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Encyclopedia > Ludwig Minkus
Maestro Ludwig Minkus, Paris, circa 1870. Photo by B. Braquehais
Maestro Ludwig Minkus, Paris, circa 1870. Photo by B. Braquehais

Ludwig Minkus (ru. Людвиг Минкус) a.k.a. Léon Fyodorovich Minkus (ru. Леон Фиодоровиш Минкус) (March 23, 1826 - December 7, 1917, was a composer of ballet music and a violin virtuoso. Born Aloisius Ludwig Minkus in Velké Meziříčí (German: Grossmeseritsch), near Brno, Moravia, Austrian Empire, {today the Czech Republic}. Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Location of Velké Meziříčí in the Czech Republic City centre from north Velké Meziříčí (-Czech, German: Groß Meseritsch) is a town in the south-east part of Vysočina Region in the Czech Republic. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area    - city 230. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804...


He is most noted for the ballets he composed while serving as the Romanov's First Imperial Ballet Composer to the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatres, a post which he occupied from 1871 until its abolition in 1886. He continued composing music regularly for the Imperial Theatres until 1891, when he retired to Vienna. Minkus wrote nearly all of his music for the works of the great Balletmasters Arthur Saint-Léon and Marius Petipa, the most celebrated being La Source (1866, composed jointly with Léo Delibes), Don Quixote (1869, revised 1871); and La Bayadère (1877). The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Arthur Saint-Léon (1821-1870) was the Maître de Ballet (see Ballet Master) of the Imperial Ballet from 1859 until 1869. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... La Source is a ballet in three acts/four scenes with a score collaborated on by Léo Delibes and Léon Minkus (Minkus: Act I & Act III-Scene 2/Delibes: Act II & Act III-Scene 1). ... Maestro Clément Philibert Léo Delibes, Paris, circa 1885 (Clément Philibert) Léo Delibes (February 21, 1836 – January 16, 1891) was a French composer of Romantic music. ... The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... La Bayadére is a ballet, originally in 4 Acts and 7 scenes with apotheosis, choreographed by the Balletmaster Marius Petipa to music by Lèon Minkus. ...


Among Minkus' most celebrated material is his additional music for Petipa's 1881 revival of Paquita - the Grand Pas Classique, Pas de Trois (AKA Minkus Pas de Trois), and the Children's Polonaise and Mazurka; his music for the Grand Pas de Deux from Petipa's Don Quixote (often extracted to be performed independently); and his music for the scene The Kingdom of the Shades from Petipa's La Bayadère (also performed independently on occasion). Minkus is also noted for his re-orchestration (1884) and additional music for Petipa's revivals of Giselle (1867, 1884, 1887), most of which have become part of Adolphe Adam's score and are now performed by all ballet companies. Today, Minkus' ballet music is some of the most popular and performed in all of ballet, and is a most integral part of the traditional classical ballet repertory. Paquita is a ballet in two acts and three scenes. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ...

Contents

Life

Ludwig Minkus remains one of the most popular and performed composers of ballet music of his time. Even in ballet schools worldwide, it is difficult not to encounter a melody from one of his scores being played on the piano during a ballet class. By the close of the 19th century in Imperial Russia, the unrivaled center of classical ballet at that time, Minkus was hailed universally as the master of ballet music, even after the so called "symphonic" innovations from such composers as Tchaikovsky and Glazunov. Such was a distinction he held until his works became relegated only to performance in Soviet Russia, and western audiences knew of no other ballet music than those who came after him. Detailed information on the life of Minkus is often very hard to come by, even among various encyclopedias of musicians and composers, where he is usually given only a very vague article, or is merely referred in an article about another composer. Even studies of the classical ballet during the late 19th century in Imperial Russia, of which Minkus was an important figure, give very vague and often contradictory information about his nationality, his place or date of birth, his place or date of death, and even his forename.


Regarding his own family life, his wife is only referred to in any easily accessible source simply as Madame Minkus, and only one child, a daughter named Lyubov, is known. It is unknown what influences led the young Minkus in the direction of music, but in his childhood or early teens Minkus began studying the violin, an instrument at which he excelled. At some point, either during his childhood or teens, he relocated to Vienna, where he remained for some years. In his late teens he began studying composition at the Vienna Conservatory, and began composing seriously, showing ample talent for scoring salon pieces for the violin, five of which were published from 1846-1847. It was around this time he began to try his hand at conducting. The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Musical composition is: a piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance or recorded track). ... The Konservatorium Wien is the music conservatory in Vienna. ...

(clockwise from left) Erin Joseph, Patricia Barker, Bathurel Bold, and Kimberley Davey in the Pacific Northwest Ballet's production of the Petipa/Minkus Grand Pas Classique from Paquita, Seattle, 1998

In early 1846 the 19-year-old Minkus relocated to Paris, where he made a career as a violinist and conductor. In 1853 he emigrated to St. Petersburg, Russia, becoming conductor of the private orchestra of Prince Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov until 1856 (the great-grandfather of the infamous Felix Yusupov). From 1856 until 1861 Minkus served as lead violinist in the orchestra of the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre, and soon after was given the prestigious dual position of both conductor and lead violinist for the Imperial Italian Opera of that theatre. In 1861 Minkus was appointed Concertmaster at the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre, as well as professor of violin at the newly established Moscow Conservatory. In 1864 he was appointed Inspector of the Imperial Theatre Orchestras. Many historians have argued that such appointments clearly demonstrate a talent which in modern times is often not acknowledged. Paquita is a ballet in two acts and three scenes. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Floating not submerging) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Italian opera can be divided into three periods, the Baroque, the Romantic and the modern. ... The Moscow Conservatory (Московская Государственная Консерватория им. П.И.Чайковского) is a prominent music school in Russia. ...


