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Encyclopedia > Lumber
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill

roni Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links This is a photo I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... Image File history File links This is a photo I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ...


Lumber or timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use — from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use — as structural material for construction or wood pulp for paper production. In the U.K. and Australia, "timber" is a term also used for sawn wood products (that is, boards), whereas generally in the United States and Canada, the product of timber cut into boards is referred to as lumber. In the United States and Canada sawn wood products of five inches (127 millimeters) (nominal size) diameter or greater are sometimes called "timbers". For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... “UK” redirects here. ...

Mountain ash logs at a sawmill in Australia
Mountain ash logs at a sawmill in Australia
Wood cut from Victorian Mountain Ash
Wood cut from Victorian Mountain Ash

Lumber is supplied either rough or finished. Rough lumber is the raw material for furniture making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. It is available in many species, usually hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes, mostly for the construction industry, and is primarily one of a few coniferous (needle-bearing) species such as pine, cedar, hemlock, fir or spruce. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 634 KB) Mountain ash logs at a woodmill File links The following pages link to this file: Lumber Eucalyptus regnans Sawmill ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 634 KB) Mountain ash logs at a woodmill File links The following pages link to this file: Lumber Eucalyptus regnans Sawmill ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 375 KB) Wood from victorian mountain ash File links The following pages link to this file: Lumber Eucalyptus regnans Sawmill ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 375 KB) Wood from victorian mountain ash File links The following pages link to this file: Lumber Eucalyptus regnans Sawmill ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... Species Eastern Hemlock Carolina Hemlock Taiwan Hemlock Northern Japanese Hemlock Himalayan Hemlock Forrests Hemlock Western Hemlock Mountain Hemlock Southern Japanese Hemlock Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the family Pinaceae. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... Species About 35; see text. ...

Contents

Dimensional lumber

Dimensional lumber is a term used in North America for lumber that is finished/planed and cut to standardized width and depth specified in inches. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Softwoods

Softwood Dimensional Lumber Sizes
Nominal Actual Nominal Actual
1 × 2 ¾″ × 1½″ (19×38 mm) 2 × 2 1½″ × 1½″ (38×38 mm)
1 × 3 ¾″ × 2½″ (19×64 mm) 2 × 3 1½″ × 2½″ (38×64 mm)
1 × 4 ¾″ × 3½″ (19×89 mm) 2 × 4 1½″ × 3½″ (38×89 mm)
1 × 6 ¾″ × 5½″ (19×140 mm) 2 × 6 1½″ × 5½″ (38×140 mm)
1 × 8 ¾″ × 7¼″ (19×184 mm) 2 × 8 1½″ × 7¼″ (38×184 mm)
1 × 10 ¾″ × 9¼″ (19×235 mm) 2 × 10 1½″ × 9¼″ (38×235 mm)
1 × 12 ¾″ × 115/8″ (19×286 mm) 2 × 12 1½″ × 11¼″ (38×286 mm)
3 × 4 2½″ × 3½″ (64×89 mm) 2 × 14 1½″ × 13¼″ (38×337 mm)
4 × 4 3½″ × 3½″ (89×89 mm) 6 × 6 5½″ × 5½″ (140×140 mm)
4 × 6 3½″ × 5½″ (89×140 mm) 8 × 8 7¼″ × 7¼″ (184×184 mm)

Examples of common sizes are 2×4 (also two-by-four and other variants such as four-b'-two in Australia), 2×6, and 4×4. The length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depth. It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four, eight, or twelve feet in length. In the United States the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 feet.


Solid dimensional lumber typically is only available up to lengths of 24′, yet since builders have a need for lengths beyond that for roof construction (rafters), builders use "finger-jointed" lumber that can be up to 36′ long in 2×6 size (see Engineered Lumber below). Finger-jointed lumber is also widely used for smaller lengths like studs, the vertical members of a framed wall. Pre-cut studs save a framer a lot of time as they are pre-cut by the manufacturer to be used in 8′, 9′ & 10′ ceiling applications, which means they have removed a few inches of the piece to allow for the sill plate and the double top plate with no additional sizing necessary by the framer.


In the Americas, two-bys (2×4s, 2×6s, 2×8s, 2×10s, and 2×12s) are common lumber sizes used in modern construction. They are the basic building block for such common structures as balloon-frame or platform-frame housing. Dimensional lumber made from softwood is typically used for construction, while hardwood boards are more commonly used for making cabinets or furniture. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Balloon framing is method of wood construction used primarily in Scandinavia and the United States. ... Platform framing is a light-frame construction system and the most common method of constructing the frame for houses and small apartment buildings as well as some small commercial buildings in Canada and the United States. ... Despite being fairly hard, cedar is a softwood Softwood is a generic term used in woodworking and the lumber industries for wood from conifers (needle-bearing trees from the order Pinales). ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ...


