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Encyclopedia > Ludwig Wittgenstein
Western Philosophy
20th-century philosophy
Name
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein
Birth April 26, 1889
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Death April 29, 1951 (aged 62)
Cambridge, United Kingdom
School/tradition Analytic philosophy, Post-Analytic Philosophy
Main interests Metaphysics, Epistemology, Logic, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind
Notable ideas For a large class of cases, the meaning of a word is its use in the language; the idea of a logically private language is incoherent; philosophical problems arise due to misuse of language.
Influenced by Frege, Russell, Schopenhauer, Moore, Sraffa, William James, Ramsey, Kant, Kierkegaard, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Hertz, Boltzmann, Kraus, Weininger, Augustine, Goethe, Spengler
Influenced Russell, G. E. M. Anscombe, Norman Malcolm, D.Z. Phillips, Rush Rhees, Gilbert Ryle, P.M.S. Hacker, Vienna Circle, Logical Positivism, Analytic Philosophy, Ordinary Language Philosophy

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (pronounced [ˈluːtvɪç ˈjoːzɛf ˈjoːhan ˈvɪtgənʃtaɪn] in German) (April 26, 1889April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who worked primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.[1] His influence has been wide-ranging and he is generally regarded as one of the twentieth century's most important philosophers. Wittgenstein may refer to: Prince Peter Wittgenstein (1769–1843), Russian Field Marshal in the Napoleonic Wars. ... It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... The private language argument is a philosophical argument said to be found in Ludwig Wittgensteins later work, especially in Philosophical Investigations. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... George Edward Moore, usually known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 – October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... Piero Sraffa. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Frank Plumpton Ramsey (February 22, 1903 – January 19, 1930) was a British mathematician who, in addition to mathematics, made significant contributions in philosophy and economics. ... Kant redirects here. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom the hertz, an SI unit, is named. ... Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... Karl Kraus (April 28, 1874 - June 12, 1936) was an eminent Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet. ... Otto Weininger (April 3, 1880 – October 4, 1903) was an Austrian philosopher. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (March 18, 1919 – January 5, 2001) (known as Elizabeth Anscombe, published as G. E. M. Anscombe) was a British analytic philosopher, a theologian and a pupil of Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Norman Malcolm (1911 – 1990) is an American philosopher. ... Dewi Zephaniah Phillips (24 November 1934 - 25 July 2006), known as DZ Phillips, enjoyed a long and distinguished academic career spanning four decades at Swansea University. ... Rush Rhees (1951-1989) was a philosopher at Swansea University from 1940-1966, and is principally known as a student, friend, and literary executor of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Gilbert Ryle (born August 19, 1900 in Brighton, died October 6, 1976 in Oxford), was a philosopher, and a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers influenced by Wittgensteins insights into language, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian dualism, for which he coined the... Peter Michael Stephan Hacker (born 15 July 1939 in London) is a British philosopher. ... Moritz Schlick around 1930 The Vienna Circle (in German: der Wiener Kreis) was a group of philosophers who gathered around Moritz Schlick when he was called to the Vienna University in 1922, organized in a philosophical association named Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society). ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ...


Before his death at the age of 62,[2] the only book-length work Wittgenstein had published was the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Philosophical Investigations, which Wittgenstein worked on in his later years, was published shortly after he died. Both of these works are regarded as highly influential in analytic philosophy.[3] Book cover of the Dover edition of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Ogden translation) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ... Book cover of the Blackwell edition of Philosophical Investigations Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is, along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works by 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ...

Contents

Life

Ludwig Wittgenstein was born in Vienna on April 26, 1889, to Karl and Leopoldine Wittgenstein. He was the youngest of eight children, born into one of the most prominent and wealthy families in the Austro-Hungarian empire. His father's parents, Hermann Christian and Fanny Wittgenstein, were born into Jewish families but later converted to Protestantism, and after they moved from Saxony to Vienna in the 1850s, assimilated into the Viennese Protestant professional classes. Ludwig's father, Karl Wittgenstein, became an industrialist and went on to make a fortune in iron and steel. Ludwig's mother Leopoldine, born Kalmus, was an aunt of the Nobel Prize laureate Friedrich von Hayek. Despite Karl's Protestantism, and the fact that Leopoldine's father was Jewish, the Wittgenstein children were baptized as Roman Catholics—the faith of their maternal grandmother—and Ludwig was given a Roman Catholic burial upon his death.[4] For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Friedrich von Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist and collectivist thought in the mid... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Early life

Ludwig grew up in a household that provided an exceptionally intense environment for artistic and intellectual achievement. His parents were both very musical and all their children were artistically and intellectually educated. Karl Wittgenstein was a leading patron of the arts, and the Wittgenstein house hosted many figures of high culture — above all, musicians. The family was often visited by musicians such as Johannes Brahms and Gustav Mahler. Ludwig's older brother Paul Wittgenstein went on to become a world-famous concert pianist, even after losing his right arm in World War I. Ludwig himself had absolute pitch,[5] and his devotion to music remained vitally important to him throughout his life: he made frequent use of musical examples and metaphors in his philosophical writings, and was said to be unusually adept at whistling lengthy and detailed musical passages. He also played the clarinet and is said to have remarked that he approved of this instrument because it took a proper role in the orchestra. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Mahler redirects here. ... Paul Wittgenstein (May 11, 1887 – March 3, 1961) was an Austrian-born pianist. ... Absolute pitch (AP), widely referred to as perfect pitch, is the ability of a person to identify or sing a musical note without the benefit of a known reference. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...

Hitler (far right) and a boy who may be Wittgenstein in a school photograph taken at the Linz Realschule in 1903

His family also had a history of intense self-criticism, to the point of depression and suicidal tendencies. Three of his four brothers committed suicide. The eldest of the brothers, Hans — an early musician who started composing at age four — killed himself in April 1902, in Havana, Cuba. The third son, Rudolf, followed in May 1904 in Berlin. Their brother Kurt shot himself at the end of World War I, in October 1918, when the Austrian troops he was commanding deserted en masse.[6] Image File history File links WittRealschuleCrop. ... Image File history File links WittRealschuleCrop. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Jew of Linz (1998) is a controversial book by the Australian author Kimberley Cornish. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ...


Until 1903, Ludwig was educated at home; after that, he began three years of schooling at the Realschule in Linz, a school emphasizing technical topics. Adolf Hitler was a student there at the same time, when both boys were 14 or 15 years old. Wittgenstein was only a few days Hitler's junior but, instructed by private tutors, was two grades ahead of him. It is a matter of controversy whether Hitler and Wittgenstein knew each other personally, and if so whether either had any memory of the other. However, Hitler must have at least noticed Wittgenstein, for in Linz the latter was a conspicuously bizarre fellow.[7] For the town in Germany, see Linz am Rhein. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Wittgenstein spoke an unusually pure high German, albeit with a slight stutter, wore very elegant clothes, and was highly sensitive and extremely unsociable. It was one of his idiosyncrancies to use the formal form of address with his classmates and to demand that they too with the exception of a single friend address him formally, with "Sie" and "Herr Ludwig". Like Hitler, he hated school. He was frequently absent but held an average record. He had a vocabulary that was scarcely better than Hitler's.[8]


The teacher whom Hitler commends in Mein Kampf for teaching him German history and making him into a fanatical German nationalist, one Dr. Leopold Poetsch, also took Wittgenstein's class on overnight excursions. Some school records with this and other items of information concerning Wittgenstein, have been posted on the University of Passau website. [1] Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... Leopold Poetsch was a teacher of Adolf Hitler who influenced the future-leaders later views. ...


These include references to the texts studied by Wittgenstein as a student. Ludwig was interested in physics and wanted to study with Ludwig Boltzmann, whose collection of popular writings, including an inspiring essay about the hero and genius who would solve the problem of heavier-than-air flight ("On Aeronautics") was published during this time (1905).[9]However, Boltzmann committed suicide in 1906.[10] Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ...


