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Encyclopedia > Lutetium
71 ytterbiumlutetiumhafnium
Y

Lu

Lr
General
Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d
Appearance silvery white
Standard atomic weight 174.967(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration Xe 6s2 4f14 5d1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 9.841 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 9.3 g·cm−3
Melting point 1925 K
(1652 °C, 3006 °F)
Boiling point 3675 K
(3402 °C, 6156 °F)
Heat of fusion ca. 22 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 414 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 26.86 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1906 2103 2346 (2653) (3072) (3663)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3
(weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.27 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 523.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1340 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2022.3 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 175 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 217 pm
Covalent radius 160 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 582 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 16.4 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly) 9.9 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus 68.6 GPa
Shear modulus 27.2 GPa
Bulk modulus 47.6 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.261
Vickers hardness 1160 MPa
Brinell hardness 893 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-94-3
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of lutetium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
173Lu syn 1.37 y ε 0.671 173Yb
174Lu syn 3.31 y ε 1.374 174Yb
175Lu 97.41% Lu is stable with 104 neutrons
176Lu 2.59% 3.78×1010y β- 1.193 176Hf
References

Lutetium (IPA: /l(j)uːˈtiːʃiəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. A metallic element, lutetium usually occurs in association with yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various processes. A strict correlation between periodic table blocks and chemical series for neutral atoms would describe lutetium as a transition metal because it is in the d-block, but it is a lanthanide according to IUPAC.[1] Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance gray steel Atomic mass 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Physical properties... Image File history File links original image: media:Lu-TableImage-BIG.png File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... This extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Lutetium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (eg, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... e- redirects here. ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance—is defined as zero kelvin (0 K). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy which must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change states from a solid to a liquid or vice versa. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It is used in the inorganic nomenclature of... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The atomic radius is the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron orbital in an atom that is at equilibrium. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Covalent radius in chemistry corresponds to half of the distance between two identical atomic nuclei, bound by a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus S, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: S = shear stress/shear strain = (F/A)/Φ. Another commonly accepted symbol is G. Shear modulus is usually measured in ksi (kips per square... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Lutetium (Lu) Standard atomic mass: 174. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which unstable atoms lose energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV, or, rarely and incorrectly, ev) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... (Redirected from 1 E s) An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 173. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 173. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance gray steel Atomic mass 178. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... It has been suggested that List of elements by atomic number be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 88. ... An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics and applications

Lutetium is a silvery white corrosion-resistant trivalent metal that is relatively stable in air and is the heaviest and hardest of the rare earth elements. Corrosion is deterioration of essential properties in a material due to reactions with its surroundings. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[2] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... A rare earth is an oxide of a rare earth element. ...


This element is very expensive to obtain in useful quantities and therefore it has very few commercial uses. However, stable lutetium can be used as catalysts in petroleum cracking in refineries and can also be used in alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization applications. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions in which the net result is an addition of hydrogen. ... This is the article about the process. ...


Lutetium-176 (176Lu) has been used to date the age of meteorites. Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ...


Lutetium aluminum garnet (Al5Lu3O12) has been proposed for use as a lens material in high refractive index immersion lithography. Lutetium aluminum garnet (commonly abbreviated LuAG, molecular formula Al5Lu3O12) is a ceramic material that has been proposed for use as a high refractive index lens material. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Immersion lithography is a photolithography resolution enhancement technique that replaces the usual air gap between the final lens and the wafer surface with a liquid medium that has a refractive index greater than one. ...


Cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) is currently the preferred compound for detectors in positron emission tomography (PET.) [2] Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...


History

Lutetium (Latin Lutetia meaning Paris) was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain and Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach. Both men found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia which was thought by Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (and most others) to consist entirely of the element ytterbium. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Lutetia (sometimes Lutetia Parisiorum or Lucotecia, in French Lutèce) was a town in pre-Roman and Roman Gaul. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Floating not submerging) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The discoverer of the element Lutetium, number 71. ... Carl Auer von Welsbach ( 9 September 1858 - 8 April 1929) was an Austrian scientist and inventor who had a talent for not only discovering advances, but turning them into commercially successful products. ... Jean Charles Galinard de Marignac (April 24, 1817–April 15, 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and codiscovery of... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 173. ...


