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Encyclopedia > Lugh

Lugh (earlier Lug, modern Irish , pronounced /luː/) is an Irish deity represented in mythological texts as a hero and High King of the distant past. He is known by the epithets Lámhfhada ("long hand"), for his skill with a spear or sling, Ildanach ("skilled in many arts"), Samh-ildánach ("Equally skilled in many arts"), Lonnbeimnech ("fierce striker" or perhaps "sword-shouter") and Macnia ("boy hero"), and by the matronymic mac Ethlenn or mac Ethnenn ("son of Ethliu or Ethniu"). He is a reflex of the pan-Celtic god Lugus, and his Welsh counterpart is Lleu Llaw Gyffes "Lugh Strong Hand". Lug or LUG can refer to: // Lug is a place in Serbia. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... Home-made sling. ... A matronymic is a personal name based on the name of ones mother. ... In Irish mythology, Ethniu (Eithne, Ethliu, Ethlinn, and a variety of other spellings - see below) was the daughter of Balor, king of the Fomorians. ... This article is about the European people. ... Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ...

Contents

Lugh in Irish tradition

Birth

Lugh's father was Cian ("Distance") of the Tuatha Dé Danann and his mother was Ethniu (Eithne/Enya), daughter of Balor, of the Fomorians. Their union is presented as a dynastic marriage between the two peoples in the Book of Invasions, but later folklore tells a more elaborate story, reminiscent of the birth of Perseus from Greek mythology. According to a prophecy, Balor was to be killed by his grandson, so he locked his daughter Ethniu in a tower of crystal, usually located on Tory Island, to keep her from becoming pregnant. However, Cian, with the help of the druidess Birog, managed to enter the tower and seduce her. She gave birth to triplets, but Balor threw them into the ocean. Two of the babies either drowned or turned into seals (compare the birth of Dylan and his twin, Llew Llaw Gyffes in Welsh mythology), but Birog saved one, Lugh, and gave him to Manannan mac Lir, who became his foster father. He was nursed by Tailtiu. In Irish mythology, Cian ( ancient, distant), son of Dian Cecht of the Tuatha Dé Danann, is best known as the father of Lug by the Fomorian princess Ethniu. ... “Áes dána” redirects here. ... In Irish mythology, Ethniu (Eithne, Ethliu, Ethlinn, and a variety of other spellings - see below) was the daughter of Balor, king of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Balor (Balar, Bolar) of the Evil Eye was a king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. ... In Irish mythology, the Fomorians, Fomors, or Fomori (Irish Fomóiri, Fomóraig) were a semi-divine race who inhabited Ireland in ancient times. ... Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits helped establish the hegemony of Zeus and the Twelve... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Irish mythology, Balor (Balar, Bolar) of the Evil Eye was a king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. ... Tory Island from Tor More. ... In Irish mythology, Birog was a druidess who aided Cian in climbing Balors crystal tower where had imprisoned his daughter, Ethlinn. ... Dylan (or Dylan Eil Ton; sea in Welsh) is a sea-god in Welsh mythology, a son of Arianrhod and Gwydion. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... In Irish mythology, Manannan mac Lir was a sea and weather god. ... Tailtiu (Tailltiu, Tailte, Teia Tephi) is the name of a presumed goddess from Irish mythology and the town in County Meath that was named after her. ...