In 1906, Wittgenstein began studying mechanical engineering in Berlin, and in 1908 he went to the Victoria University of Manchester to study for his doctorate in engineering, full of plans for aeronautical projects. He registered as a research student in an engineering laboratory, where he conducted research on the behaviour of kites in the upper atmosphere, and worked on the design of a propeller with small jet engines on the end of its blades. During his research in Manchester, he became interested in the foundations of mathematics, particularly after reading Bertrand Russell's Principles of Mathematics and Gottlob Frege's Grundgesetze. In the summer of 1911 Wittgenstein visited Frege and, after having corresponded with him for some time, was advised by Frege to attend the University of Cambridge to study under Russell.[11] Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... The Victoria University of Manchester (VUM) was a large university in Manchester in England. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Air redirects here. ... Foundations of mathematics is a term sometimes used for certain fields of mathematics itself, namely for mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, proof theory, model theory, and recursion theory. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ...


In October 1911 Wittgenstein arrived unannounced at Russell's rooms in Trinity College and was soon attending his lectures and discussing philosophy with him at great length. He made a great impression on Russell and G. E. Moore and started to work on the foundations of logic and mathematical logic. Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ...


Russell was increasingly tired of philosophy and saw Wittgenstein as a successor who would carry on his work.[12] During this period Wittgenstein's other major interests were music and travelling (he went to Iceland, in September 1912), often in the company of David Pinsent, an undergraduate who became a firm friend. He was also invited to join the Cambridge Apostles, an elite secret society which Russell and Moore had both belonged to as students. Whilst in Cambridge Wittgenstein often liked to go to the cinema.[13] 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Trinity College Great Court. ... For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ...


In 1913 Wittgenstein inherited a large fortune when his father died.[14] He donated some of it, initially anonymously, to Austrian artists and writers, including Rainer Maria Rilke and Georg Trakl. In 1914 he went to visit Trakl when the latter wanted to meet his benefactor, but Trakl died (an apparent suicide) days before Wittgenstein arrived. Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ... Georg Trakl A poem by Trakl inscribed on a plaque in Mirabell Garden, Salzburg. ...


Although he was invigorated by his study in Cambridge and his conversations with Russell, Wittgenstein came to feel that he could not get to the heart of his most fundamental questions while surrounded by other academics. In 1913 he retreated to the relative solitude of the remote village of Skjolden at the end of the Sognefjord in Norway.[11] Here he rented the second floor of a house and stayed for the winter. The isolation from academia allowed him to devote himself entirely to his work, and he later saw this period as one of the most passionate and productive times of his life. While there he wrote a book entitled Logik, a ground-breaking work in the foundations of logic which was the immediate predecessor and source of much of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Book cover of the Dover edition of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Ogden translation) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ...


World War I

1914 notes
1914 notes

The outbreak of World War I in the next year took him completely by surprise, as he was living a secluded life at the time. He volunteered for the Austro-Hungarian army, first serving on a ship and then in an artillery workshop. In 1916 he was sent as a member of a howitzer regiment to the Russian front, where he won several medals for bravery, then in the southern Tyrol, where he was taken as a prisoner of war by the Italian army in November 1918.[11] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with...


His notebook entries during the war reflect his contempt for the baseness, as he saw it, of his fellow soldiers. Throughout the war, Wittgenstein kept notebooks in which he frequently wrote philosophical and religious reflections alongside personal remarks. The notebooks reflect a profound change in his religious life: a militant atheist during his stint at Cambridge, Wittgenstein discovered Leo Tolstoy's The Gospel in Brief at a bookshop in Galicia. He devoured Tolstoy's commentary and became an evangelist of sorts; he carried the book everywhere he went and recommended it to anyone in distress (to the point that he became known to his fellow soldiers as "the man with the gospels"). Although Monk notes that Wittgenstein began to doubt again by at least 1937, and that by the end of his life he said he could not believe Christian doctrines (although religious belief remained an important preoccupation), this is not contrary to the influence that Tolstoy had on his philosophy.[15] Wittgenstein's other religious influences include Saint Augustine, Fyodor Dostoevsky and, most notably, Søren Kierkegaard, whom Wittgenstein referred to as "a saint".[16] Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... St. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ...


Developing the Tractatus

Hochreit 1920. Wittgenstein is seated between his sister Helene Salzer and his friend, Arvid Sjögren.
Hochreit 1920. Wittgenstein is seated between his sister Helene Salzer and his friend, Arvid Sjögren.

Wittgenstein's work on Logik began to take on an ethical and religious significance. With this new concern with the ethical, combined with his earlier interest in logical analysis, and with key insights developed during the war (such as the so-called "picture theory" of propositions), Wittgenstein's work from Cambridge and Norway was transfigured into the material that eventually became the Tractatus. Towards the end of the war in 1918 Wittgenstein was promoted to reserve officer (lieutenant) and sent to northern Italy as part of an artillery regiment. On leave in the summer of 1918 he received a letter from David Pinsent's mother telling Wittgenstein that her son had been killed in an airplane accident. Suicidal, Wittgenstein went to stay with his uncle Paul, and there completed the Tractatus, which he dedicated to Pinsent. The book was then sent to publishers, but without success.


In October of 1918, Wittgenstein returned to the Italian front but was captured by the Italians shortly thereafter. While he was a prisoner of war at Cassino (Central Italy), through the intervention of his Cambridge friends Russell and Keynes, Wittgenstein managed to get access to books, prepare his manuscript, and send it back to England. Russell recognized it as a work of supreme philosophical importance and worked with Wittgenstein to get it published after his release in 1919. An English translation was prepared, first by Frank P. Ramsey and then by C. K. Ogden, with Wittgenstein's involvement. After some discussion of how best to translate the title, G. E. Moore suggested Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, an allusion to Baruch Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Russell wrote an introduction,[17] lending the book his reputation as one of the foremost philosophers in the world. Cassino is a comune in the province of Frosinone, Italy, at the southern end of the region of Lazio. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes [ˈkeɪns], 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (June 5, 1883 - April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose radical ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political thought. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Frank Plumpton Ramsey (February 22, 1903 – January 19, 1930) was a British mathematician who, in addition to mathematics, made significant contributions in philosophy and economics. ... Charles Kay Ogden (June 1, 1889 - March 21, 1957) is a linguist and writer most prominently known as the author of a constructed language called Basic English. ... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ...


However, difficulties remained. Wittgenstein had become personally disaffected with Russell and was displeased with Russell's introduction, which he thought evinced a fundamental misunderstanding of the Tractatus. Wittgenstein grew frustrated as interested publishers proved difficult to find. To add insult to injury, those publishers who were interested proved to be so mainly because of Russell's introduction. Finally Wilhelm Ostwald's journal Annalen der Naturphilosophie printed a German edition in 1921, and Routledge's Kegan Paul printed a bilingual edition with Russell's introduction and the Ramsey-Ogden translation in 1922. Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ...


The "lost years" after the Tractatus

By then Wittgenstein was a profoundly changed man. He had embraced the Christianity that he had previously opposed, faced harrowing combat in World War I, and crystallized his intellectual and emotional upheavals with the exhausting composition of the Tractatus. It was a work which transfigured all of his past work on logic into a radically new framework that he believed offered a definitive solution to all the problems of philosophy. These changes in Wittgenstein's inner and outer life left him both haunted and yet invigorated to follow a new, ascetic life. One of the most dramatic expressions of this change was his decision in 1919 to give away the portion of the family fortune he had inherited when his father died. The money was divided between his sisters Helene and Hermine and his brother Paul, and Wittgenstein insisted that they promise never to give it back. He felt that giving money to the poor could only corrupt them further, whereas the rich would not be harmed by it.