The nominal size of a board varies from the actual size of the board. This is due to planing and shrinkage as the board is dried. This results in the final lumber being slightly smaller than the nominal size. Also, if the wood is surfaced when it is green, the initial dimensions are slightly larger (e.g. 1/16″ bigger for up to 4″ nominal lumber, ⅛″ for 5″ and 6″ nominal lumber, ¼″ bigger for larger sizes). As the wood dries, it shrinks and reaches the specified actual dimensions. A Japanese plane in use A plane is a tool for shaping wood. ...


The timber industry states that finishing and drying the lumber results in the nominal size differing from the actual size, however, you will find that many houses built more than roughly 50 years ago usually have timber where the actual size and nominal size are the same. This has allowed new construction to become less expensive without having to modify municipal, state, and national building codes.[citation needed]


Non-North American sizes

Examples of Dimensional Lumber Sizes (Softwood and Hardwood)
Inch name Sawed Swedish Australian
2 × 4 50 × 100 mm 45 × 95 mm 45 × 90 mm
1 × 3 25 × 75 mm 22 × 70 mm 19 × 70 mm
3 × 3 75 × 75 mm 70 × 70 mm
2 × 7 50 × 175 mm 45 × 170 mm Not used
2 × 3 50 × 75 mm 45 × 70 mm 45 × 70 mm
1 × 4 25 × 100 mm 22 × 95 mm 19 × 90 mm
1 × 5 25 × 125 mm 22 × 120 mm 19 × 120 mm
2 × 5 50 × 125 mm 45 × 120 mm 45 × 120 mm

Outside North America sizes of timber vary slightly. Sizes are, in some cases, based on the imperial measurement and referred to as such; in other cases the sizes are too far removed from the imperial size to be referred to by imperial measurement. Lengths are sold every 300 mm (a metric approximation of 1′). Common sizes are similar to the North American equivalent; 2.4, 2.7, 3.0, 3.6, 4.2, 4.8, 5.4, 6.0.


Hardwoods

Hardwood Dimensional Lumber Sizes
Nominal Surfaced 1 Side (S1S) Surfaced 2 sides (S2S)
½″ ⅜″ 5/16″
⅝″ ½″ 7/16″
¾″ ⅝″ 9/16″
1″ or 4/4 ⅞″ 13/16″
1¼″ or 5/4 1⅛″ 1-1/16″
1½″ or 6/4 1⅜″ 1-5/16″
2″ or 8/4 1-13/16″ 1¾″
3″ or 12/4 2-13/16″ 2¾″
4″ or 16/4 3-13/16″ 3¾″

In North America sizes for dimensional lumber made from hardwoods varies from the sizes for softwoods. Boards are usually supplied in random widths and lengths of a specified thickness, and sold by the board-foot (12 cubic inches, 1/12th of a cubic foot). This does not apply in all countries, for example in Australia many boards are sold to timber yards in packs with a common profile (dimensions) but not necessarily of consisting of the same length boards. Hardwoods cut for furniture are cut in the fall and winter, after the sap has stopped running in the trees. If hardwoods are cut in the spring or summer the sap ruins the natural color of the timber and deteriorates the value of the timber for furniture. The board-foot is a specialized unit of volume for measuring lumber in the United States and Canada. ...


Also in North America hardwood lumber is commonly sold in a “quarter” system when referring to thickness. 4/4 (four quarters) refers to a one-inch thick board, 8/4 (eight quarters) is a two-inch thick board, etc. This system is not usually used for softwood lumber, although softwood decking is sometimes sold as 5/4 (actually one inch thick).


Engineered lumber

Engineered lumber is lumber created by a manufacturer and designed for a certain structural purpose. The main categories of engineered lumber are:[1] Engineered wood, also called composite wood, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding together the strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials. ...

