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Encyclopedia > Luna 3
Luna 3
Organization: Soviet Union
Major contractors: OKB-1
Mission type: Planetary Science
Lunar Flyby
Launch: October 4, 1959 at 02:24:00 UTC
Launch vehicle: SS-6/R-7 (8K72)
Mission highlight: Lunar flyby
October 6, 1959, 14:16 UTC
at distance of 6,200 km near south pole
Mission duration: ~207 days - Reentered April 29, 1960
Mass: 278.5 kg
NSSDC ID: 1959-008A
Webpage: NASA NSSDC Master Catalog
Orbital elements
Satellite of: Earth
Semimajor axis: 250,682 km
Eccentricity: 0.8379
Inclination: 76.8°
Orbital period: 15 d
Apoastron: 460,725 km
Periastron: 40,638 km
Orbits: ~14
Lunar Landing: n/a
Landing
coordinates:
n/a
Lunar liftoff: n/a
Instruments
Yenisey-2 Camera/Film processor (Lunar photography)

Luna 3 (E-3 series) was the third spacecraft sent successfully to the moon and was an early triumph in the human exploration of outer space. Though it returned rather poor pictures by later standards, the historic, never-before-seen views of the Moon's far side caused excitement and interest when they were published around the world, and a tentative Atlas of the Far Side of the Moon was created after image processing improved the pictures. Luna 3 flyby probe (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with R-7 Semyorka. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that orbit uniquely, given a model of two ideal masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... In geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) a applies to ellipses and hyperbolas. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... Far side of the Moon. ...


These views showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and only two dark, low-lying regions which were named Mare Moscovrae (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Dreams). Mare Desiderii was later found to be composed of a smaller mare, Mare Ingenii (Sea of Ingenuity), and other dark craters. Mare Moscoviense (sea of Muscovy) is a lunar mare that sits in the Moscoviense basin. ... Mare Desiderii (Sea of Dreams) was an area of the Moon named after Luna 3 returned the first pictures of the far side. ... Located on the Moons southern hemisphere, Mare Ingenii (sea of cleverness) is one of the few lunar mare features on the far side of the Moon. ...


It was also the first 3-axis stabilized spacecraft, meaning that it could control its orientation (or "attitude"). Using the Sun and Moon as reference points, the spacecraft rotated until the camera pointed toward the moon, and then stopped moving. Spacecraft until then were spin-stabilized.[1] // In the context of spacecraft, attitude control is control of the angular position and rotation of the spacecraft, either relative to the object that it is orbiting, or relative to the celestial sphere. ... Spin-stabilized satellite is an artificial satellite that spins about an axis to maintain orbital control. ...

Contents

Spacecraft design

The spacecraft was a cylindric canister with hemispheric ends and a wide flange near the top. The probe was 130 cm long and 120 cm at its maximum diameter at the flange. Most of the cylindric section was roughly 95 cm in diameter. The canister was hermetically sealed and pressurized at 0.23 atmosphere (23 kilopascals). Solar cells were mounted on the outside of the cylinder and provided power to the chemical batteries stored inside the spacecraft. The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ...


Jalousies for thermal control were positioned along the cylinder and opened to expose a radiating surface when the internal temperature exceeded 25 degrees Celsius. The upper hemisphere of the probe held the covered opening for the cameras. Four antennae protruded from the top of the probe and two from the bottom. Other scientific equipment was mounted on the outside, including micrometeoroid and cosmic ray detectors, and the Yenisey-2 imaging system. Gas jets for attitude control were mounted at the lower end of the spacecraft. Photoelectric cells helped maintain orientation with respect to the sun and moon. A jalousie is a slatted window covering, typically a shutter or window covering, which consists of a set of parallel angled slats. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna or aerial is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... A Micrometeoroid (also micrometeorite, micrometeor) is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock from space, usually weighing less than a gram, that poses a threat to space exploration. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Yenisey-2 was the name designated to the imaging system on Luna 3 and consisted of a dual lens camera, an automatic film processing unit, and a scanner. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


The spacecraft had no rockets for course adjustment. The interior held the cameras and film processing system, radio equipment, propulsion systems, batteries, gyroscopic units for attitude control, and circulating fans for temperature control. The spacecraft was spin stabilized for most of the flight, but engaged attitude control to take pictures. It was directly radio-controlled from the Soviet Union.


