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Encyclopedia > Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: [English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪt.həʊvən; German ˈluːtvɪç fan ˈbeːt.hoːfn], baptized December 17, 1770March 26, 1827) was a German composer and virtuoso pianist. He was an important figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music, and remains one of the most famous and influential musicians of all time. Beethoven is the surname for: Ludwig van Beethoven, an 18th century German music composer Johann van Beethoven, father of Ludwig and husband to Magdalena Keverich van Beethoven Others named for the famous composer: Beethoven Peninsula, an ice-covered peninsula forming the southwest part of Alexander Island, close to the Antarctic... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1820 portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Beethoven suffered from gradual hearing loss beginning in his twenties. He nonetheless continued to compose his masterpieces, and to conduct and perform, even after he was completely deaf. A hearing impairment or hearing loss is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Profound hearing loss is defined as hearing thresholds greater than 90 dB. A person with a profound hearing loss can only hear sounds that are louder than 90 dB. A person with normal hearing can detect sounds betwen 0 dB and 20 dB. External links Profound Hearing Loss from The...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany in 1770, to Johann van Beethoven (17401792), one of a line of musicians of Flemish ancestry, and Maria Magdalena Keverich (17441787), whose father had been overseer of the kitchen at Ehrenbreitstein.[1][2] Beethoven was one of seven children born to them, of whom only Beethoven and two younger brothers would survive infancy. Beethoven was baptized on December 17, 1770. Although his birth date is not known for certain, his family celebrated his birthday on December 16. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Johann van Beethoven (1740-1792) was Ludwig van Beethovens father. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... redir Festung Ehrenbreitstein ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early talent

A portrait of the thirteen-year-old Beethoven by an unknown Bonn master
A portrait of the thirteen-year-old Beethoven by an unknown Bonn master

Beethoven's first music teacher was his father, a tenor in the service of the Electoral court at Bonn, who was reportedly a harsh instructor. Johann later engaged a friend, Tobias Pfeiffer, to preside over his son's training, and it is said Johann and his friend would at times come home late from a night of drinking to pull young Ludwig out of bed to practice until morning. Beethoven's talent was recognized at a very early age, and by 1778 he was studying the organ and viola in addition to the piano. His most important teacher in Bonn was Christian Gottlob Neefe[3], who was the Court's Organist. Neefe helped Beethoven publish his first work: a set of keyboard variations. In 1787, the young Beethoven traveled to Vienna for the first time, where he played for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart[4], who said that Beethoven would soon astonish the world. After his mother was diagnosed with tuberculosis, Beethoven was forced to return home. Beethoven's mother died on July 17, 1787, when Beethoven was 16.[5] Due to his father's worsening alcohol addiction, Beethoven was responsible for raising his two younger brothers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (912 × 1132 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The painting is described thus: Ludwig van Beethoven was recognised as a child prodigy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (912 × 1132 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The painting is described thus: Ludwig van Beethoven was recognised as a child prodigy. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... Christian Gottlob Neefe (Chemnitz, 5 February 1748 – 28 January 1798 in Dessau) was a German opera composer and conductor. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In 1792, Beethoven moved to Vienna , where he studied for a time with Joseph Haydn, though he had wanted to study with Mozart, who had died the previous year. Beethoven received additional instruction from Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (Vienna's pre-eminent counterpoint instructor) and Antonio Salieri. By 1793, Beethoven established a reputation in Vienna as a piano virtuoso.[6] His first works with opus numbers, a set of three piano trios, appeared in 1795. He settled into the career pattern he would follow for the remainder of his life: rather than working for the church or a noble court (as most composers before him had done), he supported himself through a combination of annual stipends or single gifts from members of the aristocracy; income from subscription concerts, concerts, and lessons; and proceeds from sales of his works. “Wien” redirects here. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (February 3, 1736 - March 7, 1809) was an Austrian musician who was born at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna. ... In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony. ... Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), was an Italian composer and conductor. ...


