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Encyclopedia > Lute
Lute

Lute Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Classification
Related instruments
A renaissance-era lute.
A renaissance-era lute.
A baroque- or classical-era lute.
A baroque- or classical-era lute.

Lute can generally refer to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back, or a specific instrument from the family of European lutes. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The angélique (French, from Italian angelica) is a plucked string instrument of the lute family of the baroque era. ... An Archlute by Matteo Sellas, Venice, 17th century The archlute (Italian arciliuto, German Erzlaute, Russian Архилютня) a European plucked string instrument was developed around 1600 as a compromise between the very large theorbo, the size and re-entrant tuning of which made for difficuties in the performance of solo music, and... This article is about the instrument. ... // History The barbat is an ancient instrument of Persian origin, refined during the Arab age into the current form of oud. ... The bağlama is a stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean. ... For other uses, see Biwa (disambiguation). ... For bouzoukia, see nightclubs in Greece. ... Visit the Guitar Portal A Bolivian charango This article is about an instrument. ... Chitarra Italiana is a lute-shaped plucked instrument with 4 or 5 single (sometimes double) strings, in a tuning similar to that of guitar. ... The daguangxian (大广弦; pinyin: dàguǎngxián) is a Chinese bowed string instrument in the huqin family of instruments. ... The đàn tỳ bà is a Vietnamese traditional plucked string instrument. ... The dombra is a long-necked, two-stringed instrument, possessing a resonating chamber, somewhat similar to a banjo or a lute, and especially popular in the Central Asian nations. ... Domra Domra (домра) is a long-necked Russian string instrument with three or four steel strings and a round resonator. ... Dotar Khorasan The dutar (also dotar or doutar) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Central Asia. ... Similar to Electric guitar,the Pipa is modified with the electric components to change its performance. ... Side view of an erhu. ... An Irish Bouzouki The Irish bouzouki is a slightly modified bouzouki Bouzoukis were introduced into Irish Traditional Music in the 1970s, by Johnny Moynihan and Alec Finn, and popularised by Andy Irvine and Dónal Lunny. ... The komuz is a string instrument used in Kyrgyz music, closely related to the other Turkic string instruments. ... A liuqin The liuqin (柳琴; pinyin: liǔq­ín) is a four-stringed Chinese lute with a pear-shaped body. ... The mandocello (sometimes spelled mandacello) is a musical instrument of the mandolin family. ... mandola A mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Europe, Ireland, and UK) is a stringed musical instrument. ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... A woman plays the pipa in the New York City Subways Times Square Station, 2004. ... The rubab (also spelled rubāb) is a plucked string instrument from Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... SETAR N.V., is the privatised full telecommunications service provider for the island of Aruba. ... Diagram of some sitar parts. ... Surbahar The surbahar (also known as bass sitar) is a plucked string instrument used in the Hindustani classical music of North India. ... Tanbur The tanbur (var. ... This article is about the Turkish tanbur. ... The saz is a Turkish plucked stringed instrument, a member of the long-necked lute family. ... Theorbo A theorbo (from Italian tiorba, also tuorbe in French, Theorbe in German) is a plucked string instrument. ... A tiorbino, a little theorbo (tiorbo in Italian), is a rare stringed instrument, a type of long-necked lute resembling a theorbo but significantly smaller and pitched an octave higher. ... The tiqin (Chinese: ; pinyin: tíqín) is a name applied to several two-stringed Chinese bowed string instruments in the huqin family of instruments. ... Topshur is a northern turki (tuvans, altai, khakas) two-stringed musical instrument, a domra-kind. ... Woman playing the Veena. ... Zhonghu The zhonghu (中胡, pinyin: zhōnghú) is a low-pitched Chinese bowed string instrument. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches. ...


The European lute and the Near-Eastern oud both descend from a common ancestor, with diverging evolutionary paths. The lute is used in a great variety of instrumental music from the early renaissance to the late baroque eras. It is also an accompanying instrument, especially in vocal works, often realizing a basso continuo or playing a written-out accompaniment. Front and rear views of an oud. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ...


The player of a lute is called a lutenist, lutanist, or lutist, and a maker of lutes (or any string instrument) is called a luthier. An engravers impression of Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument. ...

