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Encyclopedia > Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Term of office: January 1, 2003present
Preceded by: Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Succeeded by: incumbent
Date of birth: October 6, 1945
Place of birth: Vargem Grande (now Caetés), Garanhuns, Pernambuco
First Lady: Marisa Letícia Lula da Silva
Political party: Workers' Party

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born October 6, 1945) is a left-wing Brazilian politician. Lula was elected President of Brazil in 2002 and took office on January 1, 2003. President Lula da Silva Photograph comes from Brazil Governments web site: https://www. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the president of the Federative Republic of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Brazilian Northeast. ... Marisa Letícia Lula da Silva is the wife of the President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, and thus First Lady of Brazil. ... Brazilian Workers Party flag. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... Brazil is a federal republic with 26 states and a federal district (see: States of Brazil). ... See also List of Presidents of Brazil The President of the Federal Republic of Brazil is the head of state and head of government of Brazil. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Biography

Lula was born as Luiz Inácio da Silva in a little city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, from a family of poor farmers. He has been registered as born on 6 October, but he claims, believing his mother's memory, to have been born on 27 October. Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Brazilian Northeast. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ...


His father moved shortly after his birth to the coastal city of Santos, São Paulo state, where he worked as a cargo lifter in the city's harbor. Lula's mother, his 7 siblings and himself joined his father in 1952, facing a journey of 13 days in an open truck's cargo area. Even though they had better living conditions than in Pernambuco, life was still very difficult. Santos is a municipality in the São Paulo state of Brazil founded in 1543. ... São Paulo is a state in Brazil. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1956 his family relocated to São Paulo, then a land of greater opportunities. Lula, his mother and the 7 siblings lived in a small room in the back area of a pub. He had little formal education, quitting school when he completed the 4th grade. His professional life began at age 12, as a shoeshine boy. By the age of 14 he got his first formal job in a steel processing factory. 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Landmark buildings Edifício Italia (at left) and Copan (curved façade at center), in São Paulo Downtown. ...


At the age of 19, he lost a finger in a work accident while working as a press operator in an automobile parts factory. Around the same time, he became involved in union activities and held several important union posts. The right-wing dictatorship of Brazil in this era strongly suppressed trade unions, and Lula's views moved further to the political left in reaction. Alternate meanings: Accident (fallacy), Accident (philosophy), Accident (movie), Accident, Maryland An accident is something going wrong. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were two of the 20th centurys most notorious dictators. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ...


In 1966 he married Maria de Lourdes, his first wife, who died together with his first son at birth. He married again, to Marisa, in 1974, with whom he had three sons. 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...


In 1978 he was elected president of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo do Campo and Diadema, the cities that were home to virtually all the automobile manufacturing facilities (such as Ford, Volkswagen, Mercedes-Benz and others) and among the most industrialized in the country. 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... São Bernardo do Campo (Portuguese for Saint Bernard of the field) is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ... Diadema is a city in São Paulo state, Brazil. ... The Ford Motor Company (often referred to simply as Ford; sometimes nicknamed Fords or FoMoCo, (NYSE: F) is an automobile maker founded by Henry Ford in Detroit, Michigan, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. ... Volkswagen (VW) is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ...


In the 1970s, Lula helped organize major union activities including several huge strikes. He was arrested and jailed for a month, but was released following protests. The strikes ended with both pro-union and pro-government forces dissatisfied with the outcome. On 10 February 1980 a group of academics, union leaders and intellectuals, Lula included, founded the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) or Workers' Party, a left-wing party with radical ideas and born right in the middle of the military dictatorship. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... 2003 GMO USDA protest Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations: sometimes in favour, more often opposed. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Brazilian Workers Party flag. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word...