Beethoven’s patrons loved his music but were not quick to support him. He eventually came to rely more on patrons such as Count Franz Joseph Kinsky, (d. 1811), Prince Joseph Franz Maximilian Lobkowicz (1772-1816) and Karl Alois Johann-Nepomuk Vinzenz, Fürst Lichnowsky, and as these patrons passed away or reneged on their pledges, Beethoven fell into debt. In 1807, Prince Lobkowitz advised Beethoven to apply for the position of composer of the Imperial Theatres, and the nobility who had newly been placed in charge of the post did not respond. At that time Beethoven considered leaving Vienna. In the fall of 1808, he was offered a position as chapel maestro at the court of Jerome Bonaparte, the king of Westphalia, which he accepted. In order to stop him from leaving Vienna, the Archduke Rudolf, Count Kinsky and Prince Lobkowitz, upon interventions from the composer’s friends, pledged to pay Beethoven a pension of 4000 florins a year. But the pension was not properly respected, and only Archduke Rudolf paid his share at the established date. Kinsky was immediately called to duty as an officer, did not contribute and soon died falling from his horse. Lobkowitz stopped paying in September 1811. Successors of the nobility did not continue the patronage, and Beethoven relied mostly on selling composition rights and a smaller pension after 1815. Karl Alois, Fürst von Lichnowsky-Woschütz, (also written Carl Alois Johann-Nepomuk Vinzenz, second Prince Lichnowsky) (1761-1814) was a chamberlain at the Imperial Austrian court. ...


Loss of hearing

Around 1796, Beethoven began to lose his hearing.[7] He suffered a severe form of tinnitus, a "ringing" in his ears that made it hard for him to perceive and appreciate music; he would also avoid conversation. He left Vienna for a time for the small Austrian town of Heiligenstadt, where he wrote his Heiligenstadt Testament. He resolved to continue living for and through his art. Over time, his hearing loss became profound: there is a well-attested story that, at the end of the premiere of his Ninth Symphony, he had to be turned around to see the tumultuous applause of the audience; hearing nothing, he began to weep.[citation needed] Beethoven's hearing loss did not affect his ability to compose music, but it made concerts — lucrative sources of income — increasingly difficult. Tinnitus (IPA pronunciation: or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ... Heiligenstadt is a part of the Vienna district Döbling. ... A facsimile of the Heiligenstadt Testament The Heiligenstadt Testament is a will written by Ludwig van Beethoven to his brothers Carl and Johann at Heiligenstadt (today part of Vienna) on 6 October 1802. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ...


As an interesting side note, he used a special rod attached to the soundboard on a piano that he could bite, the vibrations would then transfer from the piano to his jaw to increase his perception of sound. A large collection of his hearing aids such as special ear horns can be viewed at the Beethoven House Museum in Bonn, Germany. By 1814 Beethoven was totally deaf, and when visitors saw him play a loud arpeggio or thundering bass notes at his piano remarking, "Ist es nicht schön?" (Isn't that beautiful?), they felt deep sympathy, and saw his courage and sense of humor.[8]


As a result of Beethoven's hearing loss, a unique historical record has been preserved: he kept conversation books (his friends would write in the book so that he could know what they were saying, and he would respond either verbally or in the book) discussing music and other issues, and giving an insight into his thoughts. Even today, the conversation books form the basis for investigation into how he felt his music should be performed and his relationship to art. Some of the books, however, were altered or destroyed by Anton Schindler.[citation needed] Anton Schindler-alternate name of Anton Felix Schindler. ...

Ludwig van Beethoven: detail of an 1804 portrait by W.J. Mähler
Ludwig van Beethoven: detail of an 1804 portrait by W.J. Mähler

Image File history File links Beethoven_3. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_3. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Illness and death

After Beethoven lost custody of his nephew, he went into a decline that led to his death on March 26, 1827 during a thunderstorm. [9] March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


A Viennese pathologist and forensic expert Christian Reiter (head of the Department of Forensic Medicine at Vienna Medical University) claimed that Beethoven's physician, Andreas Wawruch, inadvertently hastened Beethoven's death. According to Reiter, Warwuch worsened Beethoven's already lead poisoned condition with lead poultices applied after surgical drainings of his bloated abdomen. Various theories attempt to explain how Beethoven's lead poisoning first developed, and he was very sick years before his death in 1827 at the age of 56.[10] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


Character

Beethoven frequently treated other people badly, and may have suffered from bipolar disorder, and/or irritability brought on by chronic abdominal pain beginning in his 20s, which has been attributed to his lead poisoning.[citation needed] Nonetheless, he had a close and devoted circle of friends all his life, all of whom are thought to have been attracted by his reputed strength of personality. Towards the end of his life, Beethoven's friends competed in their efforts to help him cope with his incapacities,[11] and after his death destroyed many of the conversation books to protect his reputation. For other uses, see Bipolar. ...