Contents

Etymology

The words "lute" and "oud" may have derived from Arabic al‘ud, "the wood", though recent research by Eckhard Neubauer suggests that ‘ud may simply be an Arabized version of the Persian name rud, which meant string, stringed instrument, or lute. Gianfranco Lotti suggests that the "wood" appellation originally carried derogatory connotations, because of proscriptions of all instrumental music in early Islam. Arabic redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


There are also possibilities of derivations from Greek haleut meaning "fishing boat", Frankish lleut and Slavonic ладья, both meaning "a ship".


Description of the instrument

Renaissance lute (holding position).
Renaissance lute (holding position).

Lutes are made almost entirely of wood. The soundboard is a teardrop-shaped thin flat plate of resonant wood (usually spruce). In all lutes the soundboard has a single (sometimes triple) decorated soundhole under the strings, called the rose. The soundhole is not open, but rather covered with a grille in the form of an intertwining vine or a decorative knot, carved directly out of the wood of the soundboard. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ... Species About 35; see text. ...


The back or the shell is assembled from thin strips of hardwood (maple, cherry, ebony, rosewood or other tonewoods) called ribs joined (with glue) edge to edge to form a deep rounded body for the instrument. There are braces inside on the soundboard to give it strength; see the photo among the external links below. A renaissance-era lute. ...


The neck is made of light wood, with a veneer of hardwood (usually ebony) to provide durability for the fretboard beneath the strings. Unlike most modern stringed instruments, the lute's fretboard is mounted flush with the top. The pegbox for lutes before the Baroque era was angled back from the neck at almost 90° (see image), presumably to help hold the low-tension strings firmly against the nut, which is not traditionally glued in place, but is held in place by string pressure only. The tuning pegs are simple pegs of hardwood, somewhat tapered, that are held in place by friction in holes drilled through the pegbox. As with other instruments using friction pegs, the choice of wood used to make pegs is crucial. As the wood suffers dimensional changes through age and loss of humidity, it must as closely as possible retain a circular cross-section in order to function properly, as there are no gears or other mechanical aids for tuning the instrument. Often pegs were made from suitable fruitwoods such as European pearwood, or equally dimensionally stable analogues. Matheson, ca 1720, stated if a lute-player has lived eighty years, he has surely spent sixty years tuning. The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches. ... The fingerboard, also known as a fretboard, is a part of most stringed instruments. ... A pegbox is the part of certain stringed musical instruments (violin, viola, cello, double bass) that houses the tuning pegs. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... Tuning Peg is a small peg that is used to hold a string for a stringed instrument. ...


The geometry of the lute belly is relatively complex, involving a system of barring in which braces are placed perpendicular to the strings at specific lengths along the overall length of the belly, the ends of which are angled quite precisely to abut the ribs on either side for structural reasons. Robert Lundberg, in his book "Historical Lute Construction," suggests that ancient builders placed bars according to whole-number ratios of the scale length and belly length. He further suggests that the inward bend of the soundboard (the 'belly scoop') is a deliberate adaptation by ancient builders to afford the lutenist's right hand a bit more space between the strings and soundboard. The belly thickness is somewhat variable, but hovers between 1.5 and 2 millimeters in general. Some luthiers tune the belly as they build, removing mass and adapting bracing to ensure proper sonic results. The lute belly is almost never finished, though in some cases the luthier may size the top with a very thin coat of shellac or glair in order to help keep it clean. The belly is joined directly to the rib, without a lining glued to the sides, although a cap and counter cap are glued to the inside and outside of the bottom end of the bowl to provide rigidity and increased gluing surface.


After joining the top to the sides, a half binding is usually installed around the edge of the belly. The half-binding is approximately half the thickness of the belly and is usually made of a contrasting color wood. The rebate for the half-binding must be extremely precise to avoid compromising structural integrity.


The bridge, usually made of a fruitwood, is attached to the soundboard usually at 1/5 to 1/7 the belly length. It does not have a separate saddle but has holes bored into it to which the strings attach directly. Typically the bridge is made such that it tapers in height and length, with the small end holding the trebles and the higher and wider end carrying the basses. Bridges are often colored black with carbon black in a binder, often shellac, and often have inscribed decoration. The scrolls or other decoration on the ends of lute bridges are usually integral to the bridge, and are not added afterwards as on some Renaissance guitars (cf Joachim Tielke's guitars).


