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Encyclopedia > Lung
The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity.
The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity.[1]
Air enters and leaves the lungs via a conduit of cartilaginous passageways — the bronchi and bronchioles. In this image, lung tissue has been dissected away to reveal the bronchioles[1]

The lung is the essential respiration organ in air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. The most primitive animals with a lung are the lungfish (vertebrate) and the pulmonate snails (invertebrate). In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located in the chest on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. This exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny, exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli. The lungs also have non respiratory functions. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Heart-and-lungs. ... Image File history File links Heart-and-lungs. ... Image File history File links The lungs. ... Image File history File links The lungs. ... Breathing / Respiration organs are used by most, or all, animals to exchange the gasses necessary for their life functions, known as respiration. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Groups See text. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Lungfish (band). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Suborders Systellommatophora Basommatophora Eupulmonata The Pulmonata are an order (once a subclass) of snails and slugs that have developed a pallial lung and thus can breathe air. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Air redirects here. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ...


Medical terms related to the lung often begin with pulmo-, from the Latin pulmonarius ("of the lungs"), or with pneumo- (from Greek πνεύμω "breath") For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Respiratory function

Energy production to aerobic respiration requires oxygen and glucose and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product, creating a need for an efficient means of oxygen delivery to cells and excretion of carbon dioxide from cells. In small organisms, such as single-celled bacteria, this process of gas exchange can take place entirely by simple diffusion. In larger organisms, this is not possible; only a small proportion of cells are close enough to the surface for oxygen from the atmosphere to enter them through diffusion. Two major adaptations made it possible for organisms to attain great multicellularity: an efficient circulatory system that conveyed gases to and from the deepest tissues in the body, and a large, internalized respiratory system that centralized the task of obtaining oxygen from the atmosphere and bringing it into the body, whence it could rapidly be distributed to all the circulatory system. Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... This article is about the physical mechanism of diffusion. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ...


In air-breathing vertebrates, respiration occurs in a series of steps. Air is brought into the animal via the airways — in reptiles, birds and mammals this often consists of the nose; the pharynx; the larynx; the trachea (also called the windpipe); the bronchi and bronchioles; and the terminal branches of the respiratory tree. The lungs of mammals are a rich lattice of alveoli, which provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange. A network of fine capillaries allows transport of blood over the surface of alveoli. Oxygen from the air inside the alveoli diffuses into the bloodstream, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the alveoli, both across thin alveolar membranes. For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Windpipe redirects here. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... The bronchioles are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Blood flows from digestive system heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... A biological membrane or biomembrane is a membrane which acts as a barrier within or around a cell. ...


The drawing and expulsion of air is driven by muscular action; in early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles, whereas in reptiles, birds and mammals a more complicated musculoskeletal system is used. In the mammal, a large muscle, the diaphragm (in addition to the internal intercostal muscles) drives ventilation by periodically altering the intra-thoracic volume and pressure; by increasing volume and thus decreasing pressure, air flows into the airways down a pressure gradient, and by reducing volume and increasing pressure, the reverse occurs. During normal breathing, expiration is passive and no muscles are contracted (the diaphragm relaxes). For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Groups See text. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... The musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives animals the ability to physically move using the muscles and skeletal system. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ...


Another name for this inspiration and expulsion of air is ventilation. Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation. A person's vital capacity can be measured by a spirometer (spirometry). In combination with other physiological measurements, the vital capacity can help make a diagnosis of underlying lung disease. In respiratory physiology, ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung. ...


Non respiratory functions

In addition to respiratory functions such as gas exchange and regulation of hydrogen ion concentration, the lungs also: Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface - a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... Hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...

Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Angiotensin converting enzyme Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE, EC 3. ... For Trombe wall (used in solar homes), see Trombe wall. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... In mechanics, a shock is a sudden acceleration or deceleration caused, for example, by impact or explosion. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... A Decompression Stop is a period of time a diver must spend at a constant depth in shallow water at the end of a dive in order safely to eliminate inert gases from the divers body to avoid decompression sickness. ...

Mammalian lungs

Further information: Human lung

The lungs of mammals have a spongy texture and are honeycombed with epithelium having a much larger surface area in total than the outer surface area of the lung itself. The lungs of humans are typical of this type of lung. The human lungs are the human organs of respiration. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... The human lungs are the human organs of respiration. ...