Sources show he indulged a disdain for authority, and for those who outranked him socially. He stopped performing at the piano if the audience chatted among themselves, or failed to give him their full attention. At soirées, he refused to perform if suddenly called upon to do so. Eventually, after many confrontations, the Archduke Rudolph decreed that the usual rules of court etiquette did not apply to Beethoven.[12]


Romantic difficulties

Beethoven's personal life was troubled. His encroaching deafness led him to contemplate suicide (documented in his Heiligenstadt Testament). He was attracted to "unattainable" women (married or aristocratic), and he never married, though he was engaged to Giulietta Guicciardi. Her father was the main obstacle to their marriage. Giulietta's marriage to a nobleman was unhappy, and when it ended in 1822, she attempted unsuccessfully to return to Beethoven. His only other documented love affair with an identified woman began in 1805 with Josephine von Brunswick, young widow of the Graf von Deym. It is believed the relationship ended by 1807 due both to his own indecisiveness and the disapproval of Josephine's aristocratic family.[13] Post-lingual hearing impairment is a hearing impairment where hearing loss is adventitious and develops due to disease or trauma after the acquisition of speech and language, usually after the age of six. ...


In 1812, Beethoven wrote a long love letter to a woman he identified only as "Immortal Beloved". Several candidates have been suggested, but the identity of the woman to whom the letter was written has never been proven. (The 1994 film Immortal Beloved was based on this.) Immortal Beloved is a 1994 film about the life of composer Ludwig van Beethoven. ... Immortal Beloved is a 1994 film about the life of composer Ludwig van Beethoven. ...


Beethoven quarreled, often bitterly, with his relatives and others (including a painful and public custody battle over his nephew Karl).


Custody struggle

On 15 November 1815 Beethoven's brother Karl Van Beethoven died of tuberculosis leaving a son Karl who is known as Beethoven's nephew. Although Beethoven had shown little interest in the boy up to this point he now became totally obsessed with the possession of this nine year old child. The fight for possession of his nephew brought out the very worst aspects of Beethoven's character and in the following lengthy court cases Beethoven stopped at nothing to ensure that he achieved this goal. For long periods Beethoven stopped composing.


At that period the Austrian court system had a court for nobility, The Landsrechte, and another, The Magistracy, for the commoners. Beethoven deliberately disguised the fact that the Dutch "Van" in his name did not denote nobility as does the Germanic "Von." Thus, he was able to ensure his case was tried in the Landsrechte, and due to his influence with the court, he was ensured a favourable outcome. Beethoven was awarded sole guardianship. Karl's mother, Johanna, a commoner and widow with little money, was not only refused access to her son, except under exceptional circumstances, but Beethoven insisted that she pay for her son's education out of her inadequate pension. Due to a fatal slip of the tongue while giving evidence to the Landsrechte, Beethoven inadvertently admitted that he was not nobly born, and the case was transferred to the Magistracy, where he lost sole guardianship.


Beethoven fought on by appeal, and regained custody of Karl. Not even an appeal for justice and human rights to the Emperor, who, like Pontius Pilate, "washed his hands of the matter", could reunite mother and son. Both suffered not only years of separation, but damage to their reputations. Beethoven stopped at nothing to blacken both their characters, as can be read in surviving court papers. Eventually Beethoven's nephew could stand his tyrannical uncle no longer, and on 31 July 1826 attempted suicide by shooting himself in the head. He survived, and later asked to be taken to his mother's house. This desperate action finally freed Karl from the bonds of Beethoven.

Beethoven in 1823; copy of a destroyed portrait by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller
Beethoven in 1823; copy of a destroyed portrait by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller

Image File history File links Beethoven_Waldmuller_1823. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_Waldmuller_1823. ... Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller: The expected, 1860 Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (January 15th 1793 in Vienna, † August 23rd 1865 in Hinterbrühl, Austria) was an Austrian painter and writer. ...