  1. Laminated Veneer Lumber – Generally called "LVL", they come in 1-3/4″ thicknesses with depths such as 9″, 11-7/8″, 13″, 16″, 18″, 24″, and are typically doubled or tripled up. They function as beams to provide support over large spans such as removed support walls and garage door openings, places where dimensional lumber isn't structurally sound to use, and also in areas where a heavy load is bearing from a floor, wall or roof above on a somewhat short span where dimensional lumber isn't practical. This type of lumber cannot be altered by holes or notches anywhere within the span or at the ends as it compromises the integrity of the beam, but nails can be driven into it wherever necessary to anchor the beam or to add hangers for I-joists or dimensional lumber joists which terminate at an LVL.
  2. Wood I-joists – Sometimes called "TJI" or "Trus Joists", which are both brands of wood I-joists, they are used for floor joists on upper floors and also in 1st floor conventional foundation construction on piers as opposed to slab floor construction. They are engineered for long spans and are doubled up in places where a wall will be placed over them, and sometimes tripled where heavy roof-loaded support walls are placed above them. They consist of a top and bottom chord/flange made from LVL with a webbing in-between made from OSB (oriented strand board). The webbing can be removed up to certain sizes/shapes according to the manufacturers (and engineers) specifications, but for small holes, wood I-joists come with "knockouts", which are perforated, pre-cut areas where holes can be made easily typically without engineering approval. When large holes are needed, they can typically be made in the webbing only (the top & bottom chords cannot be cut) and only in the center third of the span. Sizes & shapes of the hole, and typically the placing of a hole itself, must be approved by an engineer prior to the cutting of the hole and in many areas, a sheet showing the calculations made by the engineer must be provided to the building inspection authorities before the hole will be approved. Some I-joists are made with W-style webbing like a truss to eliminate cutting and allow ductwork to pass through.
    Freshly cut logs showing sap running from beneath bark
    Freshly cut logs showing sap running from beneath bark
  3. Finger-Jointed Lumber – Solid dimensional lumber lengths typically max out at lengths of 22′ to 24′, but is made longer by the technique of "finger-jointing" lumber by using small solid pieces, usually 18″ to 24″ long, and joining them together using finger-joints and glue to produce lengths that can be up to 36′ long in 2×6 size. Finger-jointing also is predominant in pre-cut wall studs.
  4. Glu-lam Beams – Created by taking 2×4 or 2×6 stock and glueing the faces together to create beams such as 4×12 or 6×16. LVL beams have taken their place in most home construction.
  5. Manufactured Trusses – Trusses are used in home construction as bracing to support the roof rafters in the attic space. It is seen as an easier installation and a better solution for supporting roofs as opposed to the use of dimensional lumber's struts & purlins as bracing. In the southern USA and other parts, stick-framing with dimensional lumber roof support is still predominant. The main drawback of trusses is that less attic space is usable.
  6. Oriented Strand Board – OSB is made by adhering strands of wood in a certain direction and apply glue to make the piece strong for structural purposes. OSB has replaced plywood for use as exterior wall sheathing & roof decking (both in 7/16″ thickness minimum) and in 2nd story flooring in 3/4″ thickness in a tongue-and-groove interlocking pattern, which is nailed and glued to the I-joists. OSB used in wall sheathing & roof decking will swell up if exposed to the elements for even a brief period of time and must be replaced, therefore it is covered by a weatherproof membrane such as felt to protect it, secured with plastic cap nails. House wrapping is used on areas which will be sheathed with vinyl siding. 3/4″ T&G OSB flooring has a coating on it to protect it from the elements for a short period of time until the home is "dried-in" with a roof.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 2. ... OSB-production before the press Oriented strand board, or OSB, is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. ...

Defects in lumber

Defects occurring in timber are grouped into the following five divisions:


1. Defects due to conversion

During the process of converting timber to commercial form, the following defects may occur:

  1. Chip mark
  2. Diagonal grain
  3. Torn grain
  4. Wane

2. Defects due to fungi

Fungi attack timber only when the following two conditions are satisfied simultaneously: For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ...

  1. The moisture content of the timber is above 20 per cent.
  2. There is presence of air and warmth for the growth of fungi.

If any of the above condition is absent, decay of wood due to fungi would not occur. Hence, dry wood due having moisture content less than 20 per cent will remain sound for centuries. Similarly, wood submerged in water will not be attacked by fungi because of absence of air. Following defects are caused in timber by fungi:

  1. Blue stain
  2. Brown rot
  3. Dry rot
  4. Heart rot
  5. Sap stain
  6. Wet rot
  7. White rot

3. Defects due to insects

Following are the insects which are usually responsible for the decay of timber:

  1. Beetles
  2. Marine borers
  3. Termites

4. Defects due to natural forces

The main natural forces responsible for causing defects in timber are two, namely, abnormal growth and rupture of tissues.


