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Encyclopedia > Lupus nephritis

Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a disease of the immune system. Apart from the kidneys, SLE can also damage the skin, joints and nervous system. The immune system is the system of specialized cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ... Diagram of the layers of human skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. ... This article is about a joint in zootomical anatomy. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ...


Signs and symptoms

Sufferers of lupus nephritis may, or may not have symptoms of kidney disease, but it can manifest itself through weight gain, high blood pressure, dark urine, or swelling around the eyes, legs, ankles, or fingers. See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and is produced by the process of filtration. ... Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ...


Furthermore, they may suffer from other symptoms of lupus unrelated to kidney function. Such symptoms can include arthritis, fevers, gastro-intenstinal disturbances, headaches, fatigue, and fluid in the joints.


Diagnoses

Diagnoses may utilize blood and urine tests, X-rays and scans of the kidneys, and a kidney biopsy. The WHO classification has been replaced by the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Physician Society classification. Classes I and II are mesangial lupus. Class III is focal segmental sclerosis. Class IV is diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Class V is membranous nephritis. Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ...


Treatment

Medicines which decrease swelling, lower blood pressure, and decrease inflammation by suppressing the immune system. Patients may need to limit protein, sodium, and potassium intake in their diet. Depending on the histology, renal function, and degree of proteinuria, patients may require steroid therapy or chemotherapy reguiments such as cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, or cyclosporine.


  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Lupus nephritis (739 words)
Lupus nephritis is a kidney disorder that is a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by damage to the glomerulus and progressive loss of kidney function.
Lupus nephritis is one complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Lupus nephritis is usually discovered during investigation of the causes of reduced kidney function.
Lupus nephritis (281 words)
Lupus nephritis is one complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Systemic lupus erythematosus is most common in women, especially those 20 to 40 years old.
It has a familial tendency, with a higher incidence in fls.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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