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Encyclopedia > Luna 2
Luna 2
Luna 2
Organization: Soviet Union
Major contractors: OKB-1
Mission type: Lunar Science
Lunar impact
Launch: September 12, 1959 at 06:39:42 UTC
Launch vehicle: SS-6/R-7 (8K72)
Mission highlight: Lunar impact (see below)
Mission duration: 33.5 hours
Mass: 390.2 kg (860.2 lb)
NSSDC ID: 1959-014A
Webpage: NASA NSSDC Master Catalog
Orbital elements
Satellite of: Moon
Semimajor axis: n/a
Eccentricity: n/a
Inclination: n/a
Orbital period: n/a
Apoastron: n/a
Periastron: n/a
Orbits: none
Lunar Landing: Impacted on moon
September 14, 1959, 22:02:24 UTC
Landing
coordinates:
29.1° N, 0° W.
Lunar liftoff: n/a
Instruments
Magnetometer (magnetic fields)
Geiger counter (radiation environment)
Micrometeoroid detector
Scintillation counter (magnetospheric studies)

Luna 2 (E-1A series) was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. Being the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon, it impacted the lunar surface west of Mare Serenitatis near the Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus craters. Luna 2 was similar in design to Luna 1, a spherical spacecraft with protruding antennae and instrument parts. The instrumentation was also similar, including scintillation counters, geiger counters, a magnetometer, Cherenkov detectors, and micrometeorite detectors. There were no propulsion systems on Luna 2 itself. Luna 2 Soviet moon probe. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... For other moons in the solar system see natural satellite. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UTC redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with R-7 Semyorka. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that orbit uniquely, given a model of two ideal masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... In geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) a applies to ellipses and hyperbolas. ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Luna programme was a series of 24 unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... A map of Mare Serenitatis. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Archimedes is a large lunar impact crater on the eastern edges of the Mare Imbrium. ... The name Autolycus refers to several people: In Greek mythology, Autolycus, or Autólykos was the son of Chione and Hermes and father of Anticlea and several sons, of whom only Aesimus is named. ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... A scintillation counter measures ionizing radiation. ... Modern geiger counter. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... Cherenkov radiation glowing in the core of a TRIGA reactor Cherenkov radiation (also spelled Cerenkov or sometimes Čerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium. ... A Micrometeoroid (also micrometeorite, micrometeor) is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock from space, usually weighing less than a gram, that poses a threat to space exploration. ...


Scientifically, Luna 2 is most famous for making the discovery of the solar wind, via its hemispherical ion traps designed by Konstantin Gringauz. Luna 1 had provided the first evidence of this phenomenon; on Luna 2, Gringauz changed the four sensors to a tetrahedral arrangement, instead of planar, to get better measurements of the plasma flux. The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause For the British comic, see Solar Wind (comic). ...


After launching and attaining escape velocity on September 13, 1959, Luna 2 separated from its third stage, which travelled along with it towards the Moon. On September 13 the spacecraft released a bright orange cloud of sodium gas, which aided in spacecraft tracking and acted as an experiment on the behavior of gas in space. On September 14, after 33.5 hours of flight, radio signals from Luna 2 abruptly ceased, indicating it had impacted on the Moon. The impact point, in the Palus Putredinis region, is roughly estimated to have occurred at 0 degrees longitude, 29.1 degrees N latitude. Some 30 minutes after Luna 2, the third stage of its rocket also impacted the Moon. The mission confirmed that the Moon had no appreciable magnetic field, and found no evidence of the Moon having radiation belts. Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71 In physics, for a given gravitational field and a given position, the escape velocity is the minimum speed an object without propulsion, at that position, needs to have to move away indefinitely from the source of the field, as opposed to falling... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... Palus Putredinus (latin for Marsh of Decay) is an area of the lunar surface that stretches from Archimedes crater southeast toward the rugged Montes Apenninus range. ... Current (I) flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field () around the wire. ... Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ...

Contents

Luna 2 and the Van Allen Radiation Belt

Luna 2 showed time variations in the electron flux and energy spectrum within the outer belt. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Van Allen radiation belts The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earths magnetic field. ...


Luna 2 was instrumented with a three component fluxgate magnetometer, similar to that used on Luna 1, but with the dynamic range reduced by a factor of 4 to -750 to +750 nanoteslas (gammas) so that the quantization uncertainty was -12 to +12 nT. The spacecraft spin period was 840 seconds about the major axis, and there was a precession with a period of 86 seconds. The sampling rate of the instrument was approximately once per minute. According to the Principal Investigator, the errors associated with the experiment zero levels and spacecraft fields were such that the accuracy was approximately 50 to 100 nT. The spacecraft gave results similar to those of Luna 1 in the Earth's radiation belts and, upon impact, placed an upper limit of 100 nT on the lunar magnetic field at the surface. A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... The nanotesla (nT) is a unit of magnetic flux density equal to 10−9 tesla (unit). ...


USSR pennants

Elements of the USSR pennants, delivered by Luna 2 to the moon
Elements of the USSR pennants, delivered by Luna 2 to the moon

The spacecraft also carried Soviet pennants. Two of them, located in the spacecraft, were sphere-shaped, with the surface covered by identical pentagonal elements. In the center of this sphere was an explosive to scatter these elements around on impact. Each pentagonal element was made of stainless steel and had the USSR Coat of Arms and the Cyrillic letters СССР (Russian; it translates into English as USSR) relief engraved on one side, and the words СССР СЕНТЯБРЬ 1959 (English: USSR SEPTEMBER 1959) relief engraved on the other side. The third pennant was located in the last stage of the Luna 2 rocket, which impacted the moon 30 minutes after the spacecraft did. It was a capsule filled with liquid, with aluminium strips placed into it. On each of these strips the USSR Coat of Arms, the words 1959 СЕНТЯБРЬ (English: 1959 SEPTEMBER) and the words СОЮЗ СОВЕТСКИХ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКИХ РЕСПУБЛИК (English: UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS) were engraved. This image is from the Soviet newspaper Pravda (September 14, 1959 issue). ... This image is from the Soviet newspaper Pravda (September 14, 1959 issue). ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian (the de facto official language), 14 other official languages Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1922-1924 Vladimir Lenin  - 1924-1953 Joseph Stalin... A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... Look up pentagon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Images and media for deletion. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ...