Since Wittgenstein thought that the Tractatus had solved all the problems of philosophy, he left philosophy and returned to Austria to train as a primary school teacher.[18] He was educated in the methods of the Austrian School Reform Movement which advocated the stimulation of the natural curiosity of children and their development as independent thinkers, instead of just letting them memorize facts. Wittgenstein was enthusiastic about these ideas but ran into problems when he was appointed as an elementary teacher in the rural Austrian villages of Trattenbach, Puchberg-am-Schneeberg, and Otterthal. During his time as a schoolteacher Wittgenstein wrote a pronunciation and spelling dictionary for his own use in teaching students. The publishers insisted upon the removal of Wittgenstein's introduction (on the grounds that it contained poor grammar) and some additions to the list of words, and it was moderately well received by his colleagues (although not reprinted in his lifetime).[19] This would be the only book besides the Tractatus that Wittgenstein published in his lifetime. Trattenbach is a town in Austria, situated in Lower Austria. ... Otterthal is a town in Austria. ...


Wittgenstein had unrealistic expectations of the rural children he taught, and his teaching methods were intense and exacting — he had little patience with those children who had no aptitude for mathematics. However, he achieved good results with children attuned to his interests and style of teaching, especially boys. His severe disciplinary methods (often involving corporal punishment, not unusual at the time) — as well as a general suspicion amongst the villagers that he was somewhat mad — led to a long series of bitter disagreements with some of his students' parents, and eventually culminated in April 1926 in the collapse of an eleven year old boy whom Wittgenstein had struck on the head.[18] The boy's father attempted to have Wittgenstein arrested, and despite being cleared of misconduct he resigned his position and returned to Vienna, feeling that he had failed as a school teacher.


After abandoning his work as a school teacher, Wittgenstein worked as a gardener's assistant in a monastery near Vienna. He considered becoming a monk,[18] and went so far as to inquire about the requirements for joining an order. However, at the interview he was advised that he would not find in monastic life what he sought.

Wittgenstein House
Wittgenstein House

Two major developments helped to save Wittgenstein from this despairing state. The first was an invitation from his sister Margaret ("Gretl") Stonborough (who was painted by Gustav Klimt in 1905) to work on the design and construction of her new house. He worked with the architect, Paul Engelmann, who had become a close friend of Wittgenstein's during the war, and the two designed a spare modernist house after the style of Adolf Loos (whom they both greatly admired). Wittgenstein found the work intellectually absorbing and exhausting; he poured himself into the design in painstaking detail, including even small aspects such as doorknobs and radiators, spending a year on each as they had to be exactly positioned to maintain the symmetry of the rooms.[18] As a work of modernist architecture the house evoked some high praise; G. H. von Wright said that it possessed the same "static beauty" as the Tractatus. The effort of totally involving himself in intellectual work once again did much to restore Wittgenstein's spirits. Margaret Stonborough-Wittgenstein, by Gustav Klimt. ... Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau (Vienna Secession) movement. ... Adolf Loos (December 10, 1870 in Brno, Moravia–August 8, 1933 in Vienna, Austria) was an early-20th century Viennese architect. ... Statue of Georg Henrik von Wright in University of Helsinki Georg Henrik von Wright (pronounced, roughly, fon vrikt, IPA: [je:ɔrj hɛn:rik fɔn-vrik:t],) (June 14, 1916 – June 16, 2003) was a Finnish philosopher, who succeeded Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge. ...


Secondly, toward the end of his work on the house, Wittgenstein was contacted by Moritz Schlick, one of the leading figures of the newly formed Vienna Circle. The Tractatus had been tremendously influential to the development of the Vienna positivism and, although Schlick never succeeded in drawing Wittgenstein into the discussions of the Vienna Circle itself, he and some of his fellow circle members, especially Friedrich Waismann, met occasionally with Wittgenstein to discuss philosophical topics.[20] Wittgenstein was frequently frustrated by these meetings — he believed that Schlick and his colleagues had fundamentally misunderstood the Tractatus, and at times would refuse to talk about it at all. (Much of the disagreements concerned the importance of religious life and the mystical; Wittgenstein considered these matters as a sort of wordless faith, whereas the positivists disdained them as useless. In one meeting Wittgenstein refused to discuss the Tractatus at all, and sat with his back to his guests while he read aloud from the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore.) Nevertheless, the contact with the Vienna Circle stimulated Wittgenstein intellectually and revived his interest in philosophy. He also met with Frank P. Ramsey, a young philosopher of mathematics who traveled several times from Cambridge to Austria to meet with Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle. In the course of his conversations with the Vienna Circle and with Ramsey, Wittgenstein began to think that there might be some "grave mistakes" in his work as presented in the Tractatus — marking the beginning of a second career of ground-breaking philosophical work, which would occupy him for the rest of his life. Moritz Schlick around 1930 Moritz Schlick ( )(April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Moritz Schlick around 1930 The Vienna Circle (in German: der Wiener Kreis) was a group of philosophers who gathered around Moritz Schlick when he was called to the Vienna University in 1922, organized in a philosophical association named Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society). ... Friedrich Waismann (March 21, 1896 - November 4, 1959) was an Austrian mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Frank Plumpton Ramsey (February 22, 1903 – January 19, 1930) was a British mathematician who, in addition to mathematics, made significant contributions in philosophy and economics. ...


Return to Cambridge

In 1929 he decided, at the urging of Ramsey and others, to return to Cambridge. He was met at the railway station by a crowd of England's greatest intellectuals, discovering rather to his horror that he was one of the most famed philosophers in the world. In a letter to his wife, Lydia Lopokova, John Maynard Keynes wrote: "Well, God has arrived. I met him on the 5.15 train." Lydia Lopokova (October 21, 1892-June 8, 1981) was a famous Russian ballerina dancer during the early 20th-century and was the wife of the economist, John Maynard Keynes. ... Keynes redirects here. ...


Despite this fame he could not initially work at Cambridge as he did not have a degree, so he applied as an advanced undergraduate. Russell noted that his previous residency was in fact sufficient for a doctoral degree, and urged him to offer the Tractatus as a doctoral thesis, which he did in 1929. It was examined by Russell and Moore; at the end of the thesis defence, Wittgenstein clapped the two examiners on the shoulder and said, "Don't worry, I know you'll never understand it."[21] Moore commented in the examiner's report: "In my opinion this is a work of genius; it is, in any case, up to the standards of a degree from Cambridge." Wittgenstein was appointed as a lecturer and was made a fellow of Trinity College. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ...


Although Wittgenstein was involved in a relationship with Marguerite Respinger (a young Swiss woman he had met as a friend of the family), his plans to marry her were broken off in 1931 and he never married. Most of his romantic attachments were to young men. There is considerable debate over how active Wittgenstein's homosexual life was, inspired by W. W. Bartley's claim to have found evidence of not only active homosexuality but in particular several casual liaisons with young men in the Wiener Prater park during his time in Vienna. Bartley published his claims in a biography of Wittgenstein in 1973, claiming to have his information from "confidential reports from... friends" of Wittgenstein,[22] whom he declined to name, and to have discovered two coded notebooks unknown to Wittgenstein's executors that detailed the visits to the Prater. Wittgenstein's estate and other biographers disputed Bartley's claims and asked him to produce the sources that he claims. What has become clear, at least, is that Wittgenstein had several long-term homoerotic attachments, including an infatuation with his friend David Pinsent and long-term relationships during his years in Cambridge with Francis Skinner and Ben Richards.[23] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... William Warren Bartley, III (1934-1990) was an American philosopher. ... We dont have an article called Wiener Prater Start this article Search for Wiener Prater in. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Francis Skinner (1912-1941) was Ludwig Wittgensteins homosexual lover. ...


Wittgenstein's political sympathies lay on the left, and while he was opposed to Marxist theory, he described himself as a "communist at heart" and romanticized the life of labourers.[24] In 1934, attracted by Keynes' description of Soviet life in Short View of Russia, he conceived the idea of emigrating to the Soviet Union with Skinner. They took lessons in Russian and in 1935 Wittgenstein traveled to Leningrad and Moscow in an attempt to secure employment. He was offered teaching positions but preferred manual work and returned three weeks later. Left wing redirects here. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes [ˈkeɪns], 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (June 5, 1883 - April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose radical ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political thought. ...


