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Encyclopedia > Ludwig Prandtl
Ludwig Prandtl

Ludwig Prandtl
Born 4 February 1875(1875-02-04)
Freising, Germany
Died 15 August 1953 (aged 78)
Göttingen, Germany
Residence GER
Nationality Germany
Field Aerodynamics
Institutions University of Göttingen
Technical School in Hannover
Alma mater University of Munich
Academic advisor   August Föppl
Notable students   Ackeret, Busemann, Theodore von Kármán, Heinrich Blasius and many others
Known for Boundary layer
Prandtl number

Ludwig Prandtl (4 February 1875 - 15 August 1953) was a German physicist. He was a pioneer of aerodynamics, and developed the mathematical basis for the fundamental principles of subsonic aerodynamics in the 1920s. His studies identified the boundary layer, thin-airfoils, and lifting-line theories. The Prandtl number was named after him. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Freising is a city in Bavaria, Germany, capital of the district Freising. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Ger can have the following meanings: Ger is the Yiddish form for the name of the Polish town of Góra Kalwaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... August Otto Föppl (1854-1924) was a professor of Technical Mechanics and Graphical Statics at the Technical University of Munich, Germany. ... Theodore von Kármán (SzÅ‘llÅ‘skislaki Kármán Tódor) (May 11, 1881 – May 6, 1963) was an engineer and physicist who was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics during the seminal era in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Paul Richard Heinrich Blasius (1883 - 1970) was a German fluid dynamics engineer. ... In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. ... The Prandtl Number is a dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity and thermal diffusivity. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. ... The Prandtl Number is a dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity and thermal diffusivity. ...

Contents

Early years

Prandtl was born in Freising, near Munich, in 1875. His mother suffered from a lengthy illness and, as a result, Ludwig spent more time with his father, a professor of engineering. His father also encouraged him to observe nature and think about his observations. Freising is a city in Bavaria, Germany, capital of the district Freising. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


He entered the Technische Hochschule Munich in 1894 and graduated with a Ph.D. in six years. His work at Munich had been in solid mechanics, and his first job was as an engineer designing factory equipment. There, he entered the field of fluid mechanics where he had to design a suction device. After carrying out some experiments, he came up with a new device that worked well and used less power than the device he replaced. Fluid mechanics is the subdiscipline of continuum mechanics that studies fluids, that is, liquids and gases. ...

Ludwig Prandtl 1904 with his fluid test channel
Ludwig Prandtl 1904 with his fluid test channel

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Later years

In 1901 Prandtl became a professor of mechanics at a technical school in Hannover. It was here that he developed many of his most important theories. In 1904 he delivered a groundbreaking paper, Fluid Flow in Very Little Friction, in which he described the boundary layer and its importance for drag and streamlining. The paper also described flow separation as a result of the boundary layer, clearly explaining the concept of stall for the first time. Several of his students made attempts at closed-form solutions, but failed, and in the end the approximation contained in his original paper remains in widespread use. In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. ... An object falling through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ... In fluid dynamics, a streamline is the path that an imaginary massless particle would make if it followed the flow of a fluid in which it was embedded. ... Airflow separating from a wing which is at a high angle of attack All solid objects travelling through a fluid (or alternatively a stationary object exposed to a moving fluid) acquire a boundary layer of fluid around them where friction between the fluid molecules and the objects rough surface... In aerodynamics, a stall is a condition in which an excessive angle of attack causes loss of lift due to disruption of airflow. ...


The effect of the paper was so great that Prandtl became director of the Institute for Technical Physics at the University of Göttingen later in the year. Over the next decades he developed it into a powerhouse of aerodynamics, leading the world until the end of World War II. In 1925 the university spun off his research arm to create the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research (now the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization). The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... The Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization is a research institute for colloids and in Göttingen, Germany. ...


Following earlier leads by Frederick Lanchester from 1902-1907, Prandtl worked with Albert Betz and Max Munk on the problem of a useful mathematical tool for examining lift from "real world" wings. The results were published in 1918-1919, known as the Lanchester-Prandtl wing theory or lifting-line theory. He also made specific additions to study cambered airfoils, like those on World War I aircraft, and published a simplified thin-airfoil theory for these designs. This work led to the realization that on any wing of finite length, wing-tip effects became very important to the overall performance and characterization of the wing. Considerable work was included on the nature of induced drag and wingtip vortices, which had previously been ignored. With these tools, early aircraft designers were first able to make real theoretical studies of their aircraft even before they were built. Frederick William Lanchester (October 23, 1868 - March 8, 1946) was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to automotive engineering, aerodynamics and co-invented the field of operations research. ... Albert Betz (25 December 1885 - 16 April 1968) was a German Engineer and a pioneer of wind energy technology. ... The horseshoe vortex model is a simplified representation of the vortex system of a wing. ... For the kite, see foil kite. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In aerodynamics, lift-induced drag, or more simply, induced drag, is a drag force arising from the generation of lift by wings or a lifting body during flight. ... Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. ...