Beliefs and their musical influence

Beethoven was attracted to the ideals of the Enlightenment and by the growing Romanticism in Europe. He initially dedicated his third symphony, the Eroica (Italian for "heroic"), to Napoleon in the belief that the general would sustain the democratic and republican ideals of the French Revolution. But in 1804, when Napoleon's imperial ambitions became clear, Beethoven took hold of the title-page and scratched the name Bonaparte out so violently that he created a hole in the paper. He later changed the title to "Sinfonia Eroica, composta per festeggiare il sovvenire di un grand Uomo" ("Heroic Symphony, composed to celebrate the memory of a great man"). The fourth movement of his Ninth Symphony features an elaborate choral setting of Schiller's Ode An die Freude ("Ode to Joy"), an optimistic hymn championing the brotherhood of humanity. Since 1972, an orchestral version of the fourth movement has been the official anthem of the European Union. The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Wanderer above the Sea of Fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated around the middle of the 18th century in Western Europe, during the Industrial Revolution. ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement...


Scholars disagree on Beethoven's religious beliefs and the role they played in his work. For discussion, see Ludwig van Beethoven's religious beliefs. It has been asserted, but not proven, that Beethoven was a Freemason.[14] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Like Handel had, Beethoven worked freelance — arranging subscription concerts, selling his compositions to publishers, and gaining financial support from a number of wealthy patrons — rather than seek out permanent employment by the church or by an aristocratic court. A freelancer or freelance worker is a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employer. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ...


Music

Further information: Beethoven's musical style and innovations and List of compositions by Ludwig van Beethoven

Beethoven is acknowledged as one of the giants of Western classical music; occasionally he is referred to as one of the "three Bs" (along with Bach and Brahms) who epitomize that tradition. He was also a pivotal figure in the transition from 18th Century musical classicism to 19th Century romanticism, and his influence on subsequent generations of composers was profound.[15] Ludwig van Beethoven is viewed as a pivotal figure in the history of European classical music, and important both as an important figure in the Classical and Romantic eras of musical history. ... Beethoven, caricatured by J. P. Lyser The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) are known by various designations, including: by the opus numbers assigned by Beethovens publishers during his lifetime, e. ... This article is about the genre of classical music in the Western musical tradition. ... The Three Bs is an English-language phrase derived from a similar phrase, in German, coined by Hans von Bülow. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ...


Overview

Beethoven is regarded as one of the greatest masters of musical construction, sometimes sketching the architecture of a movement before he had decided upon the subject matter. He was one of the first composers to systematically and consistently use interlocking thematic devices, or "germ-motives," to achieve inter-movement unity in long compositions. Equally remarkable was his use of "source-motives," which recurred in many different compositions and lent some unity to his life's work. He made innovations in almost every form of music he touched. For example, he diversified even the well-crystallized form of the rondo, making it more elastic and spacious, which brought it closer to sonata form. In music, a movement is a large division of a larger composition or musical form. ... a rondo is played between episode which are played by non solo people Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also in reference to a character-type that... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Beethoven composed in a great variety of genres, including symphonies, concerti, piano sonatas, other sonatas (including for violin), string quartets and other chamber music, masses, an opera, lieder, and various other genres. He is viewed as one of the most important transitional figures between the Classical and Romantic eras of musical history. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... A piano sonata is a sonata written for unaccompanied piano. ... A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo violin, often (but not always) accompanied by a piano or other keyboard instrument, or by figured bass in the Baroque. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ...


As far as musical form is concerned, Beethoven worked from the principles of sonata form and motivic development that he had inherited from Haydn and Mozart, but greatly extended them, writing longer and more ambitious movements. The term musical form is used in two related ways: a generic type of composition such as the symphony or concerto the structure of a particular piece, how its parts are put together to make the whole; this too can be generic, such as binary form or sonata form Musical... In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


The three periods

Beethoven's compositional career is usually divided into Early, Middle, and Late periods.[16] His early period was from 1770-1802, the middle period was from 1803-1814, and the late period was from 1815 up to 1827. [17]


In the Early period, he is seen as emulating his great predecessors Haydn and Mozart, while concurrently exploring new directions and gradually expanding the scope and ambition of his work. Some important pieces from the Early period are the first and second symphonies, the first six string quartets, the first three piano concertos, and the first twenty piano sonatas, including the famous "Pathétique" and "Moonlight" sonatas. Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony Number 2 in D Major, (Op. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Opus 18, published in 1801 by T. Mollo et Comp in Vienna, consisted of his first six string quartets. ... Below is a complete list of works by Beethoven with dates of publication in parentheses: // Opus 21: Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... The Piano Sonata No. ...