On September 15, 1959, the premier of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev, presented to the American president Dwight D. Eisenhower a copy of the spherical pennant as a gift. September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: ; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... D. D. Eisenhower during WWII Eisenhower redirects here. ...


Cultural References

The song "LUИIK 2" appears on the album "Planet Reverb" by Jetpack (musician). It features Russian diologue and space sound effects portraying the journey of the craft. The album liner notes dedicate it to "the men and women of the Soviet space program". For the game, see Jetpack (computer game). ...


See also

Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Sinus Lunicus is an area of lunar mare along the southeast edge of the Mare Imbrium. ... Map of the moon showing some landing sites. ...

External link

  • Soviet Spacecraft Pennants
Preceded by
Luna 1959A
Luna program Succeeded by
Luna 3


Luna 2. ... The Luna programme was a series of 24 unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Luna 3, an automatic interplanetary station of the Luna program, was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side. ...

 

Luna programme
Luna lander bus
Luna 1958A | Luna 1958B | Luna 1958C | Luna 1 | Luna 1959A | Luna 2 | Luna 3 | Luna 1960A | Luna 1960B | Sputnik 25 | Luna 1963B | Luna 4 | Luna 1964A | Luna 1964B | Cosmos 60 | Luna 1965A | Luna 5 | Luna 6 | Luna 7 | Luna 8 | Luna 9 | Cosmos 111 | Luna 10 | Luna 1966A | Luna 11 | Luna 12 | Luna 13 | Luna 1968A | Luna 14 | Luna 1969A | Luna 1969B | Luna 1969C | Luna 15 | Cosmos 300 | Cosmos 305 | Luna 1970A | Luna 1970B | Luna 16 | Luna 17 | Luna 18 | Luna 19 | Luna 20 | Luna 21 | Luna 22 | Luna 23 | Luna 1975A | Luna 24

This article contains material that originally came from a NASA website. According to their site usage guidelines, "NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted". For more information, please review NASA's use guidelines. The Luna programme (occasionally called Lunik) was a series of unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Image File history File links Luna-9_spacecraft. ... Luna 1958A (E-1 series) was the first Soviet spacecraft which was using for mission to the Moon. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Luna 1958C (E-1 series) was the third Soviet spacecraft which was used for mission to the Moon. ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... Luna 2. ... Luna 3, an automatic interplanetary station of the Luna program, was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side. ... Luna 1960A (E-3 series) was the second Soviet attempt to photograph the far side of the Moon. ... Luna 1960B (E-3 series) was the third Soviet attempt to photograph the far side of the Moon. ... The mission of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 25 was an attempted lunar soft landing, with the purpose of returning data on the mechanical characteristics of the lunar surface, the hazards presented by the topology such as craters, rocks, and other obstructions, and radiation, in preparation for future manned landings. ... Luna 1963B (E-6 series) was the second Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... Luna 4 was the USSRs first successful spacecraft of their second generation Luna program. ... Luna 1964A (E-6 series) was the fourth Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... Luna 1964B (E-6 series) was the fifth Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... The Cosmos 60 probe, launched by the Soviet Union on March 12, 1965, was intended to be a lunar soft-landing mission, with a design similar to that of Luna 4. ... Luna 1965A (E-6 series) was the seventh Soviet attempt to land an unmanned spacecraft on the Moon. ... Luna 5 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 5. ... Luna 6 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 6. ... Luna 7 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 7. ... Luna 8 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 8. ... Luna 9 (E-6 series), also known as Lunik 9 (internal name E-6 N. 13), was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Unions Luna program. ... Luna 10 spacecraft. ... Luna 10 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 10. ... Luna 1966A was the third Soviet attempt to orbit a spacecraft around the Moon (the first attempt being the unsuccessful Cosmos 111 mission and the second being the successful Luna 10 mission). ... Luna 11 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Unions Luna program. ... Luna 12 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 12. ... Luna 13 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 13. ... Luna 1968A (E-6LS series) was a Soviet attempt to orbit a spacecraft around the Moon. ... Luna 14 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program run by the Soviet Union. ... Lunakhod Luna 1969A (Ye-8 series) was the first attempt to land a Lunokhod rover on the Moon. ... Luna 1969B was the first Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 1969C (Ye-8-5 series) was the second Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 15 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 15. ... Cosmos 300 (Ye-8-5 series) was the fourth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Cosmos 305 (Ye-8-5 series) was the fifth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 1970A (Ye-8-5 series) was the sixth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return. ... Luna 1970B was an attempted lunar orbiter. ... Luna 16 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 16. ... Luna 17 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 17. ... Luna 18 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 18. ... Luna 19 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 19. ... Luna 20 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 20. ... Luna 21 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 21. ... Luna 22 was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 22. ... Luna 23 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 23. ... Luna 1975A was a Soviet unmanned space mission, part of the Luna program, and similar to the later Luna 24 mission which successfully collected and returned to Earth a sample of lunar material. ... Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 24. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for that nations public space program. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ...


 
 

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