From 1936 to 1937 Wittgenstein lived again in Norway,[25] leaving Skinner behind. He worked on the Philosophical Investigations. In the winter of 1936/37, he delivered a series of "confessions" to close friends, most of them about minor infractions like white lies, in an effort to cleanse himself. In 1938 he traveled to Ireland to visit Maurice Drury, a friend who was training as a doctor, and considered such training himself, with the intention of abandoning philosophy for psychiatry. The visit to Ireland was at the same time a response to the invitation of the then Irish Taoiseach, Eamon de Valera, himself a mathematics teacher. De Valera hoped that Wittgenstein's presence would contribute to an academy for advanced mathematics. Whilst staying in Ireland, Wittgenstein resided at the Ashling hotel, now commemorated by a plaque in his honour. An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and...


While he was in Ireland, Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss; the Viennese Wittgenstein was now a citizen of the enlarged Germany and a Jew under its racial laws. He found this intolerable and started to investigate the possibilities of acquiring British or Irish citizenship with the help of Keynes, but this put his siblings Hermine, Helene and Paul, all still living in Austria, in considerable danger. Wittgenstein's first thought was to travel to Vienna, but he was dissuaded by friends. Had the Wittgensteins been classified as Jews their fate would have been the same as other Austrian Jews, only a minority of whom survived the war.[26] Their only hope was to be classified as Mischlinge: Aryan/Jewish crossbreeds, whose treatment, while harsh, was less brutal than that reserved for Jews. This reclassification was known as a "Befreiung". The successful conclusion of these negotiations required the personal approval of Adolf Hitler. "The figures show how difficult it was to gain a Befreiung. In 1939 there were 2,100 applications for a different racial classification: the Führer allowed only twelve."[27] German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Mischling is a term coined during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. ...


Gretl, an American citizen by marriage, started negotiations with the Nazi authorities over the racial status of their grandfather Hermann, claiming that he was the illegitimate son of an "Aryan". The Reichsbank was keen to get its hands on the large amounts of foreign currency owned by the Wittgenstein family, and this was used as a bargaining tool. Paul, who had escaped to Switzerland and then the United States in July 1938, disagreed with the family's stance. A 100 Mark banknote issued by the German Reichsbank in 1908 (http://www. ...


In the summer of 1937 Wittgenstein had been introduced to Alan Turing by Alister Watson.[28] After G. E. Moore's resignation in 1939, Wittgenstein, who was by then considered a philosophical genius, was appointed to the chair in Philosophy at Cambridge. He acquired British citizenship soon afterwards, and in July 1939 he traveled to Vienna to assist Gretl and his other sisters, visiting Berlin for one day to meet with an official of the Reichsbank. After this, he traveled to New York to persuade Paul, whose agreement was required, to back the scheme. The required Befreiung was granted in August 1939. The amount signed over to the Nazis by the Wittgenstein family, a week or so before the outbreak of war, was 1.7 tonnes of gold.[29] At 2008 prices (US$900 per ounce), this amount of gold would be worth in excess of US$50 million. Had the transfer occurred only weeks later, it would have counted as aiding an enemy state in time of war, for which the maximum penalty was death by hanging.[30] There is also a report that Wittgenstein went on in 1939 from Berlin to visit Moscow a second time and met again the philosopher/academician Sophia Janowskaya.[31] Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ...


After exhausting philosophical work Wittgenstein would often relax by watching a western movie, where he preferred to sit at the very front of the cinema, or reading detective stories.[32] These tastes are in stark contrast to his preferences in music, where he rejected anything after Brahms as a symptom of the decay of society. Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ...


By this time Wittgenstein's view on the foundations of mathematics had changed considerably. Earlier he had thought that logic could provide a solid foundation, and he had even considered updating Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica. Now he denied that there were any mathematical facts to be discovered and he denied that mathematical statements were "true" in any real sense: they simply expressed the conventional established meanings of certain symbols. He also denied that a contradiction should count as a fatal flaw of a mathematical system. He gave a series of lectures on the foundations of mathematics discussing this and other topics, documented in a book.[33] The book contains lectures by Wittgenstein as well as discussions between Wittgenstein and several attending students including the young Alan Turing. Foundations of mathematics is a term sometimes used for certain fields of mathematics itself, namely for mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, proof theory, model theory, and recursion theory. ... The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910-1913. ... Broadly speaking, a contradiction is an incompatibility between two or more statements, ideas, or actions. ... Foundations of mathematics is a term sometimes used for certain fields of mathematics itself, namely for mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, proof theory, model theory, and recursion theory. ...


During World War II he left Cambridge and volunteered as a hospital porter in Guy's Hospital in London and as a laboratory assistant in Newcastle upon Tyne's Royal Victoria Infirmary. This was arranged by his friend John Ryle, a brother of the philosopher Gilbert Ryle, who was then working at the hospital. After the war, Wittgenstein returned to teach at Cambridge, but he found teaching an increasing burden: he had never liked the intellectual atmosphere at Cambridge, and in fact encouraged several of his students, including Skinner, to find work outside of academic philosophy. There are stories, perhaps apocryphal, that if any of his philosophy students expressed an interest in pursuing the subject, he would ban them from attending any more of his classes. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Guys Hospital for Incurables. An illustration from John Stows Survey of London (1755). ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Victoria Infirmary (RVI), in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, was opened on 11 July 1906 by Edward VII on ten acres of Town Moor given by the Corporation and Freemen. ... John Ryle was Regius Professor of Physic [not Physics; Physic here is an archaic term for Medicine] at Cambridge University. ... Gilbert Ryle (born August 19, 1900 in Brighton, died October 6, 1976 in Oxford), was a philosopher, and a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers influenced by Wittgensteins insights into language, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian dualism, for which he coined the...


Final years

The grave of Ludwig Wittgenstein, at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge
The grave of Ludwig Wittgenstein, at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge

Wittgenstein resigned his position at Cambridge in 1947 to concentrate on his writing. He was succeeded as professor by his friend Georg Henrik von Wright. He stayed at Kilpatrick House guesthouse in East Wicklow in 1947 and 1948. Much of his later work was done on the west coast of Ireland in the rural isolation he preferred. By 1949, when he was diagnosed as having prostate cancer, he had written most of the material that would be published after his death as Philosophische Untersuchungen (Philosophical Investigations), which arguably contains his most important work. Download high resolution version (1296x972, 582 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1296x972, 582 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The chapel of the Ascension Parish Burial Ground, Cambridge The Ascension Parish Burial Ground is a cemetery located on Huntingdon Road in the north-west of Cambridge, England. ... Statue of Georg Henrik von Wright in University of Helsinki Georg Henrik von Wright (pronounced, roughly, fon vrikt, IPA: [je:ɔrj hɛn:rik fɔn-vrik:t],) (June 14, 1916 – June 16, 2003) was a Finnish philosopher, who succeeded Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... HRPC redirects here. ...


He spent the last two years of his life working in Vienna, the United States, Oxford, and Cambridge. He worked continuously on new material, inspired by the conversations that he had had with his friend and former student Norman Malcolm during a long vacation at the Malcolms' house in the United States. Malcolm had been wrestling with G.E. Moore's common sense response to external world skepticism ("Here is one hand, and here is another; therefore I know at least two external things exist"). Wittgenstein began to work on another series of remarks inspired by his conversations, which he continued to work on until two days before his death, and which were published posthumously as On Certainty. Norman Malcolm (1911 – 1990) is an American philosopher. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The only known fragment of music composed by Wittgenstein was premiered in November 2003.[34] The piece of music comprises four bars and lasts less than half a minute.


Wittgenstein died from prostate cancer at the home of Edward Vaughan Bevan, his doctor, in Cambridge in 1951. His last words were: "Tell them I've had a wonderful life".[35] Dr. Edward Vaughan Bevan (November 3, 1907 - February 22, 1988) was a British rower and a doctor. ...


