • Namibia – 920,000
  • South Africa – 880,000
  • Cameroon – 280,000
  • Congo (Democratic Rep. of) – 140,000
  • Zimbabwe – 110,000
  • Kenya – 90,000
  • Liberia – 70,000
  • Central African Republic – 60,000
  • Ghana – 30,000
  • Angola – 20,000
  • Botswana – 20,000
  • Rwanda – 20,000
  • Others – 20,000

Asia & Pacific – 7.5 million

  • Indonesia – 4.3 million
  • India – 1.7 million
  • Papua New Guinea – 960,000
  • Australia – 250,000 5
  • Malaysia – 90,000
  • Hong Kong – 40,000
  • Japan – 30,000
  • Philippines – 30,000
  • Bangladesh – 10,000
  • Others – 30,000

Latin America – 1.1 million

  • Brazil – 940,000 6
  • Argentina – 50,000
  • Bolivia – 20,000
  • Chile – 20,000
  • El Salvador – 10,000
  • Guyana – 10,000
  • Others – 20,000


Total World – 82.6 million


Sources

Unless otherwise noted, these figures are from the Lutheran World Federation (http://www.lutheranworld.org/Welcome.EN.html) (LWF) homepage.

  1. The EKD (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland - German Evangelical Church) released a figure in November 2004 that said that 25.8 million Germans (31.3% of the national population) are Lutherans.
  2. In 2003, the Latvian Lutheran church estimated the number of Lutherans in the country to be 556,000[1]  (http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35465.htm)
  3. The American Religious Idenitifcation Survery (ARIS) found that 4.6% of Americans are self-described Lutherans. That means there are 13.6 million American Lutherans.[2]  (http://adherents.com/rel_USA.html#families)
  4. Canadian census statistics show that there are 640,000 self-described Lutherans living in Canada[3]  (http://www.statcan.ca/english/Pgdb/demo32a.htm)
  5. Australian Census statistics show that there are 250,000 Lutherans living in Australia[4]  (http://www.adherents.com/loc/loc_australia.html)
  6. This figure includes both Brazilian LWF and non-LWF churches.

Famous American Lutherans

See the complete The following is a list of famous Lutherans. See Lutheranism. Actors and Actresses Erika Alexander, actress whose credits include The Cosby Show. Loni Anderson, celebrity, actress, and author. Brice Beckham, actor who played Wesley Owens in the 80s sitcom Mr. Belvedere; also, his father is a Lutheran pastor. Beau... List of famous Lutherans


Some of the most famous Lutherans today are:

  • actors David Hasselhoff in Baywatch David Michael Hasselhoff (born on July 17, 1952 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American actor, best known for his lead roles on Knight Rider and Baywatch, who has also enjoyed a minor singing career, primarily in Germany. Having played Dr. Snapper Foster on the soap opera... David Hasselhoff, Publicity photo of William H. Macy William Hall Macy (born March 13, 1950) is an actor, teacher, and director, in theatre, film, and television. He was born in Miami, Florida, and grew up in Georgia and Maryland. After graduating from Allegany High School in Cumberland, Maryland, he entered Bethany College... William H. Macy, and Bruce Willis (born March 19, 1955 as Walter Bruce Willis) is an American actor. Born at a military base in Idar-Oberstein, Germany, he was raised in Penns Grove, New Jersey and moved to New York to become an actor. He first found fame with his starring role in the... Bruce Willis;
  • cartoonist Gary Larson (born in Tacoma on August 14, 1950) is the creator of The Far Side, a comic panel which appeared in many newspapers for fourteen years until Larsons retirement January 1, 1995. The Far Side was original in that it catered to the more scientific mind for its... Gary Larson;
  • Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court William H. Rehnquist has served as the Chief Justice of the United States since 1986. William Hubbs Rehnquist (born October 1, 1924) is an American jurist. He is a former law clerk and Assistant Attorney General and has served as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States since he... William Rehnquist;
  • comedian Dana Carvey (born June 2, 1955) is an American actor and comedian from Missoula, Montana. When he was three years old, his family moved to San Carlos, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. He attended Carlmont High School, and received his Bachelors degree in communications from San Francisco... Dana Carvey;
  • co-founder and CEO of Apple Computer, Inc. ( NASDAQ: AAPL) is a Silicon Valley company based in Cupertino, California, whose core business is computer technologies. Apple helped start the personal computer revolution in the 1970s with its Apple II and shaped it in the 1980s and since with the Macintosh. Apple is known for innovative... Apple Computer Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is best known as the co-founder (with Steve Wozniak) and CEO of Apple Computer, and somewhat less so for his leadership of Pixar. He is also regarded as a pioneer in computing for the incredibly successful Apple II computer, and... Steve Jobs;
  • entertainment journalists Mary Hart and The name Pat OBrien could be a reference to: The actor Pat OBrien ( 1899- 1983), who played in Some Like It Hot and other movies. The Canadian politician of that name. A well-known sports commentator of that name, who currently hosts The Insider, and was previously the... Pat O'Brien;
  • filmmaker John Woo (吳宇森; pinyin: Wú Yǔsēn;) (born May 1, 1946 in Guangzhou, China) is a Chinese film director known especially for the ballet-like violence in his movies. Biography When Woos Christian parents were faced with persecution, his family fled to Hong Kong... John Woo;
  • militaryman Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (born August 22, 1934), United States Army general, was commander of the United States forces in the Gulf War of 1991. Born in Trenton, New Jersey to Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr., he graduated from West Point in 1956, and earned a masters degree in missile engineering from... Norman Schwarzkopf;
  • musicians Kris Kristofferson (born June 22, 1936) is an influential country music songwriter, singer and actor. He is best known for hits like Me and Bobby McGee and Sunday Mornin Comin Down, many of which were co-written with Shel Silverstein or Fred Foster. He was born in Brownsville, Texas and... Kris Kristofferson and John Mellencamp (born October 7, 1951 in Seymour, Indiana) is an American singer and songwriter, known for a long and successful recording and performing career highlighted by a series of 1980s hits, including Jack and Diane, and by his role in the Farm Aid charity event. As a child, Mellencamp... John Mellencamp;
  • several current and former US governors, as well as several dozen US congressman and senators;
  • sports figures Troy Kenneth Aikman (born November 21, 1966 in West Covina, California) is a former quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League, and currently a television sportscaster for the Fox network. The youngest of 3 children, Aikman lived in Cerritos, California until age 12, when his family moved... Troy Aikman, Ralph Dale Earnhardt, Sr. (April 29, 1951 - February 18, 2001) was an American NASCAR driver. He was born in Kannapolis, North Carolina. He died in a racing accident in turn four on the final lap of the 2001 Daytona 500. Earnhardt grew up in a racing family. His father, Ralph... Dale Earnhardt, Henry Louis Gehrig, born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941), was an American first baseman in Major League Baseball who played his entire career for the New York Yankees and was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939. His career was prematurely ended by... Lou Gehrig, and Tom Landry (born September 11, 1924 in Mission, Texas - died February 12, 2000) was an American football player and coach. An all-pro defensive back for the New York Giants (1954), he coached the Dallas Cowboys for 29 years (1960-88); won 2 Super Bowls (1972,78); and is 3rd... Tom Landry;
  • theologian Richard Charles Henry Lenski (immigrated from The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia ( German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad... Prussia)
  • writers Dr. Seuss is the pen name of Theodor Seuss Geisel ( March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991). He was a famous American writer and cartoonist best known for his collection of childrens books. Life and work Geisel was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, on March 2, 1904. He graduated from... Dr. Seuss and John Updike (born March 18, 1932) is an American novelist and short story author born in Shillington, Pennsylvania. Updikes most famous works are his Rabbit series (Rabbit, Run, Rabbit Redux, Rabbit is Rich, Rabbit at Rest, and Rabbit, Remembered). Rabbit is Rich and Rabbit at Rest both won Pulitzer... John Updike
  • writer and radio host Garrison Keillor (born August 7, 1942) is an American author, humorist, musician, and radio personality. He is best known as the founder and host of the Minnesota Public Radio show A Prairie Home Companion (also known as Garrison Keillors Radio Show on BBC 7 and in Ireland). Keillors... Garrison Keillor