It has been assumed that it was during his early years in Russia that Minkus changed his name from Aloisius Ludwig Minkus to Léon Fyodorovich Minkus, yet in Russia he has always been referred to as Ludwig Minkus, and not Léon Fyodorovich Minkus. It may be conjectured that when first in Russia Minkus merely dropped his forename of Aloisius in favor of his middle name, Ludwig, as contemporary press reports and various libretti of ballets he scored during the 1870s and 1880s refer to him always as either Mr. Minkus, L. Minkus, or Ludwig Minkus. Another reason that might explain the common thought of Minkus having been renamed Léon Fedorovich during his first years in Russia is the 19th century Russian practice of naming non-Russian-natives with a more localized version of one's original name. The name of Fyodor would often suffice if no Russian equivalent of the name exsisted, hence the name 'Fyodorovich'. It could be that Minkus' father's name was Fyodor, as in Russia the middle name is usually a patronymic, yet this speculation does not explain the origins of the name Léon. It is also likely that Minkus did not change his name from Ludwig Minkus to Léon Fyodorovich Minkus until after he left Russia in late 1891, which would explain why he is known as Léon Fyodorovich Minkus mainly outside of Russia. Another likely explanation for the change of name is that it is possible Minkus converted to Russian Orthodoxy soon after his arrival in Russia, for which he would have been given a Russian name, perhaps maintaining the name for religious purposes while still carrying on with the name of Ludwig Minkus as a professional name. It could very well be that Léon Fyodorovich is merely just an error passed on from source to source to the present day, and that the composer never once had such a name during his lifetime. The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with...


Through his appointment as Inspector of the Imperial Theatre Orchestras and lead violinist with the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre, Minkus developed a close friendship with the French Balletmaster Arthur Saint-Léon, who in 1862 commissioned the composer to score an entr'acte for his revival of the 1852 Coralli/Adam ballet Orfa, which the Balletmaster staged quite successfully for the Ballet of the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre. At that time Saint-Léon was one of the most celebrated balletmasters in Europe - in 1860 he was appointed Maître de Ballet (First Balletmaster/Chief Choreographer) to the Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg, a position which required the Balletmaster to stage the occasional work for the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre (Saint-Léon stayed in Minkus's apartment in Moscow during the winter of 1865-1866 when engaged at the Bolshoi Theatre). Arthur Saint-Léon (1821-1870) was the Maître de Ballet (see Ballet Master) of the Imperial Ballet from 1859 until 1869. ... Entracte is French for between the acts. It can have the meaning of a pause between two parts of a stage production, synonym to intermission, but is more often used to indicate that part of a theatre production that is performed between acts as an intermezzo or interlude. ... Jean Coralli (1779-1854), born Jean Coralli Peracini, was a French choreographer. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow houses the world renowned Bolshoi Ballet, which has been home to some of the worlds greatest ballet dancers, including Anna Pavlova, Vaslav Nijinsky, Rudolf Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov and Natalia Makarova. ...


The entr'acte Minkus scored for Saint-Léon's revival of Orfa was the composer's first composition for the ballet. Many sources incorrectly state that Minkus' first venture into this genre of music was an 1846 collaboration with the composer Edouard Deldevez on the score for Joseph Mazilier's ballet Paquita, staged for the Ballet of the Académie Royale de Musique in Paris (today the company is known as the Paris Opera Ballet). Contemporary press reports (one being from Théophile Gautier), as well as Deldevez's own memoirs do not credit Minkus at all concerning the work. When a piano and violin reduction of the 1846 score for Paquita was unearthed for Pierre Lacotte's 2001 revival of the work for the Paris Opera Ballet, the manuscript was written in Deldevez's own hand. In fact Minkus would not have any association with the music of Paquita until 1881, when he scored additional music for Marius Petipa's revival of the work in St. Petersburg. Edouard Deldevez (May 31, 1817 - November 6, 1897) Also known as Ernest or Ernst Deldevez, his full name was Edouard-Marie-Ernest Dendevez. ... Joseph Mazilier (1808-1868) Famous 19th century Balletmaster and choreographer, most noted for his ballets Paquita (1844) and Le Corsaire (1856) Category: ... Paquita is a ballet in two acts and three scenes. ... Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (was also known as the Théâtre Impérial de l´Opéra, Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly as the Paris Opéra) was... The Paris Opera Ballet is the ballet company of the Paris Opera. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... The Paris Opera Ballet is the ballet company of the Paris Opera. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ...

Leonid Sarafanov in the Grand Procession from Act II of the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballet's reconstruction of the Minkus/Petipa La Bayadère, St. Petersburg, 2001
Leonid Sarafanov in the Grand Procession from Act II of the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballet's reconstruction of the Minkus/Petipa La Bayadère, St. Petersburg, 2001

Saint-Léon then called upon Minkus to score various supplemental Pas and variations, as the composer showed great facility for creating the Musique Dansante then in fashion. In March of 1863 Saint-Léon commissioned Minkus to score his first full-length score for the ballet, the so-called Ballet Fantastique titled The Flame of Love or The Salamander (AKA Fiametta), which premiered on November 12/24, 1863 (Julian/Gregorian calendar dates) to great success at the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre. Saint-Léon then mounted the work in a new staging under the title Fiametta or the Devil in Love in St. Petersburg for the Imperial Ballet, premiering February 13/25, 1864 to great success at the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre. Minkus later accompanied Saint-Léon to mount this work for the Ballet of the Académie Royale de Musique, Paris, premiering July 11, 1864. For the Paris staging the title of the ballet was changed yet again, this time as Neméa or The Avenged Love. The change of titles of this work has caused much confusion among historians, many of whom have claimed that each of these productions were completely different works. La Bayadére is a ballet, originally in 4 Acts and 7 scenes with apotheosis, choreographed by the Balletmaster Marius Petipa to music by Lèon Minkus. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... The St. ... Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (was also known as the Théâtre Impérial de l´Opéra, Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly as the Paris Opéra) was...