The Middle period began shortly after Beethoven's personal crisis centering around his encroaching deafness. The period is noted for large-scale works expressing heroism and struggle, many of which have become very famous. Middle-period works include six symphonies (Nos. 3–8), the fourth and fifth piano concertos, the triple concerto and violin concerto, five string quartets (Nos. 7–11), the next seven piano sonatas (including the "Waldstein" and the "Appassionata"), and Beethoven's only opera, Fidelio. This article is about the type of character. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Concerto for Violin, Cello, Piano, & Orchestra in C Major, more commonly known as the Triple Concerto, was his 56th opus. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major was written in 1806. ... The Piano Sonata No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Fidelio (Op. ...


Beethoven's Late period began around 1815. The Late-period works are characterized by intellectual depth; intense, highly personal expression; and formal innovation (for example, the String Quartet, Op. 131 has seven linked movements, and the Ninth Symphony adds choral forces to the orchestra in the last movement).[18] Works of this period also include the "Missa Solemnis", the last five string quartets (including the massive "Grosse Fuge") and the last five piano sonatas, of which the "Große Sonate fur das Hammerklavier" is the most well known. The String Quartet No. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ...


Media

Image File history File links Moonlight. ... Image File history File links Beethoven-Pathetique. ... Beethoven - Sonata opus 111 -1. ... Beethoven - Sonata opus 111 -2. ... Image File history File links Laendler_in_C_Minor_Hess_68. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_Sonata_op57_No23_Appassionata_Mvt1. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_-_Ecossaise_in_E-flat. ... Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 1. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 2. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 3. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 4. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Image File history File links Ludwig_van_Beethoven_-_Symphonie_5_c-moll_-_4. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Image File history File links Ludwig van Beethoven - Overtüre c-moll, op. ... Beethoven concerto4 1. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... Beethoven concerto4 2. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... Image File history File links JOHN_MICHEL_CELLO-BEETHOVEN_SYMPHONY_7_Finale. ... Ludwig van Beethoven began concentrated work on his Symphony No. ... Image File history File links JOHN_MICHEL_CELLO-BEETHOVEN_SYMPHONY_7_Allegretto. ... Ludwig van Beethoven began concentrated work on his Symphony No. ... Beethoven - opus30-1 04. ... Beethoven - opus30-2 05. ... Beethoven - opus30-3 06. ... Beethoven - opus47-1 01. ... Violin Sonata No. ... Beethoven - opus47-2 02. ... Violin Sonata No. ... Beethoven - opus47-3 03. ... Violin Sonata No. ... Image File history File links CELLO_LIVE_PERFORMANCES_JOHN_MICHEL-Beethoven_Sonata_in_g_Op_5_2_1st_mvt_. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Cello Sonatas No. ... Image File history File links CELLO_LIVE_PERFORMANCES_JOHN_MICHEL-Beethoven_Sonata_in_g_Op_5_2_2nd_mvt_. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Cello Sonatas No. ... Image File history File links CELLO_LIVE_PERFORMANCES_JOHN_MICHEL-Beethoven_Sonata_in_C_Op_102_1_3_4. ... Image File history File links CELLO_LIVE_PERFORMANCES_JOHN_MICHEL-Beethoven_Sonata_in_C_Op_102_1_1_2. ... Image File history File links CELLO_LIVE_PERFORMANCES_JOHN_MICHEL-BEETHOVEN_SONATA_in_A_Major_Op_69_1. ... Beethovens Sonata No. ... Image File history File links CELLO_LIVE_PERFORMANCES_JOHN_MICHEL-Beethoven_Sonata_in_A_Op_69_3rd_4th. ... Beethovens Sonata No. ... Image File history File links JOHN_MICHEL_CELLO-BEETHOVEN_SONATA_in_A_KREUTZER_Presto. ... Violin Sonata No. ... Image File history File links Violinist_CARRIE_REHKOPF-BEETHOVEN_VIOLIN_SONATA_1_3rd_mvt_. ... The Violin Sonata No. ... Image File history File links Violinist_CARRIE_REHKOPF-BEETHOVEN_VIOLIN_SONATA_2_1st_mvt_. ... The Violin Sonata No. ... Image File history File links Violinist_CARRIE_REHKOPF-BEETHOVEN_VIOLIN_SONATA_2_2nd_mvt_. ... The Violin Sonata No. ... Image File history File links Violinist_CARRIE_REHKOPF-BEETHOVEN_VIOLIN_SONATA_2_3rd_mvt_. ... The Violin Sonata No. ... Image File history File links Violinist_CARRIE_REHKOPF-BEETHOVEN_KREUTZER_SONATA_Presto. ... Violin Sonata No. ... Image File history File links Ode_to_Joy_violin. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_-_Rondino_in_Eb_for_Wind_Octet. ... Image File history File links Komm_o_Hoffnung. ... Fidelio (Op. ...