In 1982 he added the nickname Lula (which means "squid" in Portuguese and is also a hypocoristic for Luiz) to his legal name. In 1983 he helped in the founding of the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT), a union association. In 1984 PT and Lula himself joined the popular campaign called Diretas Já, demanding a direct popular vote for the next Brazilian presidential election. Presidents were then elected by members of Congress, but since the military coup only high level military personnel (mainly Generals) had been appointed. 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lula is: The president of Brazil from 2003, see Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva A village in the Netherlands, see Lula, Netherlands A Linux Users Group in Los Angeles, see [www. ... A hypocoristic is a pet name or term of endearment. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Diretas Já! (meaning Direct [vote] Now!) was a popular campaign that happened in Brazil in 1984. ... A coup détat (pronounced kÅ« dā ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ...


As a direct result of the 1984 campaign and following years of popular struggle, the 1989 elections were the first to elect a president by direct popular vote in more than 30 years. In 1992 he joined the campaign for the impeachment of the popular elected president Fernando Collor de Mello after a series of scandals involving public funds. 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello (born August 12, 1949) was president of Brazil from 1990 to 1992. ...


Elections

State visit to Mozambique, Nov. 2003. Lula aims to build Brazil's relationships with other Portuguese-speaking countries.
State visit to Mozambique, Nov. 2003. Lula aims to build Brazil's relationships with other Portuguese-speaking countries.

Lula took part in his first election in 1982, for the government of the state of São Paulo. He lost, but helped his party to gain enough votes to remain in existance. Download high resolution version (750x750, 151 KB)President Lula de Silva of Brazil talks to young Mozambicans (state visit, Nov. ... Download high resolution version (750x750, 151 KB)President Lula de Silva of Brazil talks to young Mozambicans (state visit, Nov. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... São Paulo is a state in Brazil. ...


In 1986, Lula won the election to a seat in Brazil's Congress with a medium percentage of the votes. The Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) helped to write the country's post-dictatorship constitution, ensuring strong constitutional guarantees for workers' rights, but failing to gain redistribution of rural agricultural land. 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazilian Workers Party flag. ...


In 1989, Lula ran as the PT presidential candidate. He proved to be popular with a wide spectrum of Brazilian society, but was feared as an opponent by business owners and financial interests, and lost the election. His party was formed by left-center social democrats as well as Trotskyist socialists, which also earned him the distrust of better-off sectors in Brazilian society. 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Business refers to at least three closely related commercial topics. ... Trotskyism can refer to either the body of ideas associated with Leon Trotsky or the movement based on those ideas. ...


Lula continued to run for the office of President in subsequent elections. In his 2002 campaign he abandoned his style of informal clothing, as well as his platform plank of refusing to pay Brazil's foreign debt. This last point had worried economists, businessmen and banks, who feared that a Brazilian default along with the already ongoing Argentine default would have a massive ripple effect through the world economy. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the second round of the 2002 election, held on October 27, Lula defeated José Serra of the Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB) to become the president-elect of Brazil.
2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... José Serra Chirico is mayor of the biggest city in South Ameria, São Paulo, Brazil. ... Politics of Brazil Categories: Stub | Social Democratic parties ...


The government

Political orientation

The once-feared Lula (even called the "son of Moscow" in 1989) accepted many changes to his original ideals. His party progressively changed to a center-left political position. Instead of deep social changes (as proposed in the past) the new government chose a reformist line, passing new Retirement, Tributary, Labor, and Judicial laws, as well as a University Reform. A wing of the Worker's Party have not agreed with this changes. See more at theWorker's Party article 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brazilian Workers Party flag. ...


Significant Laws

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva with Condoleezza Rice
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva with Condoleezza Rice

Here are listed some significant laws that have been passed during the Lula adminstration, with his support. During her trip to Brazil, Secretary Rice met with Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. ... During her trip to Brazil, Secretary Rice met with Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. ... Condoleezza Condi Rice (born November 14, 1954), is the second United States Secretary of State in the administration of President George W. Bush. ...