5. Defects due to seasoning

Preservatives

Main article: timber treatment
Fasteners used with treated lumber require special consideration because of the corrosive chemicals used in the treatment process.
Fasteners used with treated lumber require special consideration because of the corrosive chemicals used in the treatment process.

Timber or lumber may be treated with a preservative that protects it from being destroyed by insects, fungus or exposure to moisture. Generally this is applied through combined vacuum and pressure treatment. The preservatives used to pressure-treat lumber are classified as pesticides; due to potential hazards to humans and the environment, some are being phased out. Treating lumber provides long-term resistance to organisms that cause deterioration. If it is applied correctly, it extends the productive life of lumber by five to ten times. If left untreated, wood that is exposed to moisture or soil for sustained periods of time will become weakened by various types of fungi, bacteria or insects. Timber treatment or lumber treatment in forestry describes the intensive treatment of timber with chemical agents to increase its durability and ability to be used in an otherwise inappropriate situation like inground use. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,009 × 1,514 pixels, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fasteners used with treated lumber require special consideration because of the corrosive nature of chemicals used in pressure treated lumber. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,009 × 1,514 pixels, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fasteners used with treated lumber require special consideration because of the corrosive nature of chemicals used in pressure treated lumber. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...

Timber framing

Main article: timber framing

Timber framing is a style of construction which uses heavier framing elements than modern stick framing, which uses dimensional lumber. The timbers originally were tree boles squared with a broadaxe or adze and joined together with joinery without nails. A modern imitation with sawn timbers is growing in popularity in the United States. Red brick timberframe building in Poznań, Poland Timber framing is the description of how a house is built using mortise and tenon joinery. ...


Miscellaneous

  • The term TIMBER! is used as a warning call to alert others working in the area that a tree is being felled and that they should take care to be out of the way.
  • The term "sending up timber" is used in some religious circles to signify sending up prayer and/or sacrifice to God.

The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ...

See also

British Timber Trade During the Middle Ages and Stuart period, Great Britain had large domestic supplies of timber, especially valuable were the famous British oaks. ... A deck in the backyard of a suburban house. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Hardwood (deciduous trees) timber production is the process of managing hardwood stands for the purpose of maximizing woody output. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... There are over 150 species of timber which are produced in India. ... This is a list of woods, in particular those commonly used in the timber and lumber trade. ... For other uses, see Logarithmic scale. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... Non-timber forest products or NTFPs comprise all goods derived from forests of both plant and animal origin other than timber. ... Look up Plank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Demolishers pulling timber from an old wool store in Sydney, Australia, which will later be re-used for timber flooring. ... For the 1922 film starring Oliver Hardy, see The Sawmill. ... For the U.S. small town, see Sawpit, Colorado. ... Sodium silicate, also known as water glass or liquid glass, available in aqueous solution and in solid form, is a compound used in cements, passive fire protection, refractories, textile and lumber processing. ... Timber treatment or lumber treatment in forestry describes the intensive treatment of timber with chemical agents to increase its durability and ability to be used in an otherwise inappropriate situation like inground use. ... The United States-Canada softwood lumber dispute is one of the most significant and enduring trade disputes in modern history. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ...

References

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up lumber, timber in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Timber Development Association of NSW - Australia
  • CPSC Test coatings to reduce arsenic emissions from pressure treated wood
  • TRADA: Timber Research And Development Association
  • Wood themed links and activities
  • Lumber Directory
  • The Forest Products Laboratory. US main wood products research lab. Madison, WI (E)
  • International Wood Collectors Society
  • Xiloteca Manuel Soler (One of the largest private collection of wood samples)
  • Humanitarian Timber project (A project to produce and disseminate a field handbook that brings together best practice in the procurement and use of timber in humanitarian emergencies)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lumber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1065 words)
Lumber is the name used, generally in North America, for wood that has been cut into boards or other shapes for the purpose of woodworking or construction.
Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes, mostly for the construction industry, and is primarily one of a few coniferous needle-bearing species such as pine, hemlock, fir or spruce.
Timber or lumber may be treated with a preservative that protects it from being destroyed by insects, fungus or exposure to moisture.
Lumber - definition of Lumber in Encyclopedia (320 words)
Lumber is wood that has been cut into boards or other shapes for the purpose of woodworking or construction.
Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes, mostly for the construction industry, and is primarily one of a few needle-bearing species such as pine, hemlock, fir or spruce.
Finished lumber is usually kiln-dried then planed and cut to predetermined sizes, primarily for use by the construction industry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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