During this time Saint-Léon was engaged as Guest Balletmaster to the Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique (AKA the Paris Opéra) in Paris. In 1866 Saint-Léon called upon Minkus to score music for the ballet La Source, which was written jointly with the composer Léo Delibes (Minkus wrote the whole of Act I and the second scene of Act III, while Delibes wrote the whole of Act II and the first scene of Act III). Surviving documents and contemporary press reports do not give an explanation as to why the score was shared between the two composers, though it is believed that it was due to the fact that Delibes was an inexperienced composer of ballet music. La Source premiered on November 12, 1866 to a modest success. Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (also been known as the Théâtre Imperial de l´Opéra , Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly, as the Paris Opéra) was the... La Source is a ballet in three acts/four scenes with a score collaborated on by Léo Delibes and Léon Minkus (Minkus: Act I & Act III-Scene 2/Delibes: Act II & Act III-Scene 1). ... Maestro Clément Philibert Léo Delibes, Paris, circa 1885 (Clément Philibert) Léo Delibes (February 21, 1836 – January 16, 1891) was a French composer of Romantic music. ... La Source is a ballet in three acts/four scenes with a score collaborated on by Léo Delibes and Léon Minkus (Minkus: Act I & Act III-Scene 2/Delibes: Act II & Act III-Scene 1). ...


Minkus scored two more ballets for Saint-Léon, both for the Imperial Ballet in St. Petersburg - the fantastical La Poisson Doré (The Golden Fish) in 1867 (a work based on Alexander Pushkin's 1835 poem The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish), and the oriental extravaganza Le Lys (The Lily) in 1869, for which Minkus utilized sections of his part of the score for La Source (some sources incorrectly maintain that these works were first mounted in Paris). Both of these ballets were not well-received. Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, IPA: ,  ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799 – February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1][2][3][4] and the founder of modern Russian literature. ... The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (1950 animated film) The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (Сказка о рыбаке и рыбке) is a 1835 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... La Source is a ballet in three acts/four scenes with a score collaborated on by Léo Delibes and Léon Minkus (Minkus: Act I & Act III-Scene 2/Delibes: Act II & Act III-Scene 1). ...


Through his association with Saint-Léon and the St. Petersburg Imperial Ballet, Minkus came to the attention of the great choreographer Marius Petipa. Petipa arrived in the Imperial capital in 1847, where he was engaged as Premiere Danseur to the Imperial Ballet, as well as assistant to the great Balletmaster Jules Perrot, who was Maître de Ballet to the company from 1850-1859. Perrot left Russia forever in 1859, and Petipa had been named second Balletmaster after the success of his ballet The Pharaoh's Daughter, set to the score of Cesare Pugni. Minkus' first collaboration with Petipa was on the ballet Don Quixote, staged for the Ballet of the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre, premiering on December 14, 1869 to a resounding success. Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... The Pharaohs Daughter is a ballet by Marius Petipa, first performed in 1862. ... Maestro Cesare Pugni, London, circa 1843 Cesare Pugni (31 May 1802?, Genoa?, Italy — 26 January 1870, St. ... The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ...


The failure of both Le Poisson Doré, and Le Lys proved to be costly for Saint-Léon. When his contract expired in 1869 it was not renewed, and he soon left for Paris where he died in September of 1870. Not long before Saint-Léon's death, Petipa was named Maître de Ballet, and in January of 1870 Petipa's chief collaborator, the composer Cesare Pugni, died. Petipa then staged a new version of his Don Quixote for the Imperial Ballet in St. Petersburg, and for this production Minkus completely reworked his score. This staging of Don Quixote premiered on November 9, 1871, and instantly became a classic, earning Minkus great acclaim for his effective music, with its variety of Spanish-style melodies. The success of the music earned for Minkus the post of First Imperial Ballet Composer to the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatres (for a modest salary of 2,000 roubles a year, which was doubled in the 1880s). Don Quixote marked the beginning of a productive collaboration between Minkus and Petipa, who went on to create a series of masterpieces throughout the 1870s and 1880s, including one of Minkus' greatest scores and one of Petipa's ultimate masterworks - La Bayadère in 1877. By the beginning of the 1880s Minkus was considered to have reached perfection in his composition of ballet music, and was dubbed, as was his predecessor Cesare Pugni, as a "specialist" - a composer who specializes in creating musique dansante for ballet. Maestro Cesare Pugni, London, circa 1843 Cesare Pugni (31 May 1802?, Genoa?, Italy — 26 January 1870, St. ...