The frets are made of loops of gut (or, on some modern instruments, nylon monofilament) tied around the neck. They fray with use, and must be replaced from time to time. A few additional partial frets of wood are usually glued to the body of the instrument, to allow stopping the highest-pitched courses up to a full octave higher than the open string (see image), though these are anachronistic and do not appear on original instruments. Given the choice between nylon and gut, many luthiers prefer to use gut, as it conforms more readily to the sharp angle at the edge of the fingerboard. The neck of a guitar showing the first four frets. ...


Strings were historically made of gut (or sometimes in combination with metal), and are still made of gut or a synthetic substitute, with metal windings on the lower-pitched strings. Modern manufacturers make both gut and nylon strings, and both are in common use. Gut is more authentic, though it is also more susceptible to irregularity and pitch instability due to changes in humidity. Nylon, less authentic, offers greater tuning stability but is of course anachronistic.


Of note are the "catlines" used as basses on historical instruments. Catlines are several gut strings wound together and soaked in heavy metal solutions which increase the mass of the strings. Catlines can be quite large in diameter by comparison with wound nylon strings for the same pitch. They produce a bass which is somewhat different in timbre from nylon basses.


The lute's strings are arranged in courses, usually of two strings each, though the highest-pitched course usually consists of only a single string, called the chanterelle. In later Baroque lutes 2 upper courses are single. The courses are numbered sequentially, counting from the highest pitched, so that the chanterelle is the first course, the next pair of strings is the second course, etc. Thus an 8-course Renaissance lute will usually have 15 strings, and a 13-course Baroque lute will have 24. A course is a pair of adjacent strings tuned to unison or an octave and usually plucked together as if a single string, in musical instruments such as the lute, vihuela or mandolin. ...


The courses are tuned in unison for high and intermediate pitches, but for lower pitches one of the two strings is tuned an octave higher. (The course at which this split starts changed over the history of the lute.) The two strings of a course are virtually always stopped and plucked together, as if a single string, but in extremely rare cases a piece calls for the two strings of a course to be stopped and/or plucked separately. The tuning of a lute is a somewhat complicated issue, and is described in a separate section of its own, below. The result of the lute's design is an instrument extremely light for its size. A renaissance-era lute. ...


History and evolution of the lute

Ancient Egyptian tomb painting depicting lute players, 18th Dynasty (c. 1350 BC)
Ancient Egyptian tomb painting depicting lute players, 18th Dynasty (c. 1350 BC)

The origins of the lute are obscure, and organologists disagree about the very definition of a lute. The highly influential organologist Curt Sachs distinguished between the "long-necked lute" (Langhalslaute) and the short-necked variety: both referred to chordophones with a neck as distinguished from harps and psalteries. Smith and others argue that the long-necked variety should not be called lute at all, since it existed for at least a millennium before the appearance of the short-necked instrument that eventually evolved into what is now known as the lute, nor was it ever called a lute before the 20th century. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... (Redirected from 1350 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to...

Ancient Egyptian painting depicting a player of the long-necked lute (center), 18th Dynasty (c. 1422-1411 BC)
Ancient Egyptian painting depicting a player of the long-necked lute (center), 18th Dynasty (c. 1422-1411 BC)

Various types of necked chordophones were in use in ancient Egyptian (where they were introduced from Asia in the Middle Kingdom), Hittite, Greek, Roman, Bulgar, Turkic, Chinese, Armenian/Cilician cultures. The Lute developed its familiar forms in Arabia, Persia, Armenia, and Byzantium beginning in the early 7th century. These instruments often had bodies covered with animal skin, as do the modern American banjo, Persian tar, Indian sarod, West African xalam, or Chinese sanxian. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 554 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2190 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Music of Egypt Talk:Egyptians ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 554 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2190 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Music of Egypt Talk:Egyptians ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... (Redirected from 1422 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC - 1420s BC - 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC Events and Trends Crete conquered by Mycenae (approximately 1420 BC) - start of the... (Redirected from 1411 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC - 1410s BC - 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1417 BC: Start of the rule of Amenophis... The Middle Kingdom is: a old name for China a period in the History of Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For the people of Central Asia see Bulgars Bulgar language is an extinct language commonly considered Turkic but more recently Indo-Iranian Bulgar, or bulgarish is Yiddish word for Romanian dance bugarească (means Bulgarian cf. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... In ancient geography, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) formed a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments. ... Iranian Tar Woman playing the tar in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 Iranian Tar The tar is a long-necked, waisted lute found in Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and other areas near the Caucasus region. ... The sarod or sarode (Hindi:सरोद, Bengali: সরোদ) is a string musical instrument, used mainly in Indian classical music. ... Xalam, also spelled khalam, is the Wolof name for a traditional stringed musical instrument from West Africa. ... Chinese postage stamp depicting a sanxian The sanxian (Chinese: 三弦, pinyin sānxián, Wade-Giles san1-hsien2, lit. ...