There may be further triplism associated with his birth. His father, Cian, is usually mentioned together with his brothers Cú ("hound") and Cethen, who nonetheless have no stories of their own, and two characters called Lugaid, a popular medieval Irish name thought to derive from Lugh, have three fathers: Lugaid Riab nDerg (Lughiadh of the Red Speckles) was the son of the three Findemna or fair triplets, and Lugaid mac Con Roí was also known as mac Trí Con, "son of three hounds". Notably, in Ireland's other great "sequestered maiden" story, the tragedy of Deirdre, the king's intended is carried off by three brothers, who are hunters with hounds. The canine imagery continues with another Lugaid, Lugaid mac Con, and of course Lugh's son Cúchulainn ("Culann's Hound"). In some stories Cian was able to transform into a dog. Lugaid (Lughaid, Lughaidh) is a popular medieval Irish name, thought to be derived from the god Lug. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Lugaid Riab nDerg (Riabhdhearg, Réoderg, Sriab nDearg, Red Stripes) was a legendary High King of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology the three Findemna of Finn Eamna (variously interpreted as fair triplets or three fair ones of Emain Macha) were three sons of the High King of Ireland, Eochaid Feidlech. ... In the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology, Lugaid mac Con Roí was the son of Cú Roí mac Dáire. ... Deirdre or Derdriu is the foremost tragic heroine in Irish mythology. ... Lugaid mac Con was a legendary High King of Ireland, said to have ruled in the 2nd or 3rd century. ... Young Cúchulainn (as Sétanta), 1912 illustration by Stephen Reid. ...


Lugh joins the Tuatha Dé Danann

As a young man Lugh travelled to Tara to join the court of king Nuada of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The doorkeeper would not let him in unless he had a skill with which to serve the king. He offered his services as a wright, a smith, a champion, a swordsman, a harpist, a hero, a poet and historian, a sorcerer, and a craftsman, but each time was rejected as the Tuatha Dé Danann already had someone with that skill. But when Lugh asked if they had anyone with all those skills simultaneously, the doorkeeper had to admit defeat, and Lugh joined the court. He won a flagstone-throwing contest against Ogma, the champion, and entertained the court with his harp. The Hill of Tara, located near the River Boyne, is today a mound in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland, on which the grass has veiled the rich heritage of the country. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... OGMA-Indústria Aeronáutica de Portugal, S.A., founded in 1918, is a major representative of the Portuguese Aviation Industry, dedicated to aircraft and aircraft component maintenance, repair and manufacturing. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ...


The Tuatha Dé were at that time oppressed by the Fomorians, and Lugh was amazed how meekly they accepted this. Nuada began to wonder if this young man could lead them to freedom. Lugh was given command over the Tuatha Dé, and he began making preparations for war.


The sons of Tuireann

When the sons of Tuireann, Brian, Iuchar and Iucharba, killed his father, Cian (who was in the form of a pig at the time), Lugh set them a series of seemingly impossible quests as recompense. They achieved them all, but were fatally wounded in completing the last one. Despite Tuireann's pleas, Lugh denied them the use of one of the items they had retrieved, a magic pigskin which healed all wounds. They died of their wounds, and Tuireann died of grief over their bodies. In Celtic mythology, Tuireann was the father of Creidhne, Luchtaine and Giobhniu by Brigid. ... Look up Brian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Irish mythology Iuchar was one of the sons of Tuireann of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology, Iucharba was one of the sons of Tuireann of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ...


The Battle of Magh Tuireadh

Using the magic artifacts the sons of Tuireann had gathered, Lugh led the Tuatha Dé Danann in the Second Battle of Mag Tuireadh against the Fomorians. Nuada was killed in the battle by Balor. Lugh faced Balor, who opened his terrible, poisonous eye that killed all it looked upon, but Lugh shot a sling-stone (or in some versions, threw a spear) that drove his eye out the back of his head, wreaking havoc on the Fomorian army behind. Cath Maige Tuireadh (the (second) Battle of Magh Tuiredh) is a tale of the Irish Mythological Cycle in which the Tuatha Dé Danann defeat their enemies, the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, the Fomorians, Fomors, or Fomori (Irish Fomóiri, Fomóraig) were a semi-divine race who inhabited Ireland in ancient times. ... Home-made sling. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ...


After the victory Lugh found Bres, the half-Fomorian former king of the Tuatha Dé, alone and unprotected on the battlefield, and Bres begged for his life. If he was spared, he promised, he would ensure that the cows of Ireland always gave milk. The Tuatha Dé refused the offer. He then promised four harvests a year, but the Tuatha Dé said one harvest a year suited them. But Lugh spared his life on the condition that he teach the Tuatha Dé how and when to plough, sow and reap. It is widely held by scholars that the battle between Lugh and Balor reflects a common Indo-European motif, the battle between the youthful hero and his tyrant Grandfather. [citation needed] In Irish mythology, Bres, aka Eochaid Bres, Eochu Bres (Eochaid/Eochu the Beautiful), was a king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ...


