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Encyclopedia > Lugii
The green area is the Przeworsk culture identified with the Lugians. The dark blue area is the Roman Empire
The green area is the Przeworsk culture identified with the Lugians. The dark blue area is the Roman Empire

The Lugii, Lugi, Lygii, Ligii, Lugiones, Lygians, Ligians, Lugians, or Lougoi were a tribe of Indo-European origin, but of disputed ethnic background: Celtic, Germanic, Slavonic or mixed. They lived in ca. 400 BC–300 AD in Central Europe, north of the Sudetes mountains in the basin of upper Odra and Vistula rivers, covering most of modern south and middle Poland (regions of Silesia, Greater Poland, Mazovia and Little Poland). Most of archaeologists identify the Lugians with the Przeworsk culture. The source of their power was control of the most important middle part of the Amber Road from Sambia at the Baltic Sea to the provinces of Roman Empire: Pannonia, Noricum and Raetia. An unrelated[citation needed] tribe of the same name, usually spelled as Lugi, inhabited the southern part of Sutherland in Scotland. map based on Image:Europe plain rivers. ... map based on Image:Europe plain rivers. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes with their geographical localization. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples (Greek: , Latin: , Arabic: ‎ Saqaliba, Old Church Slavonic: , Russian: , Polish: , Serbian: ), Croatian: , Bulgarian: ) are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Góry Sowie Sněžka-Åšnieżka Destroyed forest on the top of Wielka Sowa The Sudetes (IPA: ), also called Sudeten (in German; pronounced: ) or Sudety (pronounced in Czech, in Polish), are a mountain range in Central Europe. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital in Warsaw. ... Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... The Amber Road (in Lithuanian: Gintaro kelias; Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Hungarian: Borostyán út, in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ... Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Sutherland (Cataibh in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Highland Council, Scotland, a registration county, and a lieutenancy area. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...

Contents

Tribal division

According to Tacitus (Germania 43:3) the Lugii were divided into many tribes ('civitates'), of which he mentions the five most powerful: Harii, Helveconae, Manimi, Helisii and Naharvali. Claudius Ptolemeus mentions the Lugi Omani, the Lugi Diduni and the Lugi Buri located on or near the upper Vistula in Germania Magna in what is now south Poland (Book 2, Chapter 10, 4th map of Europe). The forms of the names imply that the Lugii of that time were divided into the Omani, the Diduni and the Buri. In Tacitus the Buri are a separate tribe, so it's possible that they entered the Lugian federation a bit later. Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ...


History

The Lugian federation was probably formed long before it was first recorded, in the works of Strabo (Geographika). The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Geographia may refer to: Geographia (Ptolemy) Geographica (Strabo) Category: ...


According to Strabo the Lugians were 'a great people' and—together with other peoples like Semnones and the otherwise unknown Zumi, Butones, Mugilones and Sibini—were part of a federation subjected to the rule of Marbod, ruler of the Marcomanni with their centre in modern Bohemia 9 BC19 AD. The next mention of Lugii are the times of the Roman emperor Claudius (4154). According to the Tacitus's Annales, in 50 'a great multitude' of Lugians allied with Romans took part in the fall of the Wannius state of Quadi, located in present MoraviaSlovakia. The Semnoni (German: ) or Semnones were a Germanic tribe which was settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus. ... Marbod or Maroboduus (died in A.D. 37), was king of the Marcomanni. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC Events... For other uses, see number 19. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Events October 13 - Roman Empire emperor Claudius dies after being poisoned by Agrippina, his wife and niece. ... [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Londinium is founded by the Romans, taking over as capital of the local Roman province, from Colchester (approximate date) Roman Emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis. ... The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ...


The next information about the Lugians comes from Cassius Dio's work Roman History, in which he mentions events of 9192 during the reign of emperor Domitian. The Lugii allied themselves with the Romans and asked them for help against their western neighbours, the Germanic Suebi tribe. Domitian sent 100 horsemen to support the Lugians. It is not known if these horsemen really arrived at their destination; if they did, it would be the first recorded presence of Roman soldiers on what is now Polish soil. Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Pliny the Younger was named a tribunus plebis. ... For other uses, see number 92. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The Buri, who according to Ptolemy were part of the Lugians, took an important role during the Marcomannic Wars (167180): the Romans were forced to organized a separate military campaign against them called 'Expeditio Burica', and Marcus Aurelius made a political alliance with them. Combatants Roman Empire Marcomanni, Quadi, other Germanic peoples along the Danube Commanders Marcus Aurelius The Marcomannic Wars were a series of wars lasting over thirty years during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from about AD 166 until 180, which pitted the Roman Empire against the Marcomanni, Quadi and other Germanic... Events Germanic tribe Marcomanni waged war against the Romans at Aquileia Change of era name from Yanxi to Yongkang of the Chinese Han Dynasty King Chogo of Baekje waged war against Silla in Korean peninsula. ... For other uses, see number 180. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ...