As early as the 6th century the Bulgars brought the short-necked variety of the instrument called Kobuz to the Balkans, and in the 9th century Moors brought Oud to Spain. The long-necked Pandora/Quitra had been common Mediterranean lute previously. The Quitra didn't become extinct however, but continued its evolution, its descendants being Chitarra Italiana, Chitarrone and Colascione, aside from the still surviving Kuitra of Algiers and Morocco. The komuz (translating literally as instrument) is an ancient fretless string instrument used in Kyrgyz music, closely related to other Turkic string instruments and the lute. ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... Chitarra Italiana is a lute-shaped plucked instrument with 4 or 5 single (sometimes double) strings, in a tuning similar to that of guitar. ... Modern acoustic bass guitars The acoustic bass guitar (ABG) is a popular modern term to describe an acoustic musical instrument based on the configuration of basses pioneered by Leo Fenders electric precision bass. ...


In about the year 1500 many Spanish, Catalan and Portuguese lutenists adopted vihuela de mano, a viol-shaped instrument tuned like the lute, but both instruments continued in coexistence. This instrument also found its way to parts of Italy that were under Spanish domination (especially Sicily and the papal states under the Borgia pope Alexander VI who brought many Catalan musicians to Italy), where it was known as the viola da mano. A minstrel playing a vihuela. ... Various sizes of viol, from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum (1618) Early Italian tenor viola da gamba, detail from the painting , by Raphael Sanzio, c. ...


Another important point of transfer of the lute from Muslim to Christian European culture might have been in Sicily, where it was brought either by Byzantine or later by Saracen musicians. There were singer-lutenists at the court in Palermo following the Christian Norman conquest of the island, and the lute is depicted extensively in the ceiling paintings in the Palermo’s royal Cappella Palatina, dedicated by the Norman King Roger II in 1140. By the 14th century, lutes had disseminated throughout Italy. Probably due to the cultural influence of the Hohenstaufen kings and emperor, based in Palermo, the lute had also made significant inroads into the German-speaking lands by the 14th century.


Medieval lutes were 4- or 5-course instruments, plucked using a quill for a plectrum. There were several sizes, and by the end of the Renaissance, seven different sizes (up to the great octave bass) are documented. Song accompaniment was probably the lute's primary function in the Middle Ages, but very little music securely attributable to the lute survives from the era before 1500. Medieval and early-Renaissance song accompaniments were probably mostly improvised, hence the lack of written records. A course is a pair of adjacent strings tuned to unison or an octave and usually plucked together as if a single string, in musical instruments such as the lute, vihuela or mandolin. ... Various guitar picks A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. ...


In the last few decades of the 15th century, in order to play Renaissance polyphony on a single instrument, lutenists gradually abandoned the quill in favor of plucking the instrument with the fingertips. The number of courses grew to six and beyond. The lute was the premier solo instrument of the 16th century, but continued to be used to accompany singers as well. Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ...