Cinematic Depictions

The composer has been depicted in a number of biopic films for both theatrical and television release. They include a 1909 silent film from the French writer/director Victorin-Hippolyte Jasset, Beethoven, starring Harry Baur as the composer and a 1927 German film from Hans Otto, Lebden des Beethoven. Another French writer/director, Abel Gance, made a film in 1936, Un grand amour de Beethoven, (Harry Baur once again starred as the composer); the film has been praised for it's depiction of Beethoven's struggle with deafness and touches upon the romantic themes from the composer's life, which would later be explored in the 1994 film Immortal Beloved. Also of note is the Emmy Award winning 1992 Television movie, Beethoven Lives Upstairs, a 1985 film Le Neveu de Beethoven (or Beethoven's Nephew), which deals with the composer's custody battle for his nephew, and the 2006 theatrical release of Copying Beethoven from director Agnieszka Holland, and Ed Harris starring as the composer. Beethoven's music has been used in the soundtracks of over 250 films and television programs.[19] In 2007 the critically acclaimed play 33 Variations by Moises Kaufman was first produced at Arena Stage in Washington, DC. The play depicts a modern-day researcher struggling to understand the process of creativity as she delves into how Beethoven composed his Diabelli Variations. Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Harry Baur (born 12 April 1880 as Henri-Marie Baur in Montrouge, Seine (Hauts-de-Seine), Île-de-France, France – died 8 April 1943 in Paris, France was a French actor. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abel Gance (October 25, 1889 - November 10, 1981) was a world-renowned French film director, producer, writer, actor and editor. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harry Baur (born 12 April 1880 as Henri-Marie Baur in Montrouge, Seine (Hauts-de-Seine), Île-de-France, France – died 8 April 1943 in Paris, France was a French actor. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Immortal Beloved is a 1994 film about the life of composer Ludwig van Beethoven. ... An Emmy Award. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Copying Beethoven is a dramatic film directed by Agnieszka Holland which depicts a fictional take on the triumphs and heartaches of Ludwig van Beethovens last year of life. ... Agnieszka Holland (born November 28, 1948 in Warsaw, Poland) is a film and TV director and screenplay writer. ... Edward Allen Harris (born November 28, 1950) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor, known for his performances in The Rock, The Right Stuff, Apollo 13, Pollock, and The Truman Show, among many others. ...