The later history of the Lugians is uncertain, but some historians assume that the Lugians can be indentified with the 'Longiones' tribe mentioned in Zosimus's New History (Historia Nova), as being defeated by the Emperor Probus in year 279 in the province of Raetia near the Lygis river (usually identified with Lech river in modern Austria and Bavaria). Another mention might be a great people of 'Lupiones-Sarmatae' shown on a Latin map Tabula Peutingeriana generally dated to 2nd-4th century AD. For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... This antoninianus minted under Probus (c. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 279 ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The river Lech, in the background the city of Landsberg The river Lech in Augsburg The Lech (Licus, Licca) is a river in Austria and Germany. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is an itinerarium showing the cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. ...


Althoght archeology is no longer equated with ethnicity some belive: The first Celts entered what is now south Poland ca. 400 BC from Bohemia and Moravia and settled along the Viadua river in Upper Silesia near Głubczyce and in Lower Silesia between Wrocław, Legnica and the Mount Ślęża, which was their holy centre[citation needed]. T There are still some ancient Celtic-type stone sculptures preserved to this day in the Mt. Ślęża vicinity. Another group of Celts from Moravia settled ca. 200 BC in the area of Kraków and another small group in Kuyavia. All these Celts brought with them the La Tene culture and mixing with the local populations played a decisive role in formation of the Przeworsk culture. The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... GÅ‚ubczyce (Czech: , German: ) is a town in Poland, on the border with Czech Republic. ... Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ... WrocÅ‚aw ( ; German: ; Czech: ; Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... Legnica ( , formerly Lignica; German: ) is a town in Silesia in southwestern Poland. ... Mount Åšlęża is a mountain in the Sudetes Highlands (Pogórze Sudeckie) in Lower Silesia, southern Poland. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC - 199 BC 198 BC... Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ... KUYAVIA (sometimes spelt Cuyavia; in German KUJAWIEN, in Polish KUJAVY) is a historical region of Poland, named after the pagan tribe of the Kujawier (name in German) still known there under that name in the tenth century AD. It is the northernmost part of Greater Poland, west of Masovia and... This article or section should include material from La Tene The La Tène culture is a late Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tene on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts were discovered by Hansli Kopp in... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ...


Ethnic background disputed

Some recent authors would like to connect the Lugii with Slavs, The word Lugi is by sound equal to Ludzie what mean the people in today inhabitant of the land of the antique Lugi.


Ancient writers included them to Germans, but not Teutons. Others claim that they were a compound tribe, or confederation of tribes of different ethnicity. Most scholars though agree that it could perhaps be a mixture between the two groups. This entry is about the Teutonic people, not to be confused with the Teutonic Knights. ...


Other point that Germans is now equaled with Teutons who exclusively asimilated the exonym Germans and the ancient Germans did not mean Teutons exclusively but rather Teutons are contrasted to antique or even mediveal Germans. The turning point in Teutons overtaking the exonym Germans was, in 19 century, the 'edition' of Getica by Theodore Mommsen. The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Latin: De origine actibusque Getarum), commonly referred to as Getica, was written by Jordanes, probably in Constantinople, and was published in AD 551. ... Theodor Mommsen Theodor Mommsen Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 - 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar and historian, generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ...


There is a possibility that the Lusatian Sorbs, known in their own language and in Polish as the Łużyczanie,adjective łużycki, are among their descendants. The term Łużyczanie/łużycki could very well have developed from Lugii. Other derivetive names from the same region recorded in historical sources: (the latin/italin 'g' sound like 'dz' in other systems) The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... In grammar, an adjective is a part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun, usually by describing it or making its meaning more specific. ...

  • Bavarian Geographer lendizi
  • Widukind licicaviki
  • Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος litzike, linzike, lenzeninov or lenzaniniov
  • Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Masudi landzaneh'
  • Nestor: Волхомъ бо нашедшемъ на словЂни на дунайския, и сЂдшемъ в них и насилящемъ имъ, словЂни же ови пришедше сЂдоша на ВислЂ, и прозвашася ляхове, а от тЂхъ ляховъ прозвашася поляне, ляхове друзии лутичи, ини мазовшане, ини поморяне.
  • Hungarian comon word Lengyel

The Bavarian Geographer is anonymous medieval document prepared in ca. ... Widukind or Wittekind was a Saxon leader, duke of Saxony and one of the heads of the nobility of Westphalia. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (the Purple-born) (Constantinople, 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karvounopsina. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (أبو الحسن ، علي بن الحسين المسعودي) (?, Baghdad , Iraq - 956, Cairo,Egypt), was an Arab historian, geographer and philosopher. ... Mark Antokolski Nestor the Chronicler Nestor (c. ...

External link

  • Lygii, Lugii in Germania Magna <bad link
  • Lugidunum the ancient town of the Lygii

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lugii - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (649 words)
The Lugii, Lygii, Ligii or Lugiones (also Lygians, Lugians) were a tribe of Indoeuropean origin, but of disputed ethnic background: Celtic, Germanic, Slavonic or mixed.
The forms of the names imply that the Lugii of that time were divided into the Omani, the Diduni and the Buri.
The next mention of Lugii are the times of the Roman emperor Claudius (41–54).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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