Breathing is largely driven by the muscular diaphragm at the bottom of the thorax. Contraction of the diaphragm pulls the bottom of the cavity in which the lung is enclosed downward. Air enters through the oral and nasal cavities; it flows through the larynx and into the trachea, which branches out into bronchi. Relaxation of the diaphragm has the opposite effect, passively recoiling during normal breathing. During exercise, the diaphragm contracts, forcing the air out more quickly and forcefully. The rib cage itself is also able to expand and contract to some degree, through the action of other respiratory and accessory respiratory muscles. As a result, air is sucked into or expelled out of the lungs, always moving down its pressure gradient. This type of lung is known as a bellows lung as it resembles a blacksmith's bellows. In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle A muscle contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a muscle fiber generates tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. ... This article is about the bones called ribs. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ...


Anatomy

In humans, the trachea divides into the two main bronchi that enter the roots of the lungs. The bronchi continue to divide within the lung, and after multiple divisions, give rise to bronchioles. The bronchial tree continues branching until it reaches the level of terminal bronchioles, which lead to alveolar sacks. Alveolar sacs are made up of clusters of alveoli, like individual grapes within a bunch. The individual alveoli are tightly wrapped in blood vessels, and it is here that gas exchange actually occurs. Deoxygenated blood from the heart is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where oxygen diffuses into blood and is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin of the erythrocytes. The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins to be pumped back into systemic circulation. Alveolus redirects here. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...

1:Trachea 2:Pulmonary artery 3:Pulmonary vein 4:Alveolar duct 5:Alveoli 6:Cardiac notch 7:Bronchioles 8:Tertiary bronchi 9:Secondary bronchi 10:Primary bronchi 11:Larynx
1:Trachea 2:Pulmonary artery 3:Pulmonary vein 4:Alveolar duct 5:Alveoli 6:Cardiac notch 7:Bronchioles 8:Tertiary bronchi 9:Secondary bronchi 10:Primary bronchi 11:Larynx

Human lungs are located in two cavities on either side of the heart. Though similar in appearance, the two are not identical. Both are separated into lobes, with three lobes on the right and two on the left. The lobes are further divided into lobules, hexagonal divisions of the lungs that are the smallest subdivision visible to the naked eye. The connective tissue that divides lobules is often blackened in smokers and city dwellers. The medial border of the right lung is nearly vertical, while the left lung contains a cardiac notch. The cardiac notch is a concave impression molded to accommodate the shape of the heart. Lungs are to a certain extent 'overbuilt' and have a tremendous reserve volume as compared to the oxygen exchange requirements when at rest. This is the reason that individuals can smoke for years without having a noticeable decrease in lung function while still or moving slowly; in situations like these only a small portion of the lungs are actually perfused with blood for gas exchange. As oxygen requirements increase due to exercise, a greater volume of the lungs is perfused, allowing the body to match its CO2/O2 exchange requirements. In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension[1][2] which can be determined without the use of a microscope (at the gross anatomy level. ... The anterior border of the right lung is almost vertical, and projects into the costomediastinal sinus; that of the left lung presents, below, an angular notch, the cardiac notch, in which the pericardium is exposed. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


The environment of the lung is very moist, which makes it hospitable for bacteria. Many respiratory illnesses are the result of bacterial or viral infection of the lungs. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Avian lungs

Avian lungs do not have alveoli, as mammalian lungs do, but instead contain millions of tiny passages known as para-bronchi, connected at both ends by the dorsobronchi and that the airflow through the avian lung always travels in the same direction - posterior to anterior. This is in contrast to the mammalian system, in which the direction of airflow in the lung is tidal, reversing between inhalation and exhalation. By utilizing a unidirectional flow of air, avian lungs are able to extract a greater concentration of oxygen from inhaled air. Birds are thus equipped to fly at altitudes at which mammals would succumb to hypoxia, and this also allows them to sustain a higher metabolic rate than an equivalent weight mammal. Because of the complexity of the system, misunderstanding is common and it is incorrectly believed that that it takes two breathing cycles for air to pass entirely through a bird's respiratory system. A bird's lungs do not store air in either of the sacs between respiration cycles, air moves continuously from the posterior to anterior air sacs throughout respiration. This type of lung construction is called circulatory lungs as distinct from the bellows lung possessed by most other animals. For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


Reptilian lungs

Reptilian lungs are typically ventilated by a combination of expansion and contraction of the ribs via axial muscles and buccal pumping. Crocodilians also rely on the hepatic piston method, in which the liver is pulled back by a muscle anchored to the pubic bone (part of the pelvis), which in turn pulls the bottom of the lungs backward, expanding them. Reptilia redirects here. ... Suborders Eusuchia Protosuchia † Mesosuchia † Sebecosuchia † Thalattosuchia † Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that scientists believe branched off from class Reptilia about 220 million years ago. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ...


