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Encyclopedia > Lunar calendar
Calendars
v  d  e
(list)
Wide use Astronomical · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected use Assyrian · Armenian · Attic · Aztec (TonalpohualliXiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Celtic · Chinese · Coptic · Egyptian · Ethiopian · Calendrier Républicain · Germanic · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Julian · Korean · Lithuanian · Malayalam · Maya (Tzolk'inHaab') · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Rapa Nui · Roman · Soviet · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Vietnamese· Xhosa · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Original Julian · Runic · Mesoamerican (Long CountCalendar Round)

A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. The only widely used purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar, whose year always consists of 12 lunar months. A feature of a purely lunar year, on the Islamic calendar model, is that the calendar ceases to be linked to the seasons, and drifts each year by 11 or 12 days, and comes back to the position it had in relation to the solar year every 33 or 34 Islamic years. It is used predominantly for religious purposes. In Saudi Arabia it is also used for commercial purposes. A calendar is a system for assigning calendar dates to days. ... A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... The Assyrian calender is a lunar-based calender that begins in the year 4750 BC, marking the finishing of the first temple build by the Assyrians for the God Ashur. ... The Attic calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ... The Tonalpohualli,the day-count in English, is the 260 day sacred calendar of early Mesoamericans. ... The Xiuhpohualli was a calendar cycle constructed from a count of 365 days, used by the Aztecs and other Nahua peoples from the central Mexican region during the Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura in eastern India. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... Tzolkin (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy orthography which is now preferred, formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by Mayanist scholars upon the version of the 260-day Mesoamerican calendar which was used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... The Maya Haab calendar is a 365-day solar calendar whose dates indicate the position of the Sun at noon relative to the zenith over the Yucatan peninsula. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Pawukon is a 210 day calendar that has its origins in the Hindu religion in Bali, Indonesia. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Page of the Soviet revolutionary calendar showing December 12, 1937 The Soviet revolutionary calendar was in use in the USSR from 1929 to 1940. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... Tết display in Ho Chi Minh City Tết Nguyên Đán (Sino-Vietnamese for Feast of the First Morning, derived from Hán nôm 節元旦), more commonly known by its shortened name Tết, is the most important holiday in Vietnam. ... By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May, when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the time for harvesting. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ... The Pre-Columbian people of Mesoamerica kept track of time with calendars which had ritual and religious meaning. ... Long Count redirects here. ... In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of the Tzolkin 260 day period (eg the Tzolkin) with that of the 365 day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Since there are about twelve lunations (synodic months) in a solar year, this period (354. ... Solar year The period of time required for the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun, measured from one vernal equinox to the next. ...


Most lunar calendars are in fact lunisolar calendars. That is, months are kept on a lunar cycle, but then intercalary months are added to bring the lunar cycles into synchronisation with the solar year. A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ...


Since there are about twelve lunations (synodic months) in a solar year, this period (354.37 days) is sometimes referred to as a lunar year. In Egyptian mythology, Month is an alternate spelling for Menthu. ...

Contents

Lunisolar calendars

Most lunar calendars are in fact lunisolar, such as the Chinese, Hebrew, and Hindu calendars, and most calendar systems used in antiquity. The reason for this is that a year is not evenly divisible by an exact number of lunations, so without the addition of intercalary months the seasons will drift each year. This results in a thirteen-month year every two or three years. How does space sound? Barren and desolate? An empty vacuum of astral winds spinning the darkened horizons. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Lunation is the mean time for one lunar phase cycle (i. ...


Start of the lunar month

Lunar calendars differ as to which day is the first day of the month.


For some lunar calendars, such as the Chinese calendar, the first day of a month is the day when a new moon appears in a particular time zone. In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ...


Many other lunar calendars are based on the first sighting of a lunar crescent. In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ...


Length of the lunar month

The length of a month orbit/cycle is difficult to predict and varies from its average value. Because observations are subject to uncertainty and weather conditions, and astronomical methods are highly complex, there have been attempts to create fixed arithmetical rules.


The average length of the synodic month is 29.530589 days. This means the length of a month is alternately 29 and 30 days (termed respectively hollow and full). The distribution of hollow and full months can be determined using continued fractions, and examining successive approximations for the length of the month in terms of fractions of a day. In the list below, after the number of days listed in the numerator, an integer number of months as listed in the denominator have been completed: In mathematics, a continued fraction is an expression such as where a0 is some integer and all the other numbers an are positive integers. ...