A man playing a lute, painted by Jan Kupetzky, ca. 1711
A man playing a lute, painted by Jan Kupetzky, ca. 1711

By the end of the Renaissance the number of courses had grown to ten, and during the Baroque era the number continued to grow until it reached 14 (and occasionally as many as 19). These instruments, with up to 26-35 strings, required innovations in the structure of the lute. At the end of the lute's evolution the archlute, theorbo and torban had long extensions attached to the main tuning head in order to provide a greater resonating length for the bass strings, and since human fingers are not long enough to stop strings across a neck wide enough to hold 14 courses, the bass strings were placed outside the fretboard, and were played "open", i.e. without fretting/stopping them with the left hand. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An Archlute by Matteo Sellas, Venice, 17th century The archlute (Italian arciliuto, German Erzlaute, Russian Архилютня) a European plucked string instrument was developed around 1600 as a compromise between the very large theorbo, the size and re-entrant tuning of which made for difficuties in the performance of solo music, and... Theorbo A theorbo (from Italian tiorba, also tuorbe in French, Theorbe in German) is a plucked string instrument. ... The torban or teorban is an Eastern European musical instrument that combined features of the Baroque lute with those of the psaltery. ...


Over the course of the Baroque era the lute was increasingly relegated to the continuo accompaniment, and was eventually superseded in that role by keyboard instruments. The lute fell out of use after 1800. Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ...


Lute in the modern world

The lute enjoyed a revival with the awakening of interest in historical music around 1900 and throughout the century, and that revival was further boosted by the early music movement in the Twentieth Century. Important pioneers in lute revival were Julian Bream, Hans Neemann, Walter Gerwig, Suzanne Bloch and Diana Poulton. Lute performances are now not uncommon; there are many professional lutenists, especially in Europe where the most employment is to be found, and new compositions for the instrument are being produced by composers. Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. ... Madame Villa-Lobos and Julien Bream at the presentation of the Villa-Lobos Gold Medal, officially awarded to Julian Bream in 1976. ...


During the early days of the early music movement, many lutes were constructed by available luthiers, whose specialty was often classical guitars. Such lutes were heavily built with construction similar to classical guitars, with fan bracing, heavy tops, fixed frets, and lined sides, all of which are anachronistic to historical lutes. As lutherie scholarship increased, makers began constructing instruments based on historical models, which have proven on the whole to be far lighter and more responsive instruments.


Lutes built at present are invariably replicas or near copies of those surviving historical instruments that are to be found in museums or private collections. They are exclusively custom-built or must be bought second hand in a very limited market. As a result, lutes are generally more expensive than mass-produced modern instruments such as the guitar, though not nearly as expensive as the violin. Unlike in the past there are many types of lutes encountered today: 5-course medieval lutes, renaissance lutes of 6 to 10 courses in many pitches for solo and ensemble performance of Renaissance works, the archlute of Baroque works, 11-course lutes in d-minor tuning for 17th century French, German and Czech music, 13/14-course d-minor tuned German Baroque Lutes for later High Baroque and Classical music, theorbo for basso continuo parts in Baroque ensembles, gallichons/mandoras, bandoras, orpharions and others. Lutenistic practice has reached considerable heights in recent years, thanks to a growing number of world-class lutenists: Robert Barto, Eduardo Egüez, Edin Karamazov, Nigel North, Christopher Wilson, Luca Pianca, Pascal Monteilhet, Ariel Abramovich, Evangelina Mascardi, Luciano Contini, Hopkinson Smith, Paul O'Dette et alia. Singer-songwriter Sting has also played lute and archlute, in and out of his collaborations with Edin Karamazov. Theorbo A theorbo (from Italian tiorba, also tuorbe in French, Theorbe in German) is a plucked string instrument. ... Å  Äš Œõǚ ĵ Åœ ŝ Å´ ŵ Ŷ Å· ōǚ ... An orpharion, labeled cythara communis, from Kirchers Musurgia Universalis The orpharion is a plucked instrument from the renaissance. ... Robert Barto is an American musician-lutenist. ... Edin Karamazov is a Bosnian musician-lutenist (born in 1965 in Zenica, Bosnia). ... Nigel North (born 5 June 1954) is an English lutenist and guitarist. ... ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Hopkinson Smith is a lutenist. ... Paul ODette is an American lutenist, conductor, and music researcher specializing in early music. ... This article is about the musician. ... Edin Karamazov is a Bosnian musician-lutenist (born in 1965 in Zenica, Bosnia). ...


Lutes of several regional types are also common in Greece: laouto, and outi.


Lute repertoire

Notable composers of lute music include: A composer is a person who writes music. ...


Renaissance--Italy

Renaissance--Central Europe Vincenzo Capirola (1474 – after 1548) was an Italian composer, lutenist and nobleman of the Renaissance. ... Francesco Canova da Milano (1497-1543) was a medieval Italian lutenist virtuoso and composer. ... Vincenzo Galilei (1520 – July 2, 1591) was an Italian lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and the father of the famous astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei. ...