Later life and death

Lugh instituted a harvest fair during the festival of Lughnasadh in memory of his foster-mother, Tailtiu, held on 1 August at the town that bears her name (now Teltown, County Meath). He likewise instituted Lughnasadh fairs in the areas of Carman and Naas in honour of Carman and Nás, the eponymous tutelary goddess of these two regions. Horse races and displays of martial arts were important activities at all three fairs. However, Lughnasadh itself is a celebration of Lugh's triumph over the spirits of the Other World who had tried to keep the harvest for themselves. It survived long into Christian times and is still celebrated under a variety of names. Lúnasa is now the Irish name for the month of August. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Navan Code: MH Area: 2,342 km² Population (2006) 162,831 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference N893196 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 114 m Population (2006) 20,044  Website: www. ... In Irish mythology, Carman was a goddess of evil magic. ... The Otherworld in Celtic mythology is the realm of the dead, the home of the deities, or the stronghold of other spirits and beings such as the Sídhe. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Lug is said to have invented the board game fidchell. He had a dog called Failinis. Fidchell (also called fidhcheall or fithchill) is a board game from Early Ireland which is often compared to, but distinct from, Chess. ...


He had several wives, including Buí and Nás, daughters of Ruadri, king of Britain. Buí lived and was buried at Knowth. Nás was buried at Naas, County Kildare, which is named after her. Lug had a son, Ibic, by Nás.[1] His daughter or sister was Ebliu, who married Fintan. One of his wives, unnamed, had an affair with Cermait, son of the Dagda. Lug killed him in revenge, but Cermait's sons, Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine, killed Lug in return, drowning him in Loch Lugborta. He had ruled for forty years. Knowth is the site of a neolithic passage grave, one of the ancient monuments of the Brú na Bóinne complex in the valley of the River Boyne in Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference N893196 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 114 m Population (2006) 20,044  Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2006) 186,075 Website: www. ... Fintan is known in Goidelic mythology as the Wise. ... in Irish mythology Cermait of the Tuatha Dé Danann was a son of the Dagda. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Mac Cuill of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was a son of Cermait, son of the Dagda. ... In Irish mythology, Mac Cecht of the Tuatha Dé Danann was a son of Cermait, son of the Dagda. ... In Irish mythology, Mac Gréine of the Tuatha Dé Danann was a son of Cermait, son of the Dagda. ...


Lugh in other cycles and traditions

  • In the Ulster Cycle he fathered Cúchulainn with the mortal maiden Deichtine. When Cúchulainn lay wounded after a gruelling series of combats during the Táin Bó Cuailnge (Cattle Raid of Cooley), Lugh appeared and healed his wounds over a period of three days.
  • In Baile in Scáil (The Phantom's Trance), a story of the Historical Cycle, Lugh appeared in a vision to Conn of the Hundred Battles. Enthroned on a daïs, he directed a beautiful woman called the Sovereignty of Ireland to serve Conn a portion of meat and a cup of red ale, ritually confirming his right to rule and the dynasty that would follow him.
  • In the Fenian Cycle the dwarf harper Cnú Deireóil claimed to be Lugh's son.
  • The Luigne, a people who inhabited Counties Meath and Sligo, claimed descent from him.