  • Social Security Reform of the Civil Service (in Brazil, civil servants and private sector employees are subject to different Retirement and Social Security legislations) - Passed in 2003. One of the first laws passed during his administration. Its goal is to guarantee retirement payments for twenty years. The critics (like critics of other similar reforms around the world) say the law has decreased the rights of civil servants; the main argument of critics is that Lula and his party, for several years, were against any initiative regarding this matter.
  • Tributary Reform - Partially passed in 2003.
  • Judiciary Reform - Passed in 2004.
  • Bio-security Law - which has regulated activities related to the use of genetically modified materials and other related matters, such as embryonic stem cell research;
  • University Reform - Being discussed in 2005.
  • Disarmament Law - in order to decrease violence, prohibit citizens from having weapons for personal use, except for certain categories of law enforcement agents (police, judges, etc.).

2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...

Social projects

As a left-wing president, Lula has made social programs his priority during his campaign and since his election. Lula states that one of the main problems in Brazil today is hunger. Possibly remembering his early years of poverty and hunger in Pernambuco and São Paulo, he has stated that he made the fight against hunger a personal one. Some critics say that hunger is not a real problem in Brazil; in 2005, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, one of the most well regarded Brazilian public institutions, released a survey showing that the number of hungry people in Brazil is far below the figures assumed by Lula's government. Hunger is applied literally to the need or craving for food; it can also be applied metaphorically to cravings of other sorts. ... IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. ...


One of his government's most known social programs is "Fome Zero" (Zero Hunger). This program distributes money to selected regions and cities whose inhabitants suffer from severe difficulties. The money can then be exchanged for food in local stores. Fome Zero has a governmental budget and accepts donations from the public and international community. Despite massive propaganda, the government has as yet shown few concrete results.


Another important social program is "Bolsa Família" (Family Aid), which unified many other governmental efforts and whose objective is to fight poverty and hunger. It consists primarily in helping families with incomes of less than R$100.00 (around US$30.00 by the time of this writing) by supplying them with financial aid. This program demands that the families send their children to school and keep their vaccines up to date. There is some criticism about the effectiveness of this project.


Economy

The single most important member of Brazil's economic cabinet is the Minister of Finance (Ministro da Fazenda), who is largely responsible for all economic decisions. A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ...


Lula has appointed Antonio Palocci as his Finance minister. Palocci, who is a physician by profession, is a member of Lula's party (PT) and was previously mayor of Ribeirão Preto; during his term as mayor, Palocci privatized the phone company which was owned by Ribeirão Preto, and was much criticized by his own party. Brazilian businesses and the international economic community considered Palloci the best choice. Antonio Palocci is the minister of finance in the present government of Brazil. ... A physician is a person who practices medicine. ... A view of downtown Ribeirão Preto, showing the D. Pedro II Theatre Ribeirão Preto is a municipality and city in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ...


PT and Lula decided to choose a prominent figure from the market for President of Banco Central do Brasil (Central Bank of Brazil), the Brazilian economic authority. This person was Henrique Meirelles, who was consequently approved by the Brazilian Senate. Meirelles was well known to the market, both at home and internationally, and had previously occupied high level offices at BankBoston. Meirelles was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 2002 as a member of the PSDB (opposition to President Lula's party), but he had to resign that position before taking office in order to become President of the Central Bank. The Banco Central do Brasil is Brazils central bank, established on December 31, 1964. ... A coq is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... BankBoston was a bank based in Boston, Massachusetts, created by the 1996 merger of BayBank and Bank of Boston. ...


Lula and his cabinet followed, in part, the ideals of the previous government, by renewing all agreements with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which were signed by the time Argentina declared its default of 2001. His government has achieved a satisfactory primary budget surplus in the first 2 years of his presidency, which was necessary to keep up with the IMF agreement (actually, Lula increased the surplus target without asking by the IMF). The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ...


Lula has strongly invested in international commerce as a way to jump-start the Brazilian economy. He has signed political and economic treaties with countries like Russia, China and South Africa.