References

  1. ^ Beethoven was baptized on 17 December 1770. Well into adulthood he believed he had been born in 1772, telling friends the 1770 baptism was of his older brother Ludwig Maria, who died in infancy, but Ludwig Maria was actually baptized in 1769. Some biographers assert that his father tried to make him seem younger than he was in order to pass him off as a child prodigy similar to Mozart, however this is disputed. Children of that era were usually baptized the day after birth, but there is no documentary evidence that this occurred in Beethoven's case. It is known that his family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December. While the known facts support the probability that 16 December 1770, was Beethoven's date of birth, this cannot be stated with certainty. This is discussed in depth in Solomon's biography, chapter 1.
  2. ^ Kerman and Tyson
  3. ^ H. C. Robbins Landon, Beethoven, Macmillan Company 1970
  4. ^ Milton Cross, David Ewen, The Milton Cross New Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music, Doubleday 1953 p68
  5. ^ Jim Powell, "Ludwig van Beethoven's Joyous Affirmation of Human Freedom", The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, December 1995 Vol. 45 No. 12
  6. ^ Milton Cross, David Ewen, The Milton Cross New Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music, Doubleday 1953 p79
  7. ^ JOSEPH KERMAN, ALAN TYSON (with SCOTTG. BURNHAM). "Ludvig van Beethoven:5. 1801–2: deafness", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed November 29, 2006), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  8. ^ An incident described in Maynard Solomon's biography.
  9. ^ R&E Sterba
  10. ^ Yahoo.com, Pathologist: Doctor killed Beethoven
  11. ^ Kerman and Tyson
  12. ^ Kerman and Tyson
  13. ^ H. C. Robbins Landon, Beethoven, Macmillan Company 1970
  14. ^ Ludwig van Beethoven - Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon
  15. ^ Kerman and Tyson
  16. ^ Kerman and Tyson
  17. ^ The Art Of Beethoven, Volumes I & II, Peter Dimmond
  18. ^ Kerman and Tyson
  19. ^ Ludwig van Beethoven, IMDb.

Baptism in early Christian art. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (February 3, 1736 - March 7, 1809) was an Austrian musician who was born at Kloster-Neuburg, near Vienna. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Joseph Kerman and Alan Tyson (and others): "Beethoven, Ludwig van", Grove Music Online ed L.Macy (accessed 18th March 2007), grovemusic.com, subscription access.
  • Albrecht, Theodor, and Elaine Schwensen, "More Than Just Peanuts: Evidence for December 16 as Beethoven's birthday." The Beethoven Newsletter 3 (1988): 49, 60-63.
  • Bohle, Bruce, and Robert Sabin. The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. London: J.M.Dent & Sons LTD, 1975. ISBN 0-460-04235-1.
  • Clive, Peter. Beethoven and His World: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-816672-9.
  • Davies, Peter J. The Character of a Genius: Beethoven in Perspective. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. ISBN 0-313-31913-8.
  • Davies, Peter J. Beethoven in Person: His Deafness, Illnesses, and Death. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001. ISBN 0-313-31587-6.
  • DeNora, Tia. "Beethoven and the Construction of Genius: Musical Politics in Vienna, 1792-1803." Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1995. ISBN 0-520-21158-8.
  • Geck, Martin. Beethoven. Translated by Anthea Bell. London: Haus, 2003. ISBN 1-904341-03-9 (h), ISBN 1-904341-00-4 (p).
  • Hatten, Robert S. Musical Meaning in Beethoven (in English). Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 372. ISBN 0-253-32742-3. 
  • Kropfinger, Klaus. Beethoven. Verlage Bärenreiter/Metzler, 2001. ISBN 3-7618-1621-9.
  • Martin, Russell. Beethoven's Hair. New York: Broadway Books, 2000. ISBN 978-0767903509
  • Meredith, William. "The History of Beethoven's Skull Fragments." The Beethoven Journal 20 (2005): 3-46.
  • Morris, Edmund. Beethoven: The Universal Composer. New York: Atlas Books / HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-075974-7.
  • Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. (Expanded ed.) New York: W. W. Norton, 1998. ISBN 0-393-04020-8 (hc); ISBN 0-393-31712-9 (pb).
  • Solomon, Maynard. Beethoven, 2nd revised edition. New York: Schirmer Books, 2001. ISBN 0-8256-7268-6.
  • Solomon, Maynard. Late Beethoven: Music, Thought, Imagination. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. ISBN 0-520-23746-3.
  • Stanley, Glenn, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Beethoven. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-58074-9 (hc), ISBN 0-521-58934-7 (pb).
  • Thayer, A. W., rev and ed. Elliot Forbes. Thayer's Life of Beethoven. (2 vols.) Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09103-X
  • Editha & Richard Sterba,MD. "Beethoven & his Nephew - a Psychoanalytic Study of their Relationship" Pantheon Books Inc. New York.