 29 / 1 (error: 1 day after about 2 months) 30 / 1 (error: 1 day after about 2 months) 59 / 2 (error: 1 day after about 33 months) 443 / 15 (error: 1 day after about 30 years) 502 / 17 (error: 1 day after about 70 years) 1447 / 49 (error: 1 day after about 3 millennia) 25101 / 850 (error: dependent on change of synodic month value} 

These fractions can be used in the construction of lunar calendars, or in combination with a solar calendar to produce a lunisolar calendar. The 49-month cycle was proposed as the basis of an alternative Easter computation by Isaac Newton around 1700 [1]. The tabular Islamic calendar's 360-month cycle is equivalent to 24×15 months minus a correction of one day. Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Tabular Islamic calendar - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The recently invented Yerm calendar makes use of all of the above approximations.


Old English 13-month lunar year

In England, a calendar of thirteen months of 28 days each, plus one extra day, known as "a year and a day" was still in use up to Tudor times. This would be a hybrid calendar that had substituted regular weeks of seven days for actual quarter-lunations, so that one month had exactly four weeks, regardless of the actual moon phase. The "lunar year" is here considered to have 364 days, resulting in a solar year of "a year and a day". For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Allegory of the Tudor dynasty (detail), attributed to Lucas de Heere, c. ...


As a religious tradition, the thirteen-month years survived among European peasants for more than a millennium after the adoption of the Julian Calendar[citation needed] and now the Gregorian Calendar. The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


The "Edwardian" (probably Edward II, late 13th or early 14th century) ballad of Robin Hood for example has "How many merry months be in the year? / There are thirteen, I say ...", amended by a Tudor editor to "...There are but twelve, I say....". Robert Graves in the introductions to Greek Myths comments on this with "Thirteen, the number of the sun's death-month, has never lost its evil reputation among the superstitious." Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... 13 (thirteen) is the natural number after 12 and before 14. ...


See also

Tabular Islamic calendar - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ... The epact (from Greek: epaktai hèmerai = added days) is, as the second Canon of the Gregorian Calendar reform puts it, nothing else than the number of days which the common solar year of 365 days surpasses the common lunar year of 354 days (Latin: Epacta nihil aliud est quam...

References

  1. ^ Reform of the Julian Calendar as Envisioned by Isaac Newton by Ari Belenkiy and Eduardo Vila Echagüe (pdf); Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London (vol 59, no 3, pp. 223-254).

External links

  • Moon calendar for 1200 different places in the world - years 1000 to 4000 AD
  • Online Lunar calendar for different places in the world
  • Lunar calendar in English
Before the advent of absolute dating in the 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of Relative Dating techniques. ... In archaeology, seriation is a method in relative dating in which artifacts of numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order. ... In archaeology, especially in the course of excavation, stratification is of major interest and significance. ... Amino acid dating is a technique used to estimate age in a wide variety of situations. ... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... The New Chronology of Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko is an attempt to rewrite world chronology, based on his conclusion that world chronology as we know it today is fundamentally flawed. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... A Synchronoptic view is a graphic display of a number of entities as they proceed through time. ... Look up timeline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the political notion, see Year Zero (political notion). ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Floruit (or fl. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lunar Calendar,Islamic Lunar Calendar,Chinese Lunar Calendar,2008 Lunar Calendar (322 words)
The Chinese lunar New Year is based on the cycles of the moon.
Some Lunar Calendars are determined by the day during which movement of the new moon arrives while other Lunar Calendars are based on the first-sighting of the Lunar crescent.
The average length of the Lunar month is 29 and 30 days as the average length of the synodic month (the mean interval between conjunctions of the Moon and Sun corresponding to the cycle of lunar phases) is 29.5 days.
The Goddess Lunar Calendar (3233 words)
It is possible to devise a lunar calendar which is simple to use (only elementary arithmetic is required for its use — a computer is not needed) and which may be expected to stay in sync with the lunar phases over a period of several millennia.
To ensure this the calendar must be designed so that the average length of a calendar month is as close as possible to the synodic month (at least during the period in which the calendar is expected to be usable, preferably for a few thousand years at least).
A lunar calendar which has this property must either be based on more complicated rules (and it is doubtful that any rule-based calendar with this property is possible) or it must incorporate astronomical observation to provide empirical corrections.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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