Fear of drastic measures by Lula (and comparisons being drawn to Hugo Chávez's actions in Venezuela) led to an increase in internal market speculations by the time Lula was considered the favorite in the 2002 elections. These speculations resulted in low demand for sovereign bonds, a rising inflation rate, currency attacks, and ultimately in the sovereign risk factor attributed by Moody's to Brazil's bonds rising to more than 2000 base points. Hugo Chavez in 1999, as President of Venezuela Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (born July 28, 1954) is the President of Venezuela. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moodys Investors Service is a company that performs financial research and analysis. ... Bonds can refer to: A financial bond (including a junk bond or a zero-coupon bond) Barry Bonds A chemical bond (including the ionic bond, covalent bond, coordinate covalent bond, metallic bond, hydrogen bond, Carbon-carbon bond, Disulfide bond and Glycosidic bond) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid...


Two years after the election, Palocci is still slowly but firmly gaining the market's confidence, and at the same time sovereign risk measurements have to date fallen to the neighborhood of around 500 points. The system of inflation target adopted by the current government has had good results in keeping the economy stable, and was subject to compliments during the World Economic Forum of Davos in 2005. This system is, nevertheless, criticized in public by a number of important members of the Government. The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Geneva-based foundation whose Annual Meeting of chief executives of the worlds richest corporations, some national political leaders (presidents, prime ministers and others), and selected intellectuals and journalists, about 2000 people in all, is usually held in Davos, Switzerland. ... Davos viewed from air Davos (population 13,000) is a town in eastern Switzerland, in the canton of Graubünden, on the Landwasser River. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


The economic agenda for 2005 includes a debate for allowing greater autonomy in economic authority for the president (using as example what goes on in a number of other countries and in the European Union), and also a debate on labor reforms. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Foreign policy

Brazilian President Lula da Silva meeting with Hu Jintao in Beijing's Great Hall of the People on May 24, 2004
Brazilian President Lula da Silva meeting with Hu Jintao in Beijing's Great Hall of the People on May 24, 2004

Lula has an assertive foreign policy: this involves unifying opposition to the Washington Consensus among poor and undeveloped countries in order to to push for better terms of trade in the Southern Hemisphere. This was seen as one of the reasons for the walkout of developing nations and subsequent collapse of the Cancun World Trade Organization talks in 2003 over G-8 agricultural subsidies. In addition, Brazil has assumed a important role in international politics and has becoming a regional leader able to build a fertile dialogue between South America and developed coutries, especially with the U.S. It has played an important role in negotiations in internal conflicts of Venezuela and Colombia, and has concentrated efforts on strengthening MERCOSUR. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born October 6, 1945) is a left-wing Brazilian politician. ... Beijing  listen? (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Great Hall of the People by Day. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Consensus is a set of policies believed to be the formula for promoting economic growth in Latin America (although not for all countries). ... The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization which oversees a large number of agreements defining the rules of trade between its member states (WTO, 2004a). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ...


During the Lula administration, Brazilian foreign trade has increased dramatically, changing from a position budget deficits to a position of several surpluses since 2003. In 2004 it achieved a US$ 29 billion surplus due to substantial changes in its commercial focus. Since then, Brazil has been looking for new exchanges with other large underdeveloped countries and regions, such as China, the Middle East and Africa. A record surplus is expected in 2005, despite the relatively low value of the local currency against the US dollar.


Another of Lula's key proposals is a small Tobin tax on international financial transactions that will go to fund developing nations. Brazil has also sent troops to Haiti to show its resolve as a global player and is also currently pushing for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.
A Tobin tax is the suggested tax on all trade of currency across borders. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Social

Economy

Lula's election and foreign policy

  • Lula's foreign policy of Third World unity, The Nation
  • Brazil's 'Lula' Celebrates Election as President, Voice of America News
  • Financial markets hold for Lula, BBC News
  • Peace, love and power, Radio Netherlands

 
 

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