Edvardas Smalakys as Basilio and Miki Hamanaka as Kitri in the Moreño Dance from Vladimir Vasiliev's production of the Minkus/Petipa Don Quixote for the National Ballet of Lithuania, Vilnius, 2000

In 1886 Minkus wrote what would prove to be his last score for Petipa as First Imperial Ballet Composer - The Magic Pills, which premiered on February 9/21 at the Imperial Ballet and Opera's new venue, the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre. That same year Ivan Vsevolozhsky, director of the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatres, abolished Mikus' post in an effort to allow other, more "symphonic" composers to provide music for ballets. Minkus officially retired soon after, and on November 9/21, 1886 was given a lavish farewell benefit performance. The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... The Mariinsky Theatre of St. ... Ivan Vsevolozhsky, circa 1880 Ivan Alexandrovich Vsevolozhsky (1835 - 1909) was the Director of the Imperial Theatres in Russia from 1881 to 1898. ...


Following Minkus' retirement, Vsevolozhsky began comissioning new composers to supply music for ballets, many of whom had never before composed such music, and are today virtually unknown. The first was Baron Boris Fitinhof-Schell, who in 1887 scored music for the ballet The Haarlem Tulip, choreographed by Petipa's Second Balletmaster Lev Ivanov. The second was the Italian composer Riccardo Drigo, who scored the music for Ivanov's The Enchanted Forest in 1887, and for Petipa's The Talisman in 1888 (Drigo had been engaged as musical director of the Imperial Italian Opera, as well as chief conductor of both the Imperial Ballet and Opera since 1878). The third composer to be commissioned by Vsevolozhsky was Mikhail Ivanov, who scored the music for Petipa's 1888 ballet The Vestal, set in ancient Rome, which premiered to great success. And finally there was Tchaikovsky who scored music for Petipa's The Sleeping Beauty in 1890. Piano reduction of the Wedding March written especially by Fitinhof-Schell for the wedding of Tsar Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna in 1895 Baron Boris Alexandrovich Fitinhof-Schell (AKA Boris Schell) (born 1829 in St. ... Emma Bessone as Emma in the Ivanov/Fintinhof-Schell The Haarlem Tulip, St. ... Lev Ivanov (1834 – 1901) was a Russian ballet dancer and choreographer. ... Riccardo Drigo, Circa 1900 Riccardo Eugenio Drigo (June 30, 1846 - October 1, 1930) was an Italian composer and conductor who spent many years working with the Saint Petersburg Imperial Ballet and Imperial Opera. ... Mathilde Kschessinskaya costumed as Niriti for the Grand Pas des Fleurs of Act II in Nikolai Legats revival of Petipas The Talisman, St. ... Mikhail Ivanov (born November 20, 1977 is a Russian cross country skier who competed since 1996. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... Sleeping Beauty (Op. ...


Contrary to popular belief, Petipa still preferred to work with composers who specialized in scoring ballet music, as the general view of the time was that symphonic composers did not make good composers of ballet music. Even after the great success of The Vestal in 1888 and The Sleeping Beauty in 1890, Petipa called upon Minkus to score music for his ballet Kalkabrino, which premiered on February 13/25, 1891. The music was hailed as a masterpiece of ballet music by the critics of the day, and was considered to be the composer's greatest score (the only part of this score still heard today is a variation orchestrated for solo harp which often turns up in the Kirov Ballet's celebrated staging of the Paquita Grand Pas Classique). In spite of the success of Kalkabrino, it was to be Minkus' last score for the Imperial Ballet, as well as his last known composition.


Minkus left Russia forever in the summer of 1891, relocating to Vienna, and leaving behind his daughter, Lyubov Minkusovna, who danced in the Corps de Ballet of the Imperial Ballet until four years before her death in 1910. Minkus lived out his years in Vienna on a pension from the Imperial treasury until the events of World War I and the Russian Revolution cut off his finances, leaving him in utter poverty until his death from pneumonia on December 7, 1917, at the age of 91. Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...

Maestro Ludwig Minkus, St. Petersburg, circa 1880
Maestro Ludwig Minkus, St. Petersburg, circa 1880

Postscript

Although the post of First Imperial Ballet Composer was abolished, the Italian composer Riccardo Drigo essentially succeeded Minkus as chief composer of ballet music to the Imperial Ballet. Though he was by no means a "symphonic" composer, his music was by far more sophisticated than that of Minkus and Pugni regarding orchestration, counterpoint, and melody. His most revered scores - The Talisman (1889) (a score that even the great Tchaikovsky found admirable), The Awakening of Flora (1894), and Harlequin's Millions (1900), clearly demonstrate the evolution of the music of the so-called "specialist ballet composer", an artform which became completely extinct due to the events following the Revolution of 1917. Mathilde Kschessinskaya costumed as Niriti for the Grand Pas des Fleurs of Act II in Nikolai Legats revival of Petipas The Talisman, St. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... See also Commedia dellarte // The Harlequinade is a type of theatrical performance piece, usually a slapstick adaptation of the Commedia dellarte, which dates back to England in the mid 18th century. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Minkus' Music

The fact that Minkus the composer fell into obscurity has much to do with the way ballet music was created and handled during his time as First Imperial Ballet Composer in Tsarist Russia. There, as in other parts of Europe, the Balletmaster had full reign over the scores provided him by the composer. Ballets of the 19th century were a marriage of dance and mime. The music provided for ballets had to be above all "dansante", with light, rich, lively melody, and an uncomplicated, regularly phrased rhythmic and orchestral structure, capable of accenting the movements of classical ballet. The music provided for the mime scenes/scenes of action had to set the mood of the drama, and accompany the action as with a silent film. Minkus was contracted to compose ballet music on demand - he was obliged to score a new ballet every season, along with the constant revision of the music of already existing works for Petipa's numerous revivals.