Mission

After launching on an 8K72 (number I1-8) rocket over the north pole, the Blok-E escape stage was shut down by radio control to put Luna 3 on a course to the moon. Initial radio contact showed the signal from the probe was only about half as strong as expected and the internal temperature was rising. The spacecraft spin axis was reoriented and some equipment was shut down resulting in a temperature drop from 40 °C to about 30 °C. At a distance of 60,000 to 70,000 km from the moon, the orientation system was turned on and spacecraft rotation was stopped. The lower end of the craft was pointed at the sun, which was shining on the far side of the moon. For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ...


The spacecraft passed within 6,200 km of the moon near the south pole at its closest approach at 14:16 UT on October 6, 1959 and continued on to the far side. On October 7 the photocell on the upper end of the spacecraft detected the sunlit far side of the moon and the photography sequence started. The first picture was taken at 03:30 UT at a distance of 63,500 km from the moon, and the last picture 40 minutes later from 66,700 km. October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ...


A total of 29 pictures were taken, covering 70% of the far side. After the photography was complete the spacecraft resumed spinning, passed over the north pole of the moon and returned towards earth. Attempts to transmit the pictures to the Soviet Union began on October 8 but were believed to be unsuccessful due to the low signal strength. As Luna 3 drew closer to earth a total of 17 viewable but poor quality photographs were transmitted by October 18. Contact with the probe was lost on October 22. The probe was believed to have burned up in Earth's atmosphere in March or April of 1960, but may have survived in orbit until after 1962. October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lunar Photography

The purpose of this experiment was to obtain photographs of the lunar surface as the spacecraft flew by the moon. The imaging system was designated Yenisey-2 and consisted of a dual-lens camera AFA-E1, an automatic film processing unit, and a scanner. The lenses on the camera were a 200 mm focal length, f/5.6 aperture objective and a 500 mm, f/9.5 objective. The camera carried 40 frames of temperature- and radiation resistant 35-mm isochrome film. The 200 mm objective could image the full disk of the moon and the 500 mm could take an image of a region on the surface. The camera was fixed in the spacecraft and pointing was achieved by rotating the craft itself. A 35mm lens set to f/11, as indicated by the white dot above the f-stop scale on the aperture ring In photography the f-number (focal ratio) expresses the diameter of the diaphragm aperture in terms of the effective focal length of the lens. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A photocell was used to detect the moon and orient the upper end of the spacecraft and cameras towards it. Detection of the moon signalled the camera cover to open and the photography sequence to start automatically. The images alternated between both cameras during the sequence. After photography was complete, the film was moved to an on-board processor where it was developed, fixed, and dried. Commands from earth were then given and the film was moved to a scanner where a bright spot produced by a cathode ray tube was projected through the film onto a photelectric multiplier. The spot was scanned across the film and the photomultiplier converted the intensity of the light passing through the film into an electric signal which was transmitted to earth (frequency-modulated analog video, similar to facsimile). A frame could be scanned with a resolution of 1000 (horizontal) lines and the transmission could be done at a slow rate for large distances from earth and a faster rate at closer range. A photoresistor is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT Electron guns Electron beams Focusing coils Deflection coils Anode connection Mask for separating beams for red, green, and blue part of displayed image Phosphor layer with red, green, and blue zones Close-up of the phosphor... Photomultipliers, or photomultiplier tubes (PMT) are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared. ...


The camera took 29 pictures over 40 minutes on 7 October 1959, from 03:30 UT to 04:10 UT at distances ranging from 63,500 km to 66,700 km above the surface, covering 70% of the lunar far side. Seventeen (some say twelve) of these frames were successfully transmitted back to earth, and 6 were published (frames 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, and 35) humanity's first views of the far hemisphere of the moon. October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The imaging system was developed by P.F. Bratslavets and I.A. Rosselevich at the Leningrad Scientific Research Institute of Television and the returned images were processed and analyzed by Iu.N. Lipskii and his team at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. The camera AFA-E1 was developed and manufactured by the KMZ factory (Krasnogorskiy Mekhanicheskiy Zavod). Sternberg Astronomical Institute is a research institution in Moscow, Russia, division of Moscow State University. ...

External links

Preceded by
Luna 2
Luna programme Succeeded by
Luna 1960A


Luna 2 (E-1A series) was the second of the Soviet Unions Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. ... The Luna programme (occasionally called Lunik) was a series of unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Luna 1960A (E-3 series) was the second Soviet attempt to photograph the far side of the Moon. ...