Work

Although many of Wittgenstein's notebooks, papers, and lectures have been published since his death, he published only one philosophical book in his lifetime, the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in 1921. Wittgenstein's early work was deeply influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer, and by the new systems of logic put forward by Bertrand Russell and Gottlob Frege. He was also influenced by the ideas of Immanuel Kant, especially in relation to transcendentality. When the Tractatus was published, it was taken up as a major influence by the Vienna Circle positivists. However, Wittgenstein did not consider himself part of that school and alleged that logical positivism involved grave misunderstandings of the Tractatus. Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... In philosophy, the adjective transcendental and the noun transcendence convey three different but related primary meanings, all of them derived from the words literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond: one sense that originated in Ancient philosophy, one in Medieval philosophy, and one in modern philosophy. ... Moritz Schlick around 1930 The Vienna Circle (in German: der Wiener Kreis) was a group of philosophers who gathered around Moritz Schlick when he was called to the Vienna University in 1922, organized in a philosophical association named Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society). ...


With the completion of the Tractatus Wittgenstein believed he had solved all the problems of philosophy and he abandoned his studies, working as a schoolteacher, a gardener at a monastery, and as an architect, along with Paul Engelmann, on his sister's new house in Vienna. However, in 1929, he returned to Cambridge, where he was awarded a Ph.D. for the Tractatus and took a teaching position. He renounced or revised much of his earlier work, and his development of a new philosophical method and a new understanding of language culminated in his second magnum opus, the Philosophical Investigations, which was published posthumously. This article is about the city in England. ...


The Tractatus

In rough order, the first half of the book sets forth the following theses: Book cover of the Dover edition of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Ogden translation) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ...

  • The world consists of independent atomic facts — existing states of affairs — out of which larger facts are built.
  • Language consists of atomic, and then larger-scale propositions that correspond to these facts by sharing the same "logical form".
  • Thought, expressed in language, "pictures" these facts.
  • We can analyse our thoughts and sentences to express ("express" as in show, not say) their true logical form.
  • Those we cannot so analyze, cannot be meaningfully discussed.
  • Philosophy consists of no more than this form of analysis: "Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muß man schweigen" ("Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent").

Some commentators believe that, although no other type of discourse is, properly speaking, philosophy, Wittgenstein does imply that those things to be passed over "in silence" may be important or useful,[36] according to some of his more cryptic propositions in the last sections of the Tractatus; indeed, that they may be the most important and most useful. He himself wrote about the Tractatus in a letter to his publisher Ficker: This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...

...the point of the book is ethical. I once wanted to give a few words in the foreword which now actually are not in it, which, however, I’ll write to you now because they might be a key for you: I wanted to write that my work consists of two parts: of the one which is here, and of everything I have not written. And precisely this second part is the important one. For the Ethical is delimited from within, as it were by my book; and I’m convinced that, strictly speaking, it can ONLY be delimited in this way. In brief, I think: All of that which many are babbling I have defined in my book by remaining silent about it.

—Wittgenstein, Letter to Ludwig von Ficker,[37] October or November 1919, translated by Ray Monk


Other commentators point out that the sentences of the Tractatus would not qualify as meaningful according to its own rigid criteria, and that Wittgenstein's method in the book does not follow its own demands regarding the only strictly correct philosophical method.[38] This also is admitted by Wittgenstein, when he writes in proposition 6.54: ‘My propositions are elucidatory in this way: he who understands me finally recognizes them as senseless’. These commentators believe that the book is deeply ironic, and that it demonstrates the ultimate nonsensicality of any sentence attempting to say something metaphysical, something about those fixations of metaphysical philosophers, about those things that must be passed over in silence, and about logic. He attempts to define the limits of logic in understanding the world.


The work also contains several innovations in logic, including a version of the truth table. Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ...


Intermediate works

Wittgenstein wrote copiously after his return to Cambridge, and arranged much of his writing into an array of incomplete manuscripts. Some thirty thousand pages existed at the time of his death. Much, but by no means all, of this has been sorted and released in several volumes.[39] During his "middle work" in the 1920s and 1930s, much of his work involved attacks from various angles on the sort of philosophical perfectionism embodied in the Tractatus. Of this work, Wittgenstein published only a single paper, "Remarks on Logical Form," which was submitted to be read for the Aristotelian Society and published in their proceedings. By the time of the conference, however, Wittgenstein had repudiated the essay as worthless, and gave a talk on the concept of infinity instead. Wittgenstein was increasingly frustrated to find that, although he was not yet ready to publish his work, some other philosophers were beginning to publish essays containing inaccurate presentations of his own views based on their conversations with him. As a result, he published a very brief letter to the journal Mind, taking a recent article by R. B. Braithwaite as a case in point, and asked philosophers to hold off writing about his views until he was himself ready to publish them. Although unpublished, the Blue Book, a set of notes dictated to his class at Cambridge in 1933–1934, contains seeds of Wittgenstein's later thoughts on language (later developed in the Investigations), and is widely read today as a turning point in his philosophy of language. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Philosophical Investigations

Alongside the Tractatus, Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) was one of his two major works. In 1953, two years after Wittgenstein's death, the long-awaited book was published in two parts. Most of the 693 numbered paragraphs in Part I were ready for printing in 1946, but Wittgenstein withdrew the manuscript from the publisher. The shorter Part II was added by the editors, G.E.M. Anscombe and Rush Rhees. Book cover of the Blackwell edition of Philosophical Investigations Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is, along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works by 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... G. E. M. Anscombe (18 March 1919 – 5 January 2001) (born Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe, also known as Elizabeth Anscombe) was a British analytic philosopher. ... Rush Rhees (1951-1989) was a philosopher at Swansea University from 1940-1966, and is principally known as a student, friend, and literary executor of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ...


It is notoriously difficult to find consensus among interpreters of Wittgenstein's work, and this is particularly true in the case of the Investigations. Very briefly, Wittgenstein asks the reader to think of language and its uses as a multiplicity[40] of language-games within which the parts of language function, and have meaning, and this understanding will help to dissolve the problems of philosophy. This view of language represents what many consider a break from the Wittgenstein of the Tractatus and, therefore, 'meaning as representation.' In the carrying out of such an investigation, one of the most radical characteristics of the "later" Wittgenstein comes to light. The "conventional" view (perhaps coming to a head in Bertrand Russell) of the task of the philosopher is to solve the seemingly intractable problems of philosophy using logical analysis (for example, the problem of free will, the relationship between mind and matter, what the good or the beautiful consist in, and so on). However, Wittgenstein argues that these "problems" are, in fact, "bewitchments" that arise from philosophers' misuse of language. A language game is a concept developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein at the beginning of his book Philosophical Investigations. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


On Wittgenstein's account, language is inextricably woven into the fabric of life, and as part of that fabric it works relatively unproblematically. Philosophical problems arise when language is forced from its proper home and into a metaphysical environment, where all the familiar and necessary landmarks and contextual clues are absent — removed, perhaps, for what appear to be sound philosophical reasons, but which lead, for Wittgenstein, to the source of the problem. Wittgenstein describes this metaphysical environment as like being on frictionless ice:[41] where the conditions are apparently perfect for a philosophically and logically perfect language (the language of the Tractatus), where all philosophical problems can be solved without the confusing and muddying effects of everyday contexts; but where, just because of the lack of friction, language can in fact do no actual work at all. There is much talk in the Investigations, then, of “idle wheels” and language being “on holiday” or a mere "ornament", all of which are used to express the idea of what is lacking in philosophical contexts. To resolve the problems encountered there, Wittgenstein argues that philosophers must leave the frictionless ice and return to the “rough ground” of ordinary language in use; that is, philosophers must “bring words back from their metaphysical to their everyday use.”


In this regard, one can see affinities between Wittgenstein and Kant.[42] In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant argues that when concepts grounded in experience are applied outside of the range of possible experience, the result is contradictions and confusion. Thus the second part of the Critique consists of refutations, typically by reductio ad absurdum, of logical proofs of the existence of God and the existence of souls, and attacks on strong notions of infinity and necessity. In this way, Wittgenstein's objections to applying words outside the contexts in which they have an established meaning mirror Kant's objections to the non-empirical use of empirical reason.