Renaissance--England Bálint Bakfark (1507–August 15 or August 22, 1576) (His name is variously spelled as Bachfarrt, Backvart, Bekwark, and occasionally his first name is rendered as Valentin) was a Hungarian composer and lutenist of the Renaissance. ... Diomedes Cato (1560 to 1565 – after 1618) was an Italian-born composer and lute player, who lived and worked entirely in Poland. ...

Baroque--Italy John Dowland (1563 – February 20, 1626) was an English composer, singer, and lutenist. ... John Johnson (c. ... Philip Rosseter (1567/8–May 5, 1623) was an English composer and musician, as well as a theatrical manager. ... Thomas Campion, sometimes Campian (February 12, 1567 – March 1, 1620) was an English composer, poet and physician. ... Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron Grantham (c. ...

Baroque--France Alessandro Piccinini (1566-1638), Italian lutenist and composer. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... Johann(es) Hieronymus Kapsberger (also: Giovanni Girolamo or Giovanni Geronimo Kapsberger), (1580 - 1651) was a German-Italian virtuoso performer and composer of lute, theorbo and chitarrone music during the early Baroque period. ...

Baroque--Germany Robert de Visée (c. ... Denis Gaultier (1603–1672) was a French lutenist and composer. ...

Modern and Contemporary (also see the Index of Contemporary Lute Music by David Parsons and Lynda Sayce) “Bach” redirects here. ... Sylvius Leopold Weiss. ... Bernhard Joachim Hagen (born April 1720 in or near Hamburg (?); died December 9, 1787 in Ansbach) was a German composer, violinist and lutenist. ... Adam Falckenhagen (1697 to 1761) was a German lutenist / composer of the Baroque. ... Lynda Sayce is a lutenist and theorbo player, living near Oxford, United Kingdom, known also as a scholar of musical history and a writer on the history of the lute and theorbo. ...

  • Johann Nepomuk David--Germany
  • Vladimir Vavilov-- Russia
  • Sandor Kallosz-- Hungary and Russia
  • Stefan Lundgren-- Germany and Sweden
  • Toyohiko Satoh -- Japan and Netherlands
  • Ronn McFarlane -- USA
  • Paulo Galvão-- Portugal
  • Rob MacKillop--Scotland
  • Jozef van Wissem-- Netherlands
  • Aleksandr Danilevsky France and Russia
  • Roman Turovsky-Savchuk -- USA and Ukraine
  • Jacopo Gianninoto -- Italy
  • Maxym Zvonaryov-- Ukraine
  • Lodovico Bollacasa -- Italy
  • Martin Pals -- Netherlands

Many historical lute pieces were published, but great many more are found only in manuscripts, perhaps belonging to the composer or perhaps belonging to some amateur lutenist who would copy unpublished pieces, or have a renowned guest inscribe a new composition while visiting. Johann Nepomuk David (November 30, 1895 – December 22, 1977) was an Austrian symphonist who wrote a number of orchestral works including eight symphonies (of which the fifth has been recorded, as have some other works including a disc of organ music,) several concerti including an organ concerto and two... Vladimir Vavilov (5 May 1925 – 3 November 1973) was a Russian guitarist, lutenist and composer. ... Paulo Galvão - (born 196? in Lagos, Algarve, Portugal) is a composer, lutenist, theorbist and guitarist, noted in particular for his compositions for 5-course baroque guitar. ... Jozef van Wissem (b. ... Roman Turovsky-Savchuk Roman Turovsky-Savchuk is a painter and lutenist-composer. ... Jacopo Gianninoto playing a baroque lute Jacopo Gianninoto is an Italian lutenist, guitarist and composer. ...