Like many of the specialist ballet composers before him, Minkus outlined the majority of his scores during rehearsals, as well as putting to use the detailed instructions from the Balletmaster - scoring music "to order" (even Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker were scored "to order" with detailed instructions from the maestro Petipa, the former being edited a great deal for the original production). Often Minkus would write four to five melodic passages for a particular variation or Pas to be chosen by the choreographer, as well as tailoring the music to fit any changes. Many of Minkus' original scores contain numerous optional repeats of various phrases, anticipating cuts in production. There were instances where Minkus would compose music for a large ensemble dance in sections - an opening, four or five melodic passages, and an ending - to be assembled by the Balletmaster depending on how much music was needed. Even more interesting, there were times where the music had to be composed for a Pas that had already been choreographed! Minkus was often required to interpolate the music from other composer's ballets into his own works, always at the behest of a Ballerina wanting to dance her favorite Pas or variation from another work. These interpolations often required Minkus to tailor the music of any surrounding numbers for smooth transitions. Sleeping Beauty (Op. ... (left to right) Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker, an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier, and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhskys costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker, St. ...

Cover of a piano reduction of Minkus' score for Don Quixote in its 1871 St. Petersburg Edition. Published by Stellowsky, Zurich, 1902
Cover of a piano reduction of Minkus' score for Don Quixote in its 1871 St. Petersburg Edition. Published by Stellowsky, Zurich, 1902

Most of the numbers in Minkus' ballets are in either double or triple time (2/4, 4/4, 3/4, 6/8, and 12/8 are the majority of the time signatures Minkus used, though occasionally he composed dances in 5/4, 7/4, and even alternating from 4/4 and 3/4, as in his Dance of the Slaves from his 1877 score of La Bayadère). 3/4 was the time signature that purveyed over the majority of his scores - Hindu temple maidens, under-water nymphs, Gypsies, Spanish bull-fighters, young rajahs, farm girls, magical fairies, gods and goddesses, princes and princesses, king and queens - whether they were alive or were ghosts, all danced to waltz rhythm. The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... La Bayadére is a ballet, originally in 4 Acts and 7 scenes with apotheosis, choreographed by the Balletmaster Marius Petipa to music by Lèon Minkus. ...


One of Minkus' most revered strengths was his ability to create a vast variety of melodies (the principal element on which ballet music was judged in the 19th century). The ballet historian Konstantin Skalkovsky tells in his study In the Theatre World of how "Minkus' march from (his 1878 ballet), 'Roxana, the Beauty of Montenegro' was the favorite piece of Tsar Alexander II, who in general did not love music. Several units of the Russian Army stormed the Plevna (during the liberation of Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish War) to the music of this march." Minkus' other celebrated talent was in composing for solo violin and solo harp, of which most of his compositions have a great deal (Minkus' violin and harp solos were written with the talents of the famous violinist Leopold Auer and harpist Albert Zabel in mind, who both served as lead violinist and harpist in the orchestra of the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre and the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre throughout the late 19th century). Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 17 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... The Russian Ground Forces (Russian: Сухопутные силы России) are the land forces of Russia, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... Leopold Auer Leopold Auer (June 7, 1845 – July 15, 1930) was a Hungarian violinist, teacher, conductor and composer. ... The St. ... The Mariinsky Theatre of St. ...


Minkus' orchestra was large - one of his scores from Imperial Russia calls for strings, flutes, piccolo, clarinets, cornet, oboes, bassoons, contrabassoon, three trombones, bass trombone, 2 English horns, four french horns, trumpets, tuba, often 2 concert harps, drums (snare drum and bass drum), timpani, triangle, tambourine, and glockenspiel. Occasionally Minkus found uses for the gong, piano, and castanets. Even with such a large ensemble passages for full orchestra are rare, with Minkus almost always using the same combination of instruments unless it was required a special mood be set in the music, while only exploiting the brass or woodwind sections only to thicken the music when needed. The majority of the main melody in all of his compositions is almost always given to the first violin and flute sections, often doubled up with second violins and violas, giving two-part writing (often 2 violinists sharing the same manuscript would take turns playing so that the other could turn the pages!). Minkus was also quite fond of the bass drum, as well as pizzicato for double bass, used mostly for marking time (his original orchestration for The Kingdom of the Shades scene from his 1877 ballet La Bayadère is filled pizzicato for double bass and bass drum). Such writing is not at all a testament to any lack of imagination on the part of Minkus - he simply wrote this way because it was faster, as he often had very little time to orchestrate after what was needed musically was decided by the Balletmaster, not to mention that a more complex musical structure would have been rejected by both the Balletmaster and dancers alike. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The piccolo is a small flute. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument that closely resembles the trumpet. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that plays in the tenor range and below. ... This is a contrabassoon. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the oboe family. ... The horn is a brass instrument that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form, now with finger-operated valves to help control the pitch but originally without valves to control the pitch. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium and tuba. ... The tuba is one of the largest of low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group, technically classified as a membranophone. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) strethced across the bottom head. ... It has been suggested that vruk be merged into this article or section. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... Köçek with tambourine c. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... A gong is any one of a wide variety of metal percussion instruments. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Renoirs 1909 painting Dancing girl with castanets Castanets The castanets are a percussion instrument (idiophone), much used in Moorish music, Roma music, Spanish music and Latin American music. ... The viola (in French, alto; in German Bratsche) is a string instrument played with a bow. ... It has been suggested that vruk be merged into this article or section. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... La Bayadére is a ballet, originally in 4 Acts and 7 scenes with apotheosis, choreographed by the Balletmaster Marius Petipa to music by Lèon Minkus. ... Pizzicato is a method of playing a bowed string instrument by plucking the strings with the fingers, rather than using the bow. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


In Russia Minkus is much respected for his ablitlies with ballet music, though in the west this is mostly a recent thing, as many musicians have been known to have little respect for the genre of 19th century ballet music. Many western ballet companies have chosen to perform Minkus' music in various reorchestrations done by a number of musicians, most notably by the composer/conductor John Lanchbery. In recent times more and more ballet companies have been making a considerable efforts to go as close to the original sources as possible when staging ballets, and in that process the music of the old specialist ballet composers is beginning to gain respect. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... John Lanchbery (May 15, 1923–February 27, 2003) was an English composer, famous for his ballet arrangements. ...