 

Luna programme
Luna lander bus
Luna 1958A | Luna 1958B | Luna 1958C | Luna 1 | Luna 1959A | Luna 2 | Luna 3 | Luna 1960A | Luna 1960B | Sputnik 25 | Luna 1963B | Luna 4 | Luna 1964A | Luna 1964B | Cosmos 60 | Luna 1965A | Luna 5 | Luna 6 | Luna 7 | Luna 8 | Luna 9 | Cosmos 111 | Luna 10 | Luna 1966A | Luna 11 | Luna 12 | Luna 13 | Luna 1968A | Luna 14 | Luna 1969A | Luna 1969B | Luna 1969C | Luna 15 | Cosmos 300 | Cosmos 305 | Luna 1970A | Luna 1970B | Luna 16 | Luna 17 | Luna 18 | Luna 19 | Luna 20 | Luna 21 | Luna 22 | Luna 23 | Luna 1975A | Luna 24

This article contains material that originally came from a NASA website. According to their site usage guidelines, "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted". For more information, please review NASA's use guidelines. The Luna programme (occasionally called Lunik) was a series of unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Image File history File links Luna-9_spacecraft. ... Luna 1958A (E-1 series) was the first Soviet spacecraft which was using for mission to the Moon. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Luna 1958C (E-1 series) was the third Soviet spacecraft which was used for mission to the Moon. ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... Luna 2. ... Luna 2 (E-1A series) was the second of the Soviet Unions Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. ... Luna 1960A (E-3 series) was the second Soviet attempt to photograph the far side of the Moon. ... Luna 1960B (E-3 series) was the third Soviet attempt to photograph the far side of the Moon. ... The mission of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 25 was an attempted lunar soft landing, with the purpose of returning data on the mechanical characteristics of the lunar surface, the hazards presented by the topology such as craters, rocks, and other obstructions, and radiation, in preparation for future manned landings. ... Luna 1963B (E-6 series) was the second Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... Luna 4 was the USSRs first successful spacecraft of their second generation Luna program. ... Luna 1964A (E-6 series) was the fourth Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... Luna 1964B (E-6 series) was the fifth Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... The Cosmos 60 probe, launched by the Soviet Union on March 12, 1965, was intended to be a lunar soft-landing mission, with a design similar to that of Luna 4. ... Luna 1965A (E-6 series) was the seventh Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... Luna 5 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 5. ... Luna 6 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 6. ... Luna 7 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 7. ... Luna 8 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 8. ... Luna 9 (E-6 series), also known as Lunik 9 (internal name E-6 N. 13), was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Unions Luna program. ... Luna 10 spacecraft. ... Luna 10 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 10. ... Luna 1966A was the third Soviet attempt to orbit a spacecraft around the Moon (the first attempt being the unsuccessful Cosmos 111 mission and the second being the successful Luna 10 mission). ... Luna 11 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Unions Luna program. ... Luna 12 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 12. ... Luna 13 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 13. ... Luna 1968A (E-6LS series) was a Soviet attempt to orbit a spacecraft around the Moon. ... Luna 14 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program run by the Soviet Union. ... Lunakhod Luna 1969A (Ye-8 series) was the first attempt to land a Lunokhod rover on the Moon. ... Luna 1969B was the first Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 1969C (Ye-8-5 series) was the second Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 15 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 15. ... Cosmos 300 (Ye-8-5 series) was the fourth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Cosmos 305 (Ye-8-5 series) was the fifth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 1970A (Ye-8-5 series) was the sixth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 1970B was an attempted lunar orbiter. ... Luna 16 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 16. ... Luna 17 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 17. ... Luna 18 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 18. ... Luna 19 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 19. ... Luna 20 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 20. ... Luna 21 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 21. ... Luna 22 was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 22. ... Luna 23 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 23. ... Luna 1975A was a Soviet unmanned space mission, part of the Luna program, and similar to the later Luna 24 mission which successfully collected and returned to Earth a sample of lunar material. ... Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 24. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Luna 3 (2480 words)
Luna 3 flyby probe (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version.
Categories: Luna programme Luna 2 was the second of the Soviet Unions Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon.
Luna è anche il suo nome ufficiale, nome che viene usato in senso generico (e con la minuscola, luna) per tutti i satelliti naturali che si trovano in orbita attorno ad altri pianeti.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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