Three fly-bottles, Central Europe, beginning of the XXth century
Three fly-bottles, Central Europe, beginning of the XXth century

Returning to the rough ground of ordinary uses of words is, however, easier said than done. Philosophical problems have the character of depth and run as deep as the forms of language and thought that set philosophers on the road to confusion. Wittgenstein therefore speaks of “illusions”, "bewitchment", and “conjuring tricks” performed on our thinking by our forms of language, and tries to break their spell by attending to differences between superficially similar aspects of language which he feels lead to this type of confusion. For much of the Investigations, then, Wittgenstein tries to show how philosophers are led away from the ordinary world of language in use by misleading aspects of language itself. He does this by looking at the role language plays in the development of various philosophical problems, to some general problems involving language itself, then at the notions of rules and rule following, and then on to some more specific problems in the philosophy of mind. Throughout these investigations, the style of writing is conversational, with Wittgenstein in turn taking the role of the puzzled philosopher (on either or both sides of traditional philosophical debates), and that of the guide attempting to show the puzzled philosopher the way back: the “way out of the fly bottle.”[43] Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ...


Much of the Investigations, then, consists of examples of how philosophical confusion is generated and how, by a close examination of the actual workings of everyday language, the first false steps towards philosophical puzzlement can be avoided. By avoiding these first false steps, philosophical problems themselves simply no longer arise and are therefore dissolved rather than solved. As Wittgenstein puts it; "the clarity we are aiming at is indeed complete clarity. But this simply means that the philosophical problems should completely disappear."


Criticism

Obscurantism

Some have criticized Wittgenstein for his position on the limits of language,[44] and his abandonment of empirical explanation for linguistic description in his later works. Friedrich Waismann accused Wittgenstein of "complete obscurantism" because of this apparent betrayal of empirical inquiry.[45] This criticism has been further developed by Ernest Gellner.[46] Frank Cioffi discusses the various senses of obscurantism in Wittgenstein, which he designates as 'limits obscurantism', 'method obscurantism', and 'sensibility obscurantism.'[47] Friedrich Waismann (March 21, 1896 - November 4, 1959) was an Austrian mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. ... Obscurantism in its current usage can imply one of two separate concepts, sometimes distinguished by capitalization: // The older sense of the term Obscurantism refers to a class of philosophies that favor limits on the extension and dissemination of scientific knowledge, believing it to be the enemy of faith. ... I do not think I could have written the book on nationalism which I did write, were I not capable of crying, with the help of a little alcohol, over folk songs . ...


Influence

Both his early and later work have been major influences in the development of analytic philosophy. Former students and colleagues include Gilbert Ryle, Friedrich Waismann, Norman Malcolm, G. E. M. Anscombe, Rush Rhees, Georg Henrik von Wright and Peter Geach. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Gilbert Ryle (born August 19, 1900 in Brighton, died October 6, 1976 in Oxford), was a philosopher, and a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers influenced by Wittgensteins insights into language, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian dualism, for which he coined the... Friedrich Waismann (March 21, 1896 - November 4, 1959) was an Austrian mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. ... Norman Malcolm (1911 – 1990) is an American philosopher. ... Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (March 18, 1919 – January 5, 2001) (known as Elizabeth Anscombe, published as G. E. M. Anscombe) was a British analytic philosopher, a theologian and a pupil of Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Rush Rhees (1951-1989) was a philosopher at Swansea University from 1940-1966, and is principally known as a student, friend, and literary executor of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Statue of Georg Henrik von Wright in University of Helsinki Georg Henrik von Wright (pronounced, roughly, fon vrikt, IPA: [je:ɔrj hɛn:rik fɔn-vrik:t],) (June 14, 1916 – June 16, 2003) was a Finnish philosopher, who succeeded Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge. ... Peter Thomas Geach (born 1919) is one of the foremost contemporary British philosophers. ...


Contemporary philosophers heavily influenced by him include Michael Dummett,[48] Donald Davidson,[49] P.M.S. Hacker,[50] John R. Searle, Saul Kripke, John McDowell, Hilary Putnam, Anthony Quinton, Peter Strawson, Paul Horwich, Colin McGinn, Daniel Dennett, Richard Rorty, D. Z. Phillips, Stanley Cavell, Cora Diamond, James F. Conant, and Jean-François Lyotard. Sir Michael Anthony Eardley Dummett F.B.A., D. Litt, (born 1925) is a leading British philosopher. ... Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Peter Michael Stephan Hacker (born 15 July 1939 in London) is a British philosopher. ... John Searle is a philosopher at UC Berkeley. ... Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American philosopher and logician now emeritus from Princeton and teaches as distinguished professor of philosophy at CUNY Graduate Center. ... John Henry McDowell (born 1942) is a contemporary philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher who has been a central figure in Western philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. ... --72. ... Peter Frederick Strawson (born November 23, 1919 in London) is a philosopher associated with the ordinary language philosophy movement within analytical philosophy. ... Paul Horwich (born 1947) is a British analytic philosopher at New York University, whose work includes writings on causality, truth and meaning. ... Colin McGinn (born 1950) is a British philosopher currently working at the University of Miami. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ... Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 - June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher. ... Dewi Phillips late in life. ... Stanley Cavell (born September 1, 1926) of Brookline, Massachusetts is an American philosopher. ... James Ferguson Conant (b. ... Jean-François Lyotard (pronounced ; August 10, 1924 â€“ April 21, 1998) was a French philosopher and literary theorist. ...


With others, Conant, Diamond and Cavell have been associated with an interpretation of Wittgenstein sometimes known as the New Wittgenstein.


However, it cannot really be said that Wittgenstein founded a 'school' in any normal sense. The views of most of the above are generally contradictory. Indeed there are strong strains in his writings from the Tractatus onwards which would probably have regarded any such enterprise as fundamentally misguided.