In 2001, the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballet (the former Imperial Ballet) mounted a reconstruction of the Petipa/Minkus La Bayadère, which was staged using the Stepanov Choreographic Notation of the Petipa's last revival of the work in 1900, part of the Sergeyev Collection housed in the Harvard University Library. For this reconstruction the Mariinsky Ballet unearthed Minkus' original hand-written score, thought for many years to have been lost. This antiquated score was hailed as a masterpiece of its genre as well as a phenomenal example of a long-vanished era in the history of ballet music. Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... La Bayadére is a ballet, originally in 4 Acts and 7 scenes with apotheosis, choreographed by the Balletmaster Marius Petipa to music by Lèon Minkus. ... Vladimir Ivanovich Stepanov (1866 - 1896), dancer at the Imperial Ballet in Saint Petersburg. ... A Drawing of Nicholas Grigorovich Sergeyev, made in 1929. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning still operating in the United States. ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ...

Maria Tallchief, Andrè Eglevsky, and Rosella Hightower in George Balanchine's staging of the Minkus/Petipa Pas de Trois from the ballet Paquita (or Minkus Pas de Trois), New York City, 1951

Paquita is a ballet in two acts and three scenes. ...

The Works of Maestro Ludwig Minkus

Note: Its is likely impossible to list every piece of music Minkus composed. However nearly all of the material he composed during his career with the St. Petersburg Theatres is preserved in the archives of the St. Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music and the Russian State Historical Archiveas, and, most of all, the Music Library of the Mariinsky Theatre. Below is a listing of the original ballets of Ludwig Minkus, as well as his most major revisions, or additions, to already exsisting works. All dates are given in the old style of the Julian calendar as used in Imperial Russia until after the Russian revolution of 1917, being twelve days behind the rest of the world in the 19th century, and thirteen days behind in the 20th. The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Note: Until 1886, the principle theatre of the Imperial Ballet and Opera was the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre in St. Petersburg. After 1886 the Theatre was declared unsafe, and the director of the St. Petersburg Imperial Theatres, Ivan Vsevolozhsky, relocated both companies to the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre, where they have have remained ever since. The St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Ivan Vsevolozhsky, circa 1880 Ivan Alexandrovich Vsevolozhsky (1835 - 1909) was the Director of the Imperial Theatres in Russia from 1881 to 1898. ... The Mariinsky Theatre of St. ...


Original Ballets

  • Le Poisson Doré (The Golden Fish) (1866)
  • Camargo (AKA La Camargo) (1872)
  • La Bayadère (1877)
  • Frizak the Barber (AKA The Double Wedding) (1879)
Adèle Grantzow, Timofei Stukolkin, and the Corps de Ballet in the Scène Sous-Marine (Under-Water Scene) from Act II of the Minkus/Saint-Léon Le Poisson Doré, St. Petersburg, 1867
Adèle Grantzow, Timofei Stukolkin, and the Corps de Ballet in the Scène Sous-Marine (Under-Water Scene) from Act II of the Minkus/Saint-Léon Le Poisson Doré, St. Petersburg, 1867
  • Zoraiya, the Moorish Girl in Spain (1881)
  • The Magic Pills (1886)