See also

  • For other people named Martin Luther see: Martin Luther (disambiguation), or here for Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther (originally Martin Luder or Martinus Luther) (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German theologian of the Christian religion and an Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant Reformation... Martin Luther
  • The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Roots of the Reformation Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity of the... Protestant Reformation
  • Religion in Germany
  • The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global association of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The federation was founded in the aftermath of the Second World War to coordinate the activities of the many differing Lutheran churches. The LWF now has 136 member churches in 76... Lutheran World Federation
  • The International Lutheran Council is a worldwide association of confessional Lutheran denominations. Among its members are the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod and the Lutheran Church—Canada. List of members Argentina - Evangelical Lutheran Church of Argentina Australia - Lutheran Church of Australia (associate) Bolivia - Christian Evangelical Lutheran Church of Bolivia Brazil... International Lutheran Council
  • Association of Free Lutheran Congregations is the 4th largest Lutheran church body in the United States. The AFLC includes congregations in 27 different states as well as 4 Canadian provinces. The AFLC is not an incorporated synod, but a free association. Each local congregation is a separate corporation. The AFLC... Association of Free Lutheran Congregations
  • The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America or ELCA is a mainline Protestant denomination headquarted in Chicago, Illinois. With about 5 million members, it is the largest and most liberal of all the Lutheran denominations in the United States. The Church also has congregations in the Caribbean region. Before 1986, some... Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
  • The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) (Eglise Evangelique Lutherienne au Canada) is Canadas largest Lutheran denomination, with 182,077 baptized members in 624 congregations. It is a member of the Lutheran World Federation, the Canadian Council of Churches, and the World Council of Churches. The Evangelical Lutheran Church... Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada
  • The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania (ELCT) is the federation of Lutheran Churches in the African nation of Tanzania. In 1938, seven Lutheran churches founded a federation known as the Federation of Lutheran Churches in Tanganyika. On June 19, 1963, Churches merged to become a single Church known as the... Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania
  • Official cross symbol of the Missouri Synod The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS) is the second-largest Lutheran body in the United States. It is a conservative, confessional Lutheran Christian denomination with German immigrant roots. The LCMS is headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri and counts about 2.6 million baptized... Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod
  • Lutheran Church – Canada was founded in 1988 when the Canadian congregations of St. Louis-based Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod formed an autonomous Canadian church body. The Synodical office is located in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is a member of the International Lutheran Council together with the LCMS and several... Lutheran Church - Canada
  • Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) is a United States religious denomination belonging to the Lutheran tradition within Christianity. Characterized as theologically conservative, it was founded in 1850 in Wisconsin. Currently (2004), it has congregations in all 50 states and 24 other countries. With a membership of over 400,000 in... Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod
  • The Evangelical Church in Germany (German Evangelische Kirche in Deutchland, abbreviated by EKD) is a federation of 24 Lutheran, Reformed and United churches in their respective regions. It is therewith a uniting church body of several protestant denominations. The German term evangelisch rather corresponds to the English term Protestant than... Evangelical Church in Germany
  • The Church of Sweden, or Svenska kyrkan, is the national church of Sweden. Until 2000 it also had a position as state church. Unlike most other Protestant churches, even their fellow Lutherans, the Church of Sweden continues to maintain the historic episcopate. History The Church was established in the 16th... Church of Sweden
  • The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke) also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway is the state church of Norway, 86% of Norwegians belong to this Church. The Church of Norway professes the Lutheran branch of Christianity. Organization The Church of Norway is established as the state church... Church of Norway
  • The Church of Denmark (Den Danske Folkekirke) is the largest Denmark. According to official statistics from January 2002 84.3% of Danes are members of the state church, although less than 5% of their members attend weekly services. The Church of Denmark is a Lutheran body. Church life is organized... Church of Denmark
  • The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is a Lutheran Church and the most common church in Finland. With a subscription rate of 85 percent (2003) it is the largest denomination in Finland, though it has lost some membership as society has secularized. The head of the church is the Archbishop... Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
  • The Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church (Estonian: Eesti Evangeelne Luterlik Kirik) is a Christian Protestant church, following the teachings of the German theologian Martin Luther, one of the main figures of the Reformation in the 16th century, in the country of Estonia. External link http://www.eelk.ee/english.php Categories... Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church
  • Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) was a Christian movement in Nazi Germanysupported by the Nazi Party. In 1933 the Gleichschaltung forced protestant churches to merge into the Protestant Reich Church and support Nazi ideology. Other opposition movements were forced to go underground to meet, while the Confessional Church would become the... Confessing Church
  • Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Slovakia
  • The Latin phrase in necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas means in certain things unity; in doubtful things liberty; in all things charity. It is often misattributed to St. Augustine of Hippo, but seems to have been first used in the seventeenth century by a German Lutheran theologian... In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas
  • List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. (See also: Christianity; Christian denominations). It should be noted that some denominations are large (eg. Roman Catholic, Lutherans, Anglicans or Baptists) while others are just a few small churches. It should also be noted that modern movements such as Fundamentalist... List of Christian denominations#Lutheranism
  • Luther's Seal
  • Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism (3008 words)
Lutheranism was introduced into Poland during the reign of
For the history of Lutheranism in Europe consult the bibliographies under the religious history of the various countries.
Lutheran Church in the U. (New York, 1893) in American Church History Series, IV (with extensive bibliog.); WOLF, The Lutherans in America (New York, 1889).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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