Joseph Kerman (born April 3, 1924) is a known writer of music and a musicologist. ... Alan Walker Tyson (born October 27, 1926, died November 10, 2000) was a British musicologist who specialized in studies of the music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... Peter Davies (March 22, 1989 – Present) is an actor who has appeared in many minor roles in such BBC productions as Little Britain, Holy Cross, and the more recent Sweeney Todd. ... Tia DeNora is Professor of Sociology of Music and Director of Research, in the Department of Sociology/Philosophy at the University of Exeter. ... Edmund Morris during a CNN interview in 1999 Edmund Morris (born May 27, 1940 in Nairobi, Kenya) is a writer best known for his biographies of United States presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... Maynard Solomon is the author most recently of Mozart, a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in Biography, which won the Deems Taylor Award as did his biography, Beethoven, and his study of Charles Ives. ... Alexander Wheelock Thayer (b. ...

External links

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Persondata
NAME Beethoven, Ludwig van
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION German composer
DATE OF BIRTH 1770-12-16
PLACE OF BIRTH Bonn
DATE OF DEATH 1827-03-26
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Map of Germany showing Bonn Watershed of the Rhine river Bonn is a city in Germany (Population (2002 est): 310 930, the 19th largest city in Germany), in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, located ca. ... Discogs, short for discographies, is a website and database of information about music recordings, including commercial releases, promotional releases, and certain bootleg or off-label releases. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The Werner Icking Music Archive, often abbreviated WIMA, is a web archive of public domain sheet music. ... Magnatune is a small Berkeley, California–based independent record label, founded in spring 2003 by John Buckman, then-CEO of e-mail software company Lyris. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... “NPR” redirects here. ... Performance Today is the most listened-to daily classical music show in the United States, with about 1. ... The Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries with streaming and downloadable versions of over 5,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1895 and the mid 1920s. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ... MusicBrainz (MusicBrainz. ... Archival Sound Recordings is a British Library service, funded by the JISC, which provides free online access to spoken word, music and environmental sounds from the British Library Sound Archive. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ludwig van Beethoven. ... Ludwig van Beethoven is viewed as a pivotal figure in the history of European classical music, and important both as an important figure in the Classical and Romantic eras of musical history. ... During the course of his lifetime (1770-1827), the composer Ludwig van Beethoven enjoyed relationships with many of his musical contemporaries. ... Beethoven, caricatured by J. P. Lyser The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) are known by various designations, including: by the opus numbers assigned by Beethovens publishers during his lifetime, e. ... The following list contains historical sites associated with composer Ludwig van Beethoven. ... Wanderer above the Sea of Fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated around the middle of the 18th century in Western Europe, during the Industrial Revolution. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie Fantastique (first performed in 1830) and Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem). ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ... “Chopin” redirects here. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák (listen â–¶(?)) (September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... “Liszt” redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Romantic poetry was part of the Romantic movement of European literature during the 18th-mid-19th centuries. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... “Byron” redirects here. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... “Goethe” redirects here. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ... Categories: 1812 births | 1859 deaths | Polish poets | Polish writers | Stub ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born... Giacomo Leopardi, Count (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) is generally considered, along with such figures as Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto and Tasso, to be among Italys greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers. ... Mikhail Lermontov in 1837 Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов), (October 15, 1814–July 27, 1841), a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes called the poet of the Caucasus, was the most important presence in the Russian poetry from Alexander Pushkins death until his own four years later, at the age... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Gérard de Nerval (May 22, 1808 - January 26, 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie, the most essentially Romantic among French poets. ... For the German rock band, see Novalis (band). ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... -1... Juliusz Słowacki Juliusz Słowacki (4 September 1809–3 April 1849) was one of the most famous Polish romantic poets. ... William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ... Karl Pavlovich Briullov (Карл Павлович Брюллов), called by his friends the Great Karl (December 12, 1799, St Petersburg - June 11, 1852, Rome), was the first Russian painter of international standing. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, French landscape painter. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... “Goya” redirects here. ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, or The Oxbow, 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (May 24, 1816 – July 18, 1868) was a German-born American painter. ... -1... Self-portrait of the young Samuel Palmer, circa 1826. ... 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Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Wien” redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ludwig van Beethoven - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3027 words)
Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced [ˈbeː.to.vən]) (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Beethoven was born at 515 Bongasse in Bonn to Johann van Beethoven (1740–1792) and Magdalena Keverich van Beethoven (1744–1787).
Beethoven died on 26 March 1827, after a long illness, in the midst of a fierce thunderstorm, and legend has it that the dying man shook his fists in defiance of the heavens.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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