The modern repertoire is largely drawn from historical publications and manuscripts, though quite a few modern compositions do exist. The historical corpus is vast, consisting of over 40,000 pieces, and about half of it exists only in the original manuscripts and has never been published. Much material circulates among lutenists in facsimiles of the manuscripts or as photocopies of handwritten copies. Historical lute music is most commonly written in tablature, though sometimes in ordinary musical notation instead. Several computer programs now exist designed specifically for the editing and printing of lute tabulature of many types. Example of numeric vihuela tablature from the book Orphenica Lyra by Miguel de Fuenllana (1554). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Ottorino Respighi's famous orchestral suites called Ancient Airs and Dances are drawn from various books and articles on 16th- and 17th-century lute music transcribed by the musicologist Oscar Chilesotti, including eight pieces from a German manuscript Da un Codice Lauten-Buch, now in a private library in northern Italy. Elsa and Ottorino Respighi in the 1920s Ottorino Respighi (Bologna, July 9, 1879 - Rome, April 18, 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist, pianist, violist and violinist. ...

Orazio Gentileschi's young lutenist, painted ca 1626, plays a 10-course lute, typical of the time from around 1600 AD through the 1630s. Music stands appear very rarely in paintings of the period — the music is most commonly laid flat on a table, as seen here.
Orazio Gentileschi's young lutenist, painted ca 1626, plays a 10-course lute, typical of the time from around 1600 AD through the 1630s. Music stands appear very rarely in paintings of the period — the music is most commonly laid flat on a table, as seen here.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 552 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (737 × 800 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From sv: Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 552 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (737 × 800 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From sv: Wikipedia. ... Orazio Gentileschi was an Italian painter. ...

Tuning conventions

Lutes were made in a large variety of sizes, with varying numbers of strings/courses, and with no permanent standard for tuning. However, the following seems to have been generally true of the Renaissance lute: A 6-course Renaissance tenor lute would be tuned to the same intervals as a tenor viol, with intervals of a perfect fourth between all the courses except the 3rd and 4th, which differed only by a major third. The tenor lute was usually tuned nominally "in g"(there was no pitch standard before the 20th century), named after the pitch of the highest course, yielding the pattern [(G'G) (Cc) (FF) (AA) (dd) (g)] from the lowest course to the highest. (Much renaissance lute music can be played on a guitar by tuning the guitar's third string down by a half tone.) Various sizes of viol, from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum (1618) Early Italian tenor viola da gamba, detail from the painting , by Raphael Sanzio, c. ...


For lutes with more than six courses the extra courses would be added on the low end. Due to the large number of strings lutes have very wide necks, and it is difficult to stop strings beyond the sixth course, so additional courses were usually tuned to pitches useful as bass notes rather than continuing the regular pattern of fourths, and these lower courses are most often played without stopping. Thus an 8-course tenor Renaissance lute would be tuned to [(D'D) (F'F) (G'G) (Cc) (FF) (AA) (dd) (g)], and a 10-course to [(C'C) (D'D) (E♭'E♭) (F'F) (G'G) (Cc) (FF) (AA) (dd) (g)].


However, none of these patterns were de rigueur, and a modern lutenist will occasionally be seen to retune one or more courses between performance pieces. Manuscripts bear instructions for the player, e.g. 7e choeur en fa = "seventh course in fa" (= F in the standard C scale).


The first part of the seventeenth century was a period of considerable diversity in the tuning of the lute, particularly in France. However, by around 1670 the scheme known today as the [1]"Baroque" or "d-minor" tuning became the norm, at least in France and in northern and central Europe. In this case the first six courses outline a d-minor triad, and an additional five to seven courses are tuned generally scalewise below them. Thus the 13-course lute played by [2]Weiss would have been tuned [(A"A') (B"B') (C'C) (D'D) (E'E) (F'F) (G'G) (A'A') (DD) (FF) (AA) (d) (f)], or with sharps or flats on the lower 7 courses appropriate to the key of the piece.

6-course Early Renaissance lute tuning chart.
6-course Early Renaissance lute tuning chart.
10-course Late Renaissance/Early Baroque lute tuning chart.
14-course Archlute tuning chart.
15-course Theorbo tuning chart.
13-course Baroque lute tuning chart.
13-course Baroque lute tuning chart.

Modern lutenists tune to a variety of pitch standards, ranging from A = 392 to 470 Hz, depending on the type of instrument they are playing, the repertory, the pitch of other instruments in an ensemble and other performing expediencies. No attempt at a universal pitch standard existed during the period of the lute's historical popularity. The standards varied over time and from place to place. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tuning-arch. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tuning-arch. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tuning-chr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tuning-chr. ...