Prandtl and his student Theodor Meyer developed the first theories of supersonic shock waves and flow in 1908. The Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans allowed for the construction of supersonic wind tunnels. He had little time to work on the problem further until the 1920s, when he worked with Adolf Busemann and created a method for designing a supersonic nozzle in 1929. Today, all supersonic wind tunnels and rocket nozzles are designed using the same method. A full development of supersonics would have to wait for Theodore von Kármán's work, a student of Prandtl at Göttingen. A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... When a supersonic flow encounters a convex corner, it forms an expansion fan, which consist of infinite number of expansion waves centered at the corner. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ... Adolf Busemann at Langley Adolph Busemann (* 20 April 1901 in Lübeck, † 3 November 1986 in Boulder, Colorado) was an influential early pioneer in aerodynamics, specialising in supersonic airflows. ... Theodore von Kármán (SzÅ‘llÅ‘skislaki Kármán Tódor) (May 11, 1881 – May 6, 1963) was an engineer and physicist who was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics during the seminal era in the 1940s and 1950s. ...


In 1922 Prandtl together with Richard Von Mises, founded the GAMM (the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics).[1] and was its chairman from 1922 till 1933. After Hitler came to power in 1933 Prandtl acquiesced in the dismissal of his Jewish colleagues and went on to engage in numerous propaganda exercises aimed at maintaining Germany's standing in the international scientific community. He also worked closely with Hermann Göring's Reich's Air Ministry, prior to and all through World War II.[2] Gesellschaft für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik (Society of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics), often referred to by the acronym GAMM, is a German society for the promotion of science, founded in 1922 by the physicist Ludwig Prandtl and the mathematician Richard von Mises. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...


Other work examined the problem of compressibility at high subsonic speeds, known as the Prandtl-Glauert correction. This became very useful during World War II as aircraft began approaching supersonic speeds for the first time. He also worked on meteorology, plasticity and structural mechanics. Fluid Dynamics Compressibility (physics) is a measure of the relative volume change of fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change: . For a gas the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is adiabatic or isothermal, while this difference is small in... F/A-18 demonstrating singularity effect The Prandtl-Glauert singularity, at which point a sudden drop in air pressure occurs, is generally accepted as the cause of the visible condensation cloud that often surrounds an airplane traveling at transonic speeds, though there remains some debate. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...


Prandtl's life was marked by overtones of naïveté. At the age of thirty-four, he decided it was time to marry, so he went to his old professor, August Föppl, to ask his daughter's hand in marriage. But Prandtl didn't say which daughter. The professor and his wife had a hurried discussion and wisely decided it should be the older one. That was fine. The marriage was a long and happy one.[3] August Otto Föppl (1854-1924) was a professor of Technical Mechanics and Graphical Statics at the Technical University of Munich, Germany. ...


Death and afterwards

Prandtl worked at Göttingen until he died on August 15, 1953. His work in fluid dynamics is still used today in many areas of aerodynamics. He is often referred to as the father of modern aerodynamics. Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Prandtl crater on the far side of the Moon has been named in his honor. Prandtl is a lunar impact crater on the far side of the Moon. ... Far side of the Moon. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


See also

The Prandtl Number is a dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity and thermal diffusivity. ... The Tesla turbine is a bladeless turbine design patented by Nikola Tesla in 1913. ... F/A-18 demonstrating singularity effect The Prandtl-Glauert singularity, at which point a sudden drop in air pressure occurs, is generally accepted as the cause of the visible condensation cloud that often surrounds an airplane traveling at transonic speeds, though there remains some debate. ... The Prandtl-Glauert singularity is closely related to the wave-particle duality of bridge flow or flow barrier. ... Varition in the Prandtl-Meyer function () with Mach number () and ratio of specific heat capacity (). The dashed lines show the limiting value as Mach number tends to infinity. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ GAMM Website. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  2. ^ Eckert, Michael. The Dawn of Fluid Dynamics: a discipline between science and technology. Wiley-VCH Verlag (2006) ISBN 3527405135
  3. ^ University of Houston website. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
Preceded by
Otto Lilienthal
Director of Aerodynamic Laboratory, University of Göttingen
1904—1936
Succeeded by
Albert Betz
Persondata
NAME Prandtl, Ludwig
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Germany physicist
DATE OF BIRTH 4 February 1875
PLACE OF BIRTH Freising, Germany
DATE OF DEATH 15 August 1953
PLACE OF DEATH Göttingen, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ludwig Prandtl (350 words)
Ludwig Prandtl was born in Freising, Germany on 4 February 1875.
Prandtl was a most able researcher and teacher, becoming professor of mechanics at the University of Hanover in 1901.
Prandtl’s discovery, in 1904, of the boundary layer led to an understanding of skin friction and drag and of the way in which streamlining reduces wing drag.
Ludwig Prandtl (706 words)
Ludwig Prandtl (4 February 1875 - 15 August 1953) was a German physicist.
Prandtl was born in Freising, near Munich in Bavaria, in 1875.
Prandtl and his student Theodor Meyer developed the first theories of supersonic shock waves and flow in 1908.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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