The separation of lutetium from Marignac's ytterbium was first described by Urbain and the naming honor therefore went to him. He chose the names neoytterbium (new ytterbium) and lutecium for the new element but neoytterbium was eventually reverted back to ytterbium and in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


Welsbach proposed the names cassiopium for element 71 (after the constellation Cassiopeia) and albebaranium for the new name of ytterbium but these naming proposals where rejected (although many German scientists in the 1950s called the element 71 cassiopium). Cassiopeia (IPA: ) is a northern constellation which Greek mythology considered to represent a vain queen who boasted about her unrivaled beauty. ...


Occurrence

Found with almost all other rare-earth metals but never by itself, lutetium is very difficult to separate from other elements. Consequently, it is also one of the most expensive metals, costing about six times as much per gram as gold. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


The principal commercially viable ore of lutetium is the rare earth phosphate mineral monazite: (Ce, La, etc.)PO4 which contains 0.003% of the element. Pure lutetium metal has only relatively recently been isolated and is very difficult to prepare (thus it is one of the most rare and expensive of the rare earth metals). It is separated from other rare earth elements by ion exchange and then obtained in the elemental form by reduction of anhydrous LuCl3 or LuF3 by either an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal. Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table (excluding hydrogen in all but one rare circumstance): lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are the series of elements in Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra) (not always considered due to its radioactivity and very short half-life). ...


Isotopes

Naturally occurring lutetium is composed of 1 stable isotope Lu-175 (97.41% natural abundance). 33 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being Lu-176 with a half-life of 3.78 × 1010 years (2.59% natural abundance), Lu-174 with a half-life of 3.31 years, and Lu-173 with a half-life of 1.37 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 9 days, and the majority of these have half lives that are less than a half an hour. This element also has 18 meta states, with the most stable being Lu-177m (t½ 160.4 days), Lu-174m (t½ 142 days) and Lu-178m (t½ 23.1 minutes). Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which unstable atoms lose energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The isotopes of lutetium range in atomic weight from 149.973 (Lu-150) to 183.961 (Lu-184). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Lu-175, is electron capture (with some alpha and positron emission), and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before Lu-175 are element 70 (ytterbium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 72 (hafnium) isotopes. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance gray steel Atomic mass 178. ...


Compounds

Fluoride: LuF3, Chloride: LuCl3, Bromide: LuBr3, Iodide: LuI3, Oxide: Lu2O3, Sulfide: Lu2S3, Nitride: LuN Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... Lutetium(III) oxide, a white solid, is a compound of lutetium sometimes used in the preparation of specialty glasses. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Definition The nitride ion is very very gay and retarded A nitride (compound) is a compound that has nitrogen with more electropositive elements. ...


Intermetalic compounds:

See also lutetium compounds. Lutetium aluminum garnet (commonly abbreviated LuAG, molecular formula Al5Lu3O12) is a ceramic material that has been proposed for use as a high refractive index lens material. ...


Precautions

Like other rare-earth metals lutetium is regarded as having a low toxicity rating but it and especially its compounds should be handled with care nonetheless. Metal dust of this element is a fire and explosion hazard. Lutetium plays no biological role in the human body but is thought to help stimulate metabolism. Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, and smoke, and varies in intensity. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ...


References

  1. ^ IUPAC Provisional Recommendations for the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2004) (online draft of an updated version of the "Red Book" IR 3-6)
  2. ^ Thompson CJ. Instrumentation. In: Wahl RL,ed. Principles and Practice of Positron Emission Tomography. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002:51.

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Lutetium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (695 words)
Lutetium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
A metallic element of the rare earth group, lutetium usually occurs in association with yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various processes.
Lutetium is a silvery white corrosion-resistant trivalent metal that is relatively stable in air and is the heaviest and hardest of the rare earth elements.
AllRefer.com - lutetium, Compound & Element (Compounds And Elements) - Encyclopedia (252 words)
Lutetium is a silver-white metal that is relatively stable in air.
The chief commercial source of lutetium is the mineral monazite, which contains lutetium in a concentration of about three parts per hundred thousand.
A process for separating lutecia (lutetium oxide, a rare earth) from ytterbia was described in 1907 by Georges Urbain, a French chemist, who is credited with the discovery of the element.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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