Revisions & supplemental material Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... La Source is a ballet in three acts/four scenes with a score collaborated on by Léo Delibes and Léon Minkus (Minkus: Act I & Act III-Scene 2/Delibes: Act II & Act III-Scene 1). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Le Lys (The Lily) (AKA Liliya) is a fantastic ballet in 3 Acts/4 Scenes, with music by Léon Minkus and choreography by Arthur Saint-Léon. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Emma Livry as Farfalla in the Taglioni/Offenbach Le Papillon, Paris, 1861 Le Papillon (The Butterfly) is a fantastic ballet in 4 acts/4 scenes, with choreography by Marie Taglioni and music by Jacques Offenbach. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... La Bayadére is a ballet, originally in 4 Acts and 7 scenes with apotheosis, choreographed by the Balletmaster Marius Petipa to music by Lèon Minkus. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Daughter of the Snows (AKA Snegurochka) is a fantastic ballet in 3 acts/5 scenes, with choreography by Marius Petipa and music by Léon Minkus. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  • The Sobeshchanskaya Pas de Deux -Supplemental Pas de Deux composed by Minkus especially for the Prima Ballerina of the Bolshoi Theatre Anna Sobeshchanskaya (a standard classicalPas de Deux, consisting of a short Entrée, an Adagio, variation for the Danseur, variation for the Ballerina, and a Coda). Choreography by Marius Petipa. Premiered circa April, 1877. NOTE - On April 26, 1877 the Prima Ballerina Anna Sobeshchanskaya made her debut in the original 1877 production of Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake at the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre. The Ballerina dis-liked the dances of the ballet's original choreographer Julius Reisinger, as well as Tchaikovsky's score. The Ballerina then traveled to St. Petersburg so that the choreographer Petipa could arrange for her a Pas de Deux to new music composed especially for her performance by Lèon Minkus. The Pas would be interpolated into Act III of Swan Lake in substitution of Tchaikovsky's original Grand Pas de Six. When Tchaikovsky received news that another composer's music was to be put into his ballet in substitution of his original Pas (standard practice in 19th century ballet) he protested, and agreed to write the Ballerina another Pas de Deux in place of the one arranged by Petipa to the music of Minkus. However, the Ballerina had no wish to change Petipa's choreography, and so Tchaikovsky agreed to write a Pas for her that would correspond bar for bar, and note for note with Minkus's music, allowing the Ballerina to retain Petipa's choreography even without rehearsals. It has been said by some historians/musicologists that the music was simply re-orchestrated by Tchaikovsky, and not re-written "bar for bar and note for note". Of Tchaikovsky's work on the Minkus scored Pas, all that is known for certain is that the composer made no revision of any kind to the first variation (for the Danseur), leaving Minkus' original music untouched. Regarding the second variation (for the Ballerina), Tchaikovsky only re-orchestrated it.
    Mathilde Kschessinska in the title role in the Minkus/Petipa ballet Mlada, St. Petersburg, 1900
    Mathilde Kschessinska in the title role in the Minkus/Petipa ballet Mlada, St. Petersburg, 1900
    As to what extent Tchaikovsky revised the Entrée, Adagio, and Coda, is not known. This Pas de Deux was thought to be lost for many years. A rèpètiteur of the music was re-discovered in 1953 in the archives of the Bolshoi Theatre. George Balanchine utilized this music in 1960 for a Pas de Deux he arranged for the Ballerina Violette Verdy, and the Danseur Conrad Ludlow under the title Tchaikovsky Pas de Deux, as it is still known today. What became of Minkus's original version of the Pas is not known.
  • Pâquerette (Revival, 1882)
  • Giselle -Fantastic Ballet in 2 Acts/2 Scenes. Choreography by Marius Petipa after Jean Coralli & Jules Perrot. Original score by Adolphe Adam with additions by Frédéric Bergmüller -1841. Revisions, re-orchestrations, and additions by Léon Minkus -1884. Revival premiered February 5, 1884. NOTE - This ballet was originally produced by Jean Coralli and Jules Perrot for the Ballet of the Académie Royale de Musique to the score of Adolphe Adam with additions by Frédéric Bergmüller, premiering June 28, 1841. The ballet's first production in Russia was presented on December 18, 1842, staged by the Balletmaster Antoine Titus at the St. Petersburg Imperial Bolshoi Kammeny Theatre by the Imperial Ballet. Jules Perrot then mounted his own version of the ballet, premiering December 15, 1848. In 1850, Marius Petipa produced another revival of the ballet based on the indications of Perrot for the Ballerina Carlotta Grisi, while adding new choregraphic elements of his own (specifically to the Grand Pas des Wilis).
    Students of the Imperial Ballet School in the Minkus/Petipa Children's Polonaise and Mazurka from the ballet Paquita, St. Petersburg, circa 1885
    In 1866 Petipa revised Giselle for the Ballerina Adèle Grantzow, for which Minkus composed Giselle's famous waltz variation in the Grand Pas de Deux of Act II (this variation is based on Adam's original lietmotive sometimes called the Love Theme for Giselle and Albrecht). On February 5, 1884, what is today condsidered to be Petipa's definitive revival of Giselle premiered. For this revival Petipa commissioned Minkus to tailor and re-orchestrate much of Adam's original score, as well as compose an additional Pas de Deux for the characters Giselle and Albrecht. In 1887 Petipa again revised Giselle, this time for the Ballerina Emma Bessone. For this occasion Minkus composed a new variation for the Ballerina, the famous Pas Seul, or Variation of Giselle for Act I of the ballet. This variation was lost for some time, but was resurrected by the Ballerina Olga Spessivtseva in the 1910s for her own performances in Giselle. Aside from the Pas de Deux Minkus composed for Act I, all of his interpolations are still retained as part of Adam's score in every production of Giselle around the world. In Russia most companies (particularly the Bolshoi Ballet and the Kirov/Mariinksy Ballet) still perform Adolphe Adam's score as revised/re-orchestrated by Minkus in 1884. For the Joffrey Ballet the choreographer Gerard Arpino used the rarely heard 1884 Pas de Deux for Giselle & Albrecht by Minkus for his ballet L'air d'spirit in 1978.
  • Le Diable à Quatre (AKA The Willful Wife) (Revival, 1885)