Wittgenstein has also had a significant influence in the social sciences. Most significantly[citation needed], social therapy has made use of Wittgenstein's language games as a tool for emotional growth.[51][52] Psychologists and psychotherapists inspired by Wittgenstein's work include Fred Newman, Lois Holzman, Brian J. Mistler, and John Morss.[citation needed] American anthropologist Clifford Geertz heavily grounded his development of linguistic symbolism in Wittgenstein's work.[citation needed] Social therapy is an activity-theoretic practice developed outside of academia at the East Side Institute for Group and Short Term Psychotherapy in New York. ... Fred Newman is a controversial philosopher, psychotherapist, playwright and political activist. ... Lois Holzman is a cofounder with Fred Newman of the East Side Institute for Group and Short Term Psychotherapy and the Institutes current director. ... Brian J. Mistler, B.A., B.S., M.A. (University of Bradford), is an American born philosopher and writer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Wittgenstein's influence has extended beyond what is normally considered philosophy and may be found in various areas of the arts.[citation needed] American composer Steve Reich has twice set quotes from Wittgenstein to music. "How small a thought it takes to fill a whole life!" is the basis for Proverb (1995) while the third movement of You Are (Variations) (2004), uses a sentence from Philosophical Investigations: "Explanations come to an end somewhere."[53][54] Reich received a B.A. in philosophy from Cornell University in 1957, having written his thesis on Wittgenstein.[55] Wittgenstein was the last person considered in the final edition of the six-part BBC documentary, "Sea of Faith". Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Proverb is a piece by Steve Reich for three sopranos, two tenors, two vibraphones, and two electric organs, to a text by Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Book cover of the Blackwell edition of Philosophical Investigations Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is, along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works by 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers. Time Magazine Online. Retrieved on April 29, 2006.
  2. ^ Give Him Genius or Give Him Death. Article by Anthony Kenny, New York Times
  3. ^ Wittgenstein’s Significance, article by Mark J. Cain, Philosophy Now 2001
  4. ^ Ludwig Wittgenstein at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  5. ^ Edmonds, Eidinow, "Wittgenstein's Poker"
  6. ^ Bartley, Wittgenstein, 34–35.
  7. ^ Cornish, Kimberley (1998). The Jew of Linz: Wittgenstein, Hitler and their secret battle for the mind. Century.  See The Jew of Linz
  8. ^ Hamann, Brigitte (1999). Hitler's Vienna: A Dictator's Apprenticeship. Oxford University Press,, pp. 12-13. ISBN 0195140532. 
  9. ^ Sterrett, p. 75
  10. ^ Ludwig Boltzmann, biography from Corrosion Doctors
  11. ^ a b c Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, biography by J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson
  12. ^ Russell and Wittgenstein: A Study in Civility and Arrogance, article by Justin Leiber
  13. ^ Malcolm, Norman (1958). "A Memoir", Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir, G. H. von Wright (in English), U.S.: Oxford University Press, 26. ISBN 0199247595. “Often [Wittgenstein] would rush off to a cinema immediately after the class ended. As the members of the class began to move their chairs out of the room he might look imploringly at a friend and say in a low tone, ‘Could you go to a flick?’ On the way to the cinema Wittgenstein would buy a bun or cold pork pie and munch it while he watched the film.” 
  14. ^ In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching by P. D. Ouspensky. Commentary by Frank Gati, Instructor Computer Information Technology, City College of San Francisco
  15. ^ Monk, Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius, pp. 44, 116, 382–84
  16. ^ Creegan, Charles. Wittgenstein and Kierkegaard. Routledge. Retrieved on April 23, 2006.
  17. ^ Introduction by Bertrand Russell
  18. ^ a b c d "A dwelling for the gods", Guardian Unlimited, 2002-01-05. Retrieved on 2008-01-19. 
  19. ^ Philosopher's rare 'other book' goes on sale. Guardian. Retrieved on April 29, 2006.
  20. ^ Vienna Circle, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  21. ^ Monk, Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius, p. 271
  22. ^ Bartley, p. 160
  23. ^ Monk, Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius, Pinset: p. 361, 428; Skinner: p. 331-334, 376, 401-402; Richards: p. 503-506
  24. ^ Monk, Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius, p. 343
  25. ^ Ludwig Wittgenstein: Return to Cambridge from the Cambridge Wittgenstein Archive
  26. ^ Jews in Linz. Retrieved on April 29, 2006.
  27. ^ Edmonds and Eidinow, pp. 98, 105
  28. ^ Hodges, A. Alan Turing: The Enigma of Intelligence. London: Unwin, 1985.
  29. ^ Edmonds, David and Eidinow, John. "Wittgenstein’s Poker", Faber and Faber, London 2001, p.98.
  30. ^ http://www.england-legislation.hmso.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/apgb/1708/capgb_17080021_en_1
  31. ^ Moran, John. "Wittgenstein and Russia" New Left Review 73 (May-June, 1972), pp. 83-96.
  32. ^ Hard-boiled Wit: Ludwig Wittgenstein and Norbert Davis, by Josef Hoffmann
  33. ^ Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1989-10-15), Diamond, Cora, ed., Wittgenstein's Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics, University Of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226904261 
  34. ^ Wittgenstein's Symphonic Premiere
  35. ^ John, Peter C. (Jul. - Sep., 1988). "Wittgenstein's "Wonderful Life"". Journal of the History of Ideas 49 (3): 510. Retrieved on 2007-12-11. 
  36. ^ Realistic spirit: Wittgenstein, philosophy, and the mind by Cora Diamond, p. 181
  37. ^ Bad Modernisms, book by Douglas Mao and Rebecca Walkowitz
  38. ^ The Good Sense of Nonsense: a reading of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus as nonself-repudiating by Danièle Moyal-Sharrock, The Royal Institute of Philosophy, 2007
  39. ^ The Manuscripts, from the Wittgenstein Archive in Cambridge
  40. ^ Philosophical Investigations, §23.
  41. ^ Philosophical Investigations, §107.
  42. ^ Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: Critical Essays by Meredith Williams
  43. ^ Cf. Philosophical Investigations, §309.
  44. ^ see Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
  45. ^ Shanker, S., & Shanker, V. A. (1986), Ludwig Wittgenstein: critical assessments. London: Croom Helm, 50-51.
  46. ^ Words and things: An examination of, and an attack on, linguistic philosophy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979, originally published in 1959.
  47. ^ Cioffi, F. (1998), Wittgenstein on Freud and Frazer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 183ff, chapter 7 on Wittgenstein and obscurantism.
  48. ^ Michael Dummett, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  49. ^ Actions, Reasons, and Causes, by Donald Davidson, a response to the Wittgensteinian views on rationalization
  50. ^ Wittgenstein meets Neuroscience, book review by Axel Kohler
  51. ^ Massey University School of Psychology
  52. ^ Social Therapy Group website
  53. ^ New York Times interview with Reich
  54. ^ First Aphorism from Philosophical Investigations
  55. ^ Cornell Chronicle article

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Bibliography

Works

Important publications

  • Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, Annalen der Naturphilosophie, 14 (1921)
  • Philosophische Untersuchungen (1953)
  • Bemerkungen über die Grundlagen der Mathematik, ed. by G.H. von Wright, R. Rhees, and G.E.M. Anscombe (1956) (a selection from his writings on the philosophy of logic and mathematics between 1937 and 1944)
    • Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, translated by G.E.M. Anscombe, rev. ed. (1978)
  • Bemerkungen über die Philosophie der Psychologie, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe and G.H. von Wright (1980)
    • Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, Vols. 1 and 2, translated by G.E.M. Anscombe, ed. G.E.M. Anscombe and G.H. von Wright (1980) (a selection of which makes up 'Zettel')
  • The Blue and Brown Books (1958) (Notes dictated in English to Cambridge students in 1933–35)
  • Philosophische Bemerkungen, ed. by Rush Rhees (1964)
    • Philosophical Remarks (1975)
    • Philosophical Grammar (1978)
  • Bemerkungen über die Farben, ed. by G.E.M. Anscombe (1977)
    • Remarks on Colour ISBN 0-520-03727-8

Book cover of the Dover edition of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Ogden translation) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ... Book cover of the Blackwell edition of Philosophical Investigations Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is, along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works by 20th-century philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. ...

Later work

  • On Certainty — A collection of aphorisms discussing the relation between knowledge and certainty, extremely influential in the philosophy of action.
  • Remarks on Colour — Remarks on Goethe's Theory of Colours.
  • Culture and Value — A collection of personal remarks about various cultural issues, such as religion and music, as well as critique of Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy.
  • Zettel, another collection of Wittgenstein's thoughts in fragmentary/"diary entry" format as with On Certainty and Culture and Value.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Theory of Colours (original German title, Zur Farbenlehre) is a book published by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ...