The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... Young Cúchulainn (as Sétanta), 1912 illustration by Stephen Reid. ... In Irish mythology, Deichtine or Deichtire was the sister of Conchobar mac Nessa and the mother of Cúchulainn. ... The Táin Bó Cúailnge, or Cattle Raid of Cooley, is the central tale in the Ulster Cycle, one of the four great cycles that make up the surviving corpus of Irish mythology. ... Cycle of the Kings, also known as the Kings Cycle or the Historical Cycle is a body of Old and Middle Irish Literature. ... Conn Cétchathach (Conn of the Hundred Battles) was a legendary High King of Ireland. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... The Fenian Cycle also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian Tales, Fian Tales, Féinne Cycle, Feinné Cycle, Ossianic Cycle and Fianaigecht, is a body of prose and verse centering on the exploits of the mythic hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his warriors the Fianna Éireann. ... Men hur kommer man in i berget, frÃ¥gade tomtepojken (But how do I get into the mountain? the young dwarf asked. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... In Irish mythology Luigne son of Eremon was joint High King of Ireland with his brothers Muimne and Laigne for three years following the death of their father. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Navan Code: MH Area: 2,342 km² Population (2006) 162,831 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Sligo Code: SO Area: 1,837 km² Population (2006) 60,894[1] Website: www. ...

Lugh’s weapons

Lugh’s sling rod was the rainbow and the Milky Way was called "Lugh's Chain". He also had a magic spear, which, unlike the rod-sling, he had no need to wield, himself; for it was alive, and thirsted so for blood that only by steeping its head in a sleeping-draught of pounded poppy leaves could it be kept at rest. When battle was near, it was drawn out; then it roared and struggled against its thongs; fire flashed from it; and, once slipped from the leash, it tore through and through the ranks of the enemy, never tired of slaying.


Lugh’s hound

Another of his possessions was a magic hound which an ancient poem, one attributed to the Fenian hero, Caoilte, calls,

That hound of mightiest deeds,

Which was irresistible in hardness of combat,
Was better than wealth ever known,
A ball of fire every night.


Other virtues had that beautiful hound
(Better this property than any other property),
Mead or wine would grow of it,
Should it bathe in spring water.

Lugh's name and nature

Lugh's name was formerly interpreted as deriving from the Proto-Indo-European root *leuk-, "flashing light", and he is often surrounded by solar imagery, so from Victorian times he has often been considered a sun god, similar to the Greco-Roman Apollo. Many times Apollo is equated with Lugh. He appears in folklore as a trickster, and in County Mayo thunderstorms were referred to as battles between Lug and Balor, so he is sometimes considered a storm god: Alexei Kondratiev notes his epithet lonnbeimnech ("fierce striker") and concludes that "if his name has any relation to 'light' it more properly means 'lightning-flash' (as in Breton luc'h and Cornish lughes)".[2] However, Breton and Cornish are Brythonic languages in which Proto-Celtic *k did undergo systematic sound changes into -gh- and -ch-. This change did not occur in Irish, so it is unlikely that Lugh derives from the root *leuk-, nor is it related to any other Proto-Indo-European root connoting luminosity. The name may be derived from a Proto-Celtic compound such as *φlū-wgū-s, which would convey the meaning of ‘flowing vigour,’ or else from *φlūgū-s meaning ‘flight, flying, soaring, etc.’ The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The trickster figure Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 childrens book by Michel Rodange. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Alexei Kondratiev is a Wiccan and teaches Irish language and Celtic history at the Irish Arts Center in Manhattan, New York. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ...


This god’s name may also be cognate with Latin lugubris "mournful, pertaining to mourning," from lugere "to mourn," from a Proto-Indo-European base *leug- "to emotionally upset, disturb" (cf. Greek lygros "mournful, sad," Sanskrit rujati "breaks, torments," Latvian lauzit "to break the heart"). This would give the Proto-Celtic word *lugu-s a meaning akin to “upsetting power,” making him etymologically cognate with the Norse god Loki. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... It has been suggested that Loki and the dwarfs be merged into this article or section. ...


The name may equally be analysed as a compound of two Proto-Indo-European bases: *pleu- "flow, float" (cf. O.E. flowan, from P.Gmc. *flo-;. Du. vloeien "to flow," O.N. floa "to deluge," O.H.G. flouwen "to rinse, wash"; cf. Skt. plavate "navigates, swims," plavayati "overflows;" Armenian helum "I pour;" Gk. plyno "I wash," pleo "swim, go by sea;" L. pluere "to rain;" O.C.S. plovo "to flow, navigate;" Lith. pilu "to pour out," plauti "rinse") and *gheu- “to pour out.” The would enable the reconstruction of a Proto-Celtic word *φlu-gu-s connoting the notions of “flowing gush” and “floating gust.” The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ...