Amphibian lungs

The lungs of most frogs and other amphibians are simple balloon-like structures, with gas exchange limited to the outer surface area of the lung. This is not a very efficient arrangement, but amphibians have low metabolic demands and also frequently supplement their oxygen supply by diffusion across the moist outer skin of their bodies. Unlike mammals, which use a breathing system driven by negative pressure, amphibians employ positive pressure. The majority of salamander species are lungless salamanders which conduct respiration through their skin and the tissues lining their mouth. The only other known lungless tetrapods are also amphibians — the Bornean Flat-headed Frog (Barbourula kalimantanensis) and Atretochoana eiselti, a caecilian. Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Pressure is defined in terms of a force applied over an area. ... Positive pressure is a pressure within a system that is greater than the environment that surrounds that system. ... Subfamilies Desmognathinae Plethodontinae Lungless salamanders (Family Plethodontidae) are salamanders which do not have lungs and instead conduct respiration through their skin and the tissues lining their mouth. ... Groups See text. ... Binomial name Iskandar, 1978 The Bornean Flat-headed Frog (Barbourula kalimantanensis) is a species of toad in the Bombinatoridae family. ... Families Rhinatrematidae Ichthyophiidae Uraeotyphlidae Scolecomorphidae Typhlonectidae Caeciliidae The Caecilians are an order (Gymnophiona or Apoda) of amphibians that superficially resemble earthworms or snakes. ...


Invertebrate lungs

Some invertebrates have "lungs" that serve a similar respiratory purpose, but are not evolutionarily related to, vertebrate lungs. Some arachnids have structures called "book lungs" used for atmospheric gas exchange. The Coconut crab uses structures called branchiostegal lungs to breathe air and indeed will drown in water, hence it breathes on land and holds its breath underwater. The Pulmonata are an order of snails and slugs that have developed "lungs". Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... For other uses, see Arachnid (disambiguation). ... A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange and is found in arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1767 Coconut crab distribution The coconut crab (Birgus latro) is the largest terrestrial arthropod in the world. ... Suborders Systellommatophora Basommatophora Eupulmonata Stylommatophora The Pulmonata are an order (sometimes subclass) of snails and slugs that have developed lungs. ...


Origins

The lungs of today's terrestrial vertebrates and the gas bladders of today's fish have evolved from simple sacs (outpocketings) of the esophagus that allowed the organism to gulp air under oxygen-poor conditions. Thus the lungs of vertebrates are homologous to the gas bladders of fish (but not to their gills). This is reflected by the fact that the lungs of a fetus also develop from an outpocketing of the esophagus and in the case of gas bladders, this connection to the gut continues to exist as the pneumatic duct in more "primitive" teleosts, and is lost in the higher orders. (This is an instance of correlation between ontogeny and phylogeny.) There are currently no known animals which have both a gas bladder and lungs. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The gas bladder of a Rudd The gas bladder (also fish maw, less accurately swim bladder or air bladder) is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at the current water depth, ascend, or descend without having to... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Gut redirects here. ... Superorders Osteoglossomorpha Elopomorpha Clupeomorpha Ostariophysi Protacanthopterygii Sternopterygii Cyclosquamata Scopelomorpha Lampridiomorpha Polymyxiomorpha Paracanthopterygii Polymyxiomorpha Acanthopterygii Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes. ... In biology, ontogeny is the embryonal development process of a certain species, and phylogeny a species evolutionary history. ...


See also

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi and may specifically refer to: Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting several days or weeks Chronic bronchitis, a persistent, productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive years. ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... For COPD occuring in horses, see recurrent airway obstruction. ... Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which someone breathes an oxygen rich liquid (usually from the perfluorocarbon family), rather than breathing air. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... Dry drowning is when a persons lungs become unable to extract oxygen from the air, due primarily to: Muscular paralysis Puncture wound to the torso (affecting ability of diaphragm to create respiritory movement), or Changes to the oxygen-absorbing tissues. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... The American Lung Association is a non-profit organization which fights lung disease in all its forms, with special emphasis on asthma, tobacco control and environmental health. It was founded in 1904 to fight tuberculosis as the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. ... The left lung is divided into two lobes, an upper and a lower, by the oblique fissure, which extends from the costal to the mediastinal surface of the lung both above and below the hilus. ... The right lung is divided into three lobes, superior, middle, and inferior, by two interlobular fissures: // One of these, the oblique fissure, separates the inferior from the middle and superior lobes, and corresponds closely with the fissure in the left lung. ...

Further reading

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, 20th ed. 1918.
  2. ^ Wienke B.R. : "Decompression theory"
An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

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