Works online

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Further reading

  • Bartley, William Warren (1985). Wittgenstein. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court. ISBN 978-0875484419. 
  • Brockhaus, Richard R. (1990). Pulling Up the Ladder: The Metaphysical Roots of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court. ISBN 978-0812691252.  Explores the continental influences on Wittgenstein, often overlooked by more traditional analytic works.
  • Drury, Maurice O'Connor; David Berman (ed), Michael Fitzgerald (ed), John Hayes (ed) (1973). The Danger of Words and Writings on Wittgenstein. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 225. ISBN 1-85506-490-1.  A collection of Drury's writings concerning Wittgenstein, edited and introduced by David Berman, Michael Fitzgerald and John Hayes.
  • Edmonds, David; John Eidinow (2001). Wittgenstein's Poker. New York: Ecco, 288. ISBN 978-0571227358.  A review of the origin of the conflict between Karl Popper and Wittgenstein, focused on events leading up to their volatile first encounter at 1946 Cambridge meeting.
  • Fonteneau, Françoise : L’éthique du silence. Wittgenstein et Lacan. Paris: Seuil. 1999
  • Glock, Hans-Johann (1996). A Wittgenstein Dictionary. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Reference. ISBN 0-631-18112-1. 
  • Grayling, A. C. (2001). Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285411-9.  An introduction aimed at the non-specialist reader.
  • Guetti, James (1993). Wittgenstein and the Grammar of Literary Experience. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-1496-X. 
  • Hacker, P. M. S. (1986). Insight and Illusion: Themes in the Philosophy of Wittgenstein. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-824783-4. 
  • Hacker, P. M. S. (1996). Wittgenstein's Place in Twentieth Century Analytic Philosophy. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Reference. ISBN 0-631-20098-3.  An analysis of the relationship between Wittgenstein's thought and that of Frege, Russell, and the Vienna Circle.
  • Harré, Rom; Tissaw, Michael A. (2005). Wittgenstein and Psychology: A Practical Guide. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.  Looks at practical uses of Wittgenstein's later theories in a hands-on psychological context.
  • Kitching, Gavin (2003). Wittgenstein and Society: Essays in Conceptual Puzzlement. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-3342-X. 
  • Leitner, Bernhard (1973). The Architecture of Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Documentation. Halifax: Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design. ISBN 0-919616-00-3. 
  • Malcolm, Norman (1958). Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir. London, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924759-5.  A portrait by someone who knew Wittgenstein well.
  • McGuiness, Brian (1988). Young Ludwig: Wittgenstein's Life, 1889–1921. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-927994-2. 
  • Monk, Ray (2005). How To Read Wittgenstein. New York: Norton. ISBN 1-86207-724-X.  Using key texts from Wittgenstein's writings the author gives insight into how his philosophy can be interpreted.
  • Monk, Ray (1990). Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius. New York: Free Press, Maxwell Macmillan International. ISBN 0-14-015995-9.  A biography that also attempts to explain his philosophy.
  • Schulte, Joachim; trans. William H. Brenner and John F. Holley (1992). Wittgenstein: An Introduction. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1082-X.  A concise introduction to Wittgenstein's philosophy illuminated with passages from his work.
  • Sterrett, Susan G. (2005). Wittgenstein Flies a Kite: A Story of Models of Wings and Models of the World. New York: Pi Press. ISBN 0-13-149997-1.  Accessible study of early years up to writing of Tractatus, interweaving history of flight, science and technology with logic and philosophy.

For an in-depth exegesis of Wittgenstein's later work, see the 4-volume analytical commentary by P.M.S. Hacker, volumes 1 and 2 co-authored with G. P. Baker: William Warren Bartley, III (1934-1990) was an American philosopher. ... Maurice OConnor Drury (known as Con Drury to his friends) was born in Exeter, Devon, England in 1907, of Irish parents. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Anthony Clifford Grayling MA, DPhil (Oxon) FRSA (born 3 April 1949) is a British philosopher and author. ... Peter M.S. Hacker (born 15 July 1939 in London) is a British philosopher. ... Peter M.S. Hacker (born 15 July 1939 in London) is a British philosopher. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Moritz Schlick around 1930 The Vienna Circle (in German: der Wiener Kreis) was a group of philosophers who gathered around Moritz Schlick when he was called to the Vienna University in 1922, organized in a philosophical association named Verein Ernst Mach (Ernst Mach Society). ... Horace Romano Harré (born 1927 in New Zealand), known widely as Rom, is a distinguished philosopher and psychologist // He graduated in mathematics and physics and he afterwards lectured at the University of Punjab, India. ... Gavin Kitching (B.Sc. ... The Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University (NSCAD) is a post-secondary art school located in Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... Norman Malcolm (1911 – 1990) is an American philosopher. ... Ray Monk is Professor of Philosophy at The Centre for Post-Analytic Philosophy at the University of Southampton, where he has taught since 1992. ... Ray Monk is Professor of Philosophy at The Centre for Post-Analytic Philosophy at the University of Southampton, where he has taught since 1992. ... Peter M.S. Hacker (born 15 July 1939 in London) is a British philosopher. ... Gordon Park Baker (born at Englewood, New Jersey, 20 April 1938; died at Woodstock, Oxfordshire, 25 June 2002) was an American-English philosopher. ...

  1. (1980) Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning. ISBN 0-631-12111-0. 
  2. (1985) Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar, and Necessity. ISBN 0-631-13024-1. 
  3. (1990) Wittgenstein: Meaning and Mind. ISBN 0-631-18739-1. 
  4. (1996) Wittgenstein: Mind and Will. ISBN 0-631-18739-1. 

Works about Wittgenstein

  • The Jew of Linz, by Kimberley Cornish, puts forward the controversial thesis that Hitler's antisemitism arose from his dislike of Wittgenstein, and that Wittgenstein was a Soviet agent who recruited the "Cambridge Five".
  • City of God depicts an imaginary rivalry between Wittgenstein and Einstein, with Wittgenstein assuming the role of the narrator. Authored by E. L. Doctorow.
  • Wittgenstein, a film by the avant-garde filmmaker Derek Jarman (1993). The script and the original treatment by Terry Eagleton have been published as a book by the British Film Institute.
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein, Architect, an extensive account of Wittgenstein's design of the house for his sister in Vienna. Written by Paul Wijdeveld, MIT Press, 1994.
  • The Fifth Wittgenstein, a discussion of the connection between Wittgenstein's architecture and his philosophy by Kari Jormakka, Datutop 24, 2004.
  • The World as I Found It by Bruce Duffy, a recreation of the life of Wittgenstein (1987).
  • Wittgenstein's Poker: The Story of a Ten-Minute Argument Between Two Great Philosophers, by David Edmonds and John Eidenow (2002), describes the famous 10 minute meeting between Wittgenstein and Karl Popper which occurred on October 25, 1946. ISBN 0-06-093664-9.
  • Feminist Interpretations of Ludwig Wittgenstein, edited by Naomi Scheman and Peg O'Connor, offers a look at Wittgenstein's philosophies through a feminist perspective. ISBN 0-271-02198-5.
  • Oppression and Responsibility by Peg O'Connor, a Wittgensteinian approach to social practice and moral theory.

The Jew of Linz (1998) is a controversial book by the Australian author Kimberley Cornish. ... The Cambridge Five (also sometimes known as the Cambridge Four) was a ring of Soviet spies in the UK who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and into the early 1950s. ... E.L. Doctorow, photograph by Jill Krementz, from back cover of Doctorows 1975 novel Ragtime Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (born January 6, 1931, New York, New York) is the author of several critically acclaimed novels that blend history and social criticism. ... Wittgenstein is a 1993 film by the English director Derek Jarman. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Derek Jarman Derek Jarman (January 31, 1942 – February 19, 1994) was an English film director, stage designer, artist, and writer. ... Terry Eagleton (born in Salford, Lancashire (now Greater Manchester), England, on February 22, 1943) is a British literary critic and philosopher. ... The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film, television and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film, television and... Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Philosophy Portal

Image File history File links Socrates. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Paul Karl Feyerabend (January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked for three decades (1958-1989). ... This is a list of Austrian scientists. ...

External links

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Persondata
NAME Wittgenstein, Ludwig
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johann
SHORT DESCRIPTION Major Austrian philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH 26 April 1889
PLACE OF BIRTH Linz, Austria
DATE OF DEATH 29 April 1951
PLACE OF DEATH Cambridge, England
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The University of Bergen (Universitetet i Bergen) is located in Bergen, Norway. ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ludwig Wittgenstein [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (6909 words)
Ludwig Wittgenstein is one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century, and regarded by some as the most important since Immanuel Kant.
Wittgenstein himself was baptized in a Catholic church and was given a Catholic burial, although between baptism and burial he was neither a practicing nor a believing Catholic.
Wittgenstein is thus a doubly key figure in the development and history of analytic philosophy, but he has become rather unfashionable because of his anti-theoretical, anti- scientism stance, because of the difficulty of his work, and perhaps also because he has been little understood.
Ludwig Wittgenstein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6564 words)
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ['luːdvɪç 'joːzɛf 'joːhan 'vɪtgənʃtaɪn]) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to contemporary philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind.
Ludwig himself did not have prodigious musical talent, but nonetheless had perfect pitch and his devotion to music remained vitally important to him throughout his life — he made frequent use of musical examples and metaphors in his philosophical writings, and was said to be unusually adept at whistling lengthy and detailed musical passages.
Wittgenstein's political sympathies lay on the left, and while he was opposed to Marxist theory, he described himself as a "communist at heart" and romanticized the life of labourers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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