Lugh's mastery of all arts has led many to link him with the un-named Gaulish god Julius Caesar identifies with Mercury, whom he describes as the "inventor of all the arts".[3] Caesar describes the Gaulish Mercury as the most revered deity in Gaul, overseeing journeys and business transactions. Juliette Wood interprets Lugh's name as deriving from the Celtic root *lugios, "oath", and the Irish word lugh connotes ideas of "blasphemy, cussing, lies, bond, joint, binding oath",[4] which strengthens the identification with Mercury, who was, among other attributes, a god of contracts. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ...


In Irish tradition Lug is associated with youth, kingship and healing, and his mastery of all arts suggests he transcends all divine functions. Like his Gaulish counterpart Lugus, he was compared with the archangel Michael. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... Archangels are superior or higher-ranking angels. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ "Nás", from The Metrical Dindshenchas Vol 3, translated by E. Gwynn.
  2. ^ Alexei Kondratiev (1997), Lugus: the Many-Gifted Lord, accessed 7 January 2006
  3. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 6:17
  4. ^ Alexander McBain (1982), An Etymological Dictionary of the Irish Language Section 25, accessed 7 January 2006

The Metrical Dindshenchas, or Lore of Places, is probably the major surviving monument of Irish bardic verse. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ...

Irish texts

Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ... Cath Maige Tuireadh (the (second) Battle of Magh Tuiredh) is a tale of the Irish Mythological Cycle in which the Tuatha Dé Danann defeat their enemies, the Fomorians. ... The Táin Bó Cúailnge, or Cattle Raid of Cooley, is the central tale in the Ulster Cycle, one of the four great cycles that make up the surviving corpus of Irish mythology. ... The Metrical Dindshenchas, or Lore of Places, is probably the major surviving monument of Irish bardic verse. ...

Secondary sources

  • Cross, Tom Peete and Clark Harris Slover. "Ancient Irish Tales, Henry Holt & Company, Inc., 1936. ISBN 1-56619-889-5
  • Ellis, Peter Berresford. "Dictionary of Celtic Mythology." Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-508961-8
  • Kinsella, Thomas. "The Táin, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969. ISBN 0-19-280373-5
  • MacKillop, James. "Dictionary of Celtic Mythology." Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
  • Ovist, Krista L. "The integration of Mercury and Lugus: Myth and history in late Iron Age and early Roman Gaul." Chicago: University of Chicago Divinity School dissertation, pp. 703, 2004.(link)
  • Wood, Juliette. "The Celts: Life, Myth, and Art." Thorsons Publishers, 2002. ISBN 0-00-764059-5
  • Lugh's Song, by T. Thorn Coyle, summarizes and recounts several of the myths about Lugh.
Preceded by
Nuada
High King of Ireland
AFM 1870-1830 BC
FFE 1447-1407 BC
Succeeded by
Eochaid Ollathair

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lugh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1621 words)
Lugh's father was Cian of the Tuatha Dé Danann and his mother was Ethniu, daughter of Balor, of the Fomorians.
Lugh faced Balor, who opened his terrible, poisonous eye that killed all it looked upon, but Lugh shot a sling-stone (or in some versions, threw a spear) that drove his eye out the back of his head, wreaking havoc on the Fomorian army behind.
Lugh instituted the harvest festival of Lughnasadh in memory of his foster-mother, Tailtiu, held on 1 August at the town that bears her name (now Teltown, County Meath), and to have led horse races and displays of martial arts.
Encyclopedia4U - Lugh - Encyclopedia Article (526 words)
Lugh was met by the gatekeeper, and was asked what talent he had, for it was a tradition there that only those who had a special ability could enter the palace.
Lugh then noted that he was also a champion, a swordsman nonpareil, a harpist, a hero, a poet, an historian, a sorcerer, and a craftsman.
Lugh's name is the origin of that of the Pagan festival Lughnasadh (which is also the Irish Gaelic name for the month of August).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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