References

Bibliography

  • A History of the Lute from Antiquity to the Renaissance by Douglas Alton Smith, published by the Lute Society of America (2002). ISBN-10: 0-9714071-0-X ISBN-13: 978-0971407107
  • The Lute in Britain: A History of the Instrument and its Music by Matthew Spring, published by Oxford University Press (2001).
  • Historical Lute Construction by Robert Lundberg, published by the Guild of American Luthiers (2002).
  • La musique de luth en France au XVIe siècle by Jean-Michel Vaccaro (1981).
  • Articles in Journal of the Lute Society of America (1968-), The Lute (1958-), and other journals published by the various national lute societies.
  • Eckhard Neubauer, "Der Bau der Laute und ihre Besaitung nach arabischen, persischen und türkischen Quellen des 9. bis 15. Jahrhunderts," Zeitschrift für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften, vol. 8 (1993): 279–378.

Quotations

The art of playing the lute formed a major part of instrumental music making in the Renaissance before keyboard instruments assumed central significance. It was a refined, soft, and at the same time colorful art, in sharp contrast to the agitated times in which it was practiced.
— Karl Schumann [1]


This style knows nothing of the otherwise usual requirements and prohibitions of voice-leading; it can only be understood in relation to the fingering technique; it frequently applies the sound of open strings and in no way avoids the otherwise so despised parallel 5ths and octaves or unisons. The dissonances and other conflicting sounds which appear so often...strike me as exciting and revealing.
Carl Orff [1] In music, voice leading is the continuity between pitches or notes played successively in time. ... Carl Orff Carl Orff (July 10, 1895) – March 29, 1982) was a 20th-century German composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937). ...

[1] Quotation taken from the liner notes to the Wergo edition of Orff's Kleines Konzert, with English translations by John Patrick Thomas.


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Lute Societies

Lute Music Online and other useful resources

Composers of lute music

Notable composers of lute music include: Renaissance--Italy Francesco Spinacino Vincenzo Capirola Francesco Canova da Milano Simone Molinaro Joan Ambrosio Dalza Giovanni Maria da Crema Vincenzo Galilei Franciscus Bossinensis Renaissance--Spain Luys Milan Alfonso Mudarra Luys de Narvaez Renaissance--France Pierre Attaingnant Antoine Francisque Jean Baptiste Besard Robert Ballard Adrien...

Lute Players

This article is about the musician. ...

See also

European Lutes:

African Lutes: A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The angélique (French, from Italian angelica) is a plucked string instrument of the lute family of the baroque era. ... An Archlute by Matteo Sellas, Venice, 17th century The archlute (Italian arciliuto, German Erzlaute, Russian Архилютня) a European plucked string instrument was developed around 1600 as a compromise between the very large theorbo, the size and re-entrant tuning of which made for difficuties in the performance of solo music, and... A woodcut of a Cittern The cittern is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance, having evolved considerably since that time. ... The mandora or mandore, also known as the gallizona or gallichon, is a type of 6 or 8-course lute (a descendant of guiterne and/or chitarra italiana) used mainly for basso continuo, in Germany, Austria and Bohemia, particularly during the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Kobza (Ukrainian: ) is a traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument, from the lute family, and more specifically a relative of Central European mandora. ... Š Ě Œõǚ ĵ Ŝ ŝ Ŵ ŵ Ŷ ŷ ōǚ ... The torban or teorban is an Eastern European musical instrument that combined features of the Baroque lute with those of the psaltery. ... Theorbo A theorbo (from Italian tiorba, also tuorbe in French, Theorbe in German) is a plucked string instrument. ... Orpheus playing a vihuela. ... Example of numeric vihuela tablature from the book Orphenica Lyra by Miguel de Fuenllana (1554). ... Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus Crete is an island that is a SMALL part of Greece. ...

Asian Lutes: Gonje is a bowed lute. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2417 words)
Medieval lutes were 4- or 5-course instuments, plucked using a quill for a plectrum.
The lute enjoyed a revival with the awakening of interest in historical music around 1900 and throughout the century, and that revival was further boosted by the early music movement of the second half of the Twentieth Century.
Lutes built at present are invariably replicas or near copies of those surviving historical instruments that are to be found in museums or private collections.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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