Ondine or The Naiad and the Fisherman is a ballet in Three acts, Five scenes. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... Maestro Cesare Pugni, London, circa 1843 Cesare Pugni (31 May 1802?, Genoa?, Italy — 26 January 1870, St. ... In 1789 Catherine the Great ordered the building of the Imperial This article is a stub. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... Maestro Cesare Pugni, London, circa 1843 Cesare Pugni (31 May 1802?, Genoa?, Italy — 26 January 1870, St. ... A perfomance at Opera House, Haymarket, predecessor of Her Majestys Theatre in circa 1808. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... Maestro Cesare Pugni, London, circa 1843 Cesare Pugni (31 May 1802?, Genoa?, Italy — 26 January 1870, St. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally Piterhof, Dutch for Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south... Maestro Cesare Pugni, London, circa 1843 Cesare Pugni (31 May 1802?, Genoa?, Italy — 26 January 1870, St. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Felix Mendelssohn at the age of 30 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... In 1789 Catherine the Great ordered the building of the Imperial This article is a stub. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Altynai Asylmuratova as Odette in the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballets production of Swan Lake, St. ... The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ... Julius Reisinger, original choreographer of the ballet Swan Lake in 1877 Vaclav (Wentsel), or Jules or Julius Wentsel Reisinger (1828-1892) is paradoxical figure in the history of ballet. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Altynai Asylmuratova as Odette in the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballets production of Swan Lake, St. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Mlada was a projected 4-act opera-ballet which was planned in 1872 as a collaborative effort between four nineteenth-century Russian composers: Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky and Borodin were each supposed to compose an act. ... Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Pas de deux is also a dressage preformance using two horses. ... The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... Pas de deux is also a dressage preformance using two horses. ... Portrait of Violette Verdy, in Serenade. ... Conrad Ludlow is a former principal dancer with New York City Ballet under George Balanchine. ... La Fille du Danube (The Daughter of the Danube) - Ballet in 2 Acts-4 Scenes. ... Paquita is a ballet in two acts and three scenes. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Joseph Mazilier (1808-1868) Famous 19th century Balletmaster and choreographer, most noted for his ballets Paquita (1844) and Le Corsaire (1856) Category: ... Edouard Deldevez (May 31, 1817 - November 6, 1897) Also known as Ernest or Ernst Deldevez, his full name was Edouard-Marie-Ernest Dendevez. ... In 1789 Catherine the Great ordered the building of the Imperial This article is a stub. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Joseph Mazilier (1808-1868) Famous 19th century Balletmaster and choreographer, most noted for his ballets Paquita (1844) and Le Corsaire (1856) Category: ... Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (was also known as the Théâtre Impérial de l´Opéra, Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly as the Paris Opéra) was... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Edouard Deldevez (May 31, 1817 - November 6, 1897) Also known as Ernest or Ernst Deldevez, his full name was Edouard-Marie-Ernest Dendevez. ... In 1789 Catherine the Great ordered the building of the Imperial This article is a stub. ... The Mariinsky Ballet is one of the most famous ballet schools in history (formerly the Kirov Ballet, and also the Academic State Theatre), located in St. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Vaganova as Odette-Odile, 1900es Agrippina Yakovlevna Vaganova (July 6, 1879 - November 5, 1951) was an outstanding Russian ballet teacher who developed the Vaganova method. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Jean Coralli (1779-1854), born Jean Coralli Peracini, was a French choreographer. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... Jean Coralli (1779-1854), born Jean Coralli Peracini, was a French choreographer. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (was also known as the Théâtre Impérial de l´Opéra, Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly as the Paris Opéra) was... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... In 1789 Catherine the Great ordered the building of the Imperial This article is a stub. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Jules-Joseph Perrot (born August 18, 1810 in Lyon, France; died August 18, 1892 in Paramé) was a dancer and choreographer who created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century. ... We dont have an article called Carlotta grisi Start this article Search for Carlotta grisi in. ... Paquita is a ballet in two acts and three scenes. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Pas de deux is also a dressage preformance using two horses. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... Pas de deux is also a dressage preformance using two horses. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Olga Alexandrovna Spessivtseva (July 18, 1895—September 16, 1991) was a Russian ballerina whose brilliant stage career spanned from 1913 to 1939. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... Pas de deux is also a dressage preformance using two horses. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... Anna Pavlova as Giselle in Act I (ca. ... The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow houses the world renowned Bolshoi Ballet, which has been home to some of the worlds greatest ballet dancers, including Anna Pavlova, Vaslav Nijinsky, Rudolf Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov and Natalia Makarova. ... The Mariinsky Ballet is one of the most famous ballet schools in history (formerly the Kirov Ballet, and also the Academic State Theatre), located in St. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... In 1956, Ballet teacher Robert Joffrey and choreographer Gerald Arpino formed a six-dancer ensemble that toured the country performing original ballets during a time when most touring companies performed mere reduced versions of ballet classics. ... Poster advertising the premiere of the Mazilier/Adam Le Diable à Quatre, Paris, 1845 Le Diable à Quatre (AKA The Willful Wife) is a Grand ballet in 2 Acts/3 Scenes, with choreography by Joseph Mazilier and music by Adolphe Adam. ...

Sources

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  • Guest, Ivor. CD Liner notes. Adolphe Adam. Giselle. Richard Bonynge Cond. Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Decca 417 505-2.
  • Guest, Ivor. CD Liner notes. Léon Minkus & Léo Delibes. La Source. Richard Bonynge Cond. Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Decca 421 431-2.
  • Kirov/Mariinsky Ballet. Program from La Bayadère. Mariinsky Theatre, 2001.
  • Petipa, Marius. The Diaries of Marius Petipa. Trans. and Ed. Lynn Garafola. Published in Studies in Dance History. 3.1 (Spring 1992).
  • Royal Ballet. Program from La Bayadere. Royal Opera House, 1990.
  • Stegemann, Michael. CD Liner notes. Trans. Lionel Salter. Léon Minkus. Don Quijote. Boris Spassov Cond. Sofia National Opera Orchestra. Capriccio 10 540/41.
  • Stegemann, Michael. CD Liner notes. Trans. Lionel Salter. Léon Minkus. Paquita & La Bavadere. Boris Spassov Cond. Sofia National Opera Orchestra. Capriccio 10 544.
  • Wiley, Roland John. Dances from Russia: An Introduction to the Sergeyev Collection, Published in The Harvard Library Bulletin, 24.1 January 1976.
  • Wiley, Roland John, ed. and translator. A Century of Russian Ballet: Documents and Eyewitness Accounts 1810-1910.
  • Wiley, Roland John. Tchaikovsky's Ballets.

 
 

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