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Encyclopedia > Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Personal information
Name Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Nationality German/American
Birth date March 27, 1886(1886-03-27)
Birth place Aachen
Date of death August 17, 1969 (aged 83)
Place of death Chicago
Work
Significant buildings Barcelona Pavilion
Tugendhat House
Crown Hall
Farnsworth House
IBM Plaza
Lafayette Park (Detroit)
860-880 Lake Shore Drive
Toronto-Dominion Centre
Seagram Building
New National Gallery
Significant design Barcelona chair
Brno chair
Awards and prizes Order Pour le Mérite (1959)
Royal Gold Medal (1959)
AIA Gold Medal (1960)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (1963)

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886August 17, 1969) was a German architect. [1] Image File history File links Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... The reconstructed Barcelona Pavilion The Barcelona Pavilion, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was the German Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona. ... The Villa Tugendhat is considered a masterpiece of the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. ... S. R. Crown Hall, designed by the German-born Modernist architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is the home of the College of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Farnsworth House, designed and constructed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe between 1945-51, is a one-room weekend retreat in a once-rural setting, located 55 miles southwest of Chicagos downtown on a 60 acre estate site adjoining the Fox River (Illinois) south of the city of... IBM Plaza skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois designed by famed architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe . ... The Lafayette Park development is a large park and complex of apartments and housing cooperatives just east of downtown Detroit, Michigan. ... 860–880 Lake Shore Drive 860–880 Lake Shore Drive is a twin pair of glass-and-steel apartment towers on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Toronto-Dominion Centre. ... The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. ... Neue Nationalgalerie exterior Neue Nationalgalerie at the Kulturforum is a museum for classical modern art in Berlin, with main focus on early the 20th century. ... // The Barcelona Lounge Chair is a classic of 20th century modernist furniture design by architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and his partner Lilly Reich. ... The Brno chair (model number MR50) is a modernist cantilever chair designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1929-1930 for the bedroom of the Tugendhat House in Brno, Czechoslovakia. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... The Royal Gold Medal for architecture is awarded annually by the Royal Institute of British Architects on behalf of the British monarch, in recognition of an individuals or groups substantial contribution to international architecture. ... The AIA Gold Medal is awarded by the American Institute of Architects conferred by the national AIA Board of Directors in recognition of a significant body of work of lasting influence on the theory and practice of architecture. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ...


Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, along with Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture. Mies, like many of his post World War I contemporaries, sought to establish a new architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras. He created an influential Twentieth-Century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define austere but elegant spaces. He developed the use of exposed steel structure and glass to enclose and define space, striving for an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of open space. He called his buildings "skin and bones" architecture. He sought a rational approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, and is known for his use of the aphorisms “Less is more” and "God is in the details". Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Early career

Mies worked in his father's stone-carving shop and at several local design firms before he moved to Berlin joining the office of interior designer Bruno Paul. He began his architectural career as an apprentice at the studio of Peter Behrens from 1908 to 1912, where he was exposed to the current design theories and to progressive German culture. His talent was quickly recognized and he soon began independent commissions, despite his lack of a formal college-level education. A physically imposing, deliberative, and reticent man, Ludwig Mies renamed himself as part of his rapid transformation from a tradesman's son to an architect working with Berlin's cultural elite, adding the more aristocratic surname "van der Rohe". He began his independent professional career designing upper class homes in traditional Germanic domestic styles. He admired the broad proportions, regularity of rhythmic elements, attention to the relationship of the manmade to nature, and compositions using simple cubic volumes of the early nineteenth century Prussian Neo-Classical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, while dismissing the eclectic and cluttered classical so common at the turn of the century. Bruno Paul was born on January 1, 1874, and died on August 17, 1968. ... Peter Behrens (April 14, 1868–February 27, 1940) was a German architect and designer. ... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ...


Traditionalism to Modernism

Villa Tugendhat built in 1930 in Brno, in today's Czech Republic, for Fritz Tugendhat.
Villa Tugendhat built in 1930 in Brno, in today's Czech Republic, for Fritz Tugendhat.

After World War I, Mies began, while still designing traditional custom homes, a parallel experimental effort in modernist design, joining his avant-garde peers in the long-running search for a new style for a new industrial democracy. The traditional styles had been under attack by progressive theorists since the mid-nineteenth century, primarily for attaching ornament unrelated to a modern structure's underlying construction. Their criticism gained substantial cultural credibility after the disaster of World War I, widely seen as a failure of the imperial leadership of Europe. The classical revival styles were particularly reviled by many as the architectural symbol of a now-discredited aristocratic system. Boldly abandoning ornament altogether, Mies made a dramatic debut with his stunning competition proposal for the faceted all-glass Friedrichstrasse skyscraper in 1921, followed by a curved version in 1922. He continued with a series of brilliant pioneering projects, culminating in his two European masterworks: the temporary German Pavilion for the Barcelona exposition in 1929 (a reproduction is now built on the original site) and the elegant Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic, completed in 1930. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The reconstructed Barcelona Pavilion The Barcelona Pavilion, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was the German Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona. ... The Villa Tugendhat is a masterpiece of the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. ... Brno (German: Brünn) is the second_largest city of the Czech Republic, located in the southeast of the country, at the confluence of the Svitava and Svratka rivers. ...


While continuing his traditional design practice Mies began to work with the progressive design magazine G which started in July 1923. He developed prominence as architectural director of the Werkbund, organizing the influential Weissenhof prototype modernist housing exhibition. He was also one of the founders of the architectural association Der Ring. Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) was a German association of architects, designers and industrialists, an important precursor to the Bauhaus. ... Der Ring was an architectural collective founded in 1926 in Berlin. ...


His modernist thinking was influenced by the aesthetic credos of Russian Constructivism with their ideology of "efficient" sculptural constructions using modern industrial materials. Mies found appeal in the use of simple rectilinear and planar forms, clean lines, pure use of color, and the extension of space around and beyond interiors expounded by the Dutch De Stijl group. In particular, the layering of functions in space and the clear articulation of parts as expressed by Gerrit Rietveld appealed to Mies. Like other architects in Europe, Mies was enthralled by the free-flowing spaces which encompass their outdoor surroundings and the open floor plans of the American Prairie Style work of Frank Lloyd Wright. The theories of Adolf Loos found resonance with Mies, particularly the ideas of eradication of ornament and the casting off of the superficial, the use of unadorned but rich materials, the nobility of anonymity, and an admiration for the unfettered pragmatism of America. He joined the avant-garde Bauhaus design school as their director of architecture, adopting and developing their application of simple geometric forms in the design of useful objects. Tatlin Tower. ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (Utrecht, June 24, 1888 – Utrecht, June 26, 1964), was a Dutch designer, architect and cabinet maker. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... Adolf Loos (December 10, 1870 in Brno, Moravia–August 8, 1933 in Vienna, Austria) was an early-20th century Viennese architect. ... Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005. ...


Significance and Meaning

The self-educated Mies painstakingly studied the great philosophers and thinkers of the past and of the day. He adopted an ambitious lifelong mission to create not only a new style, but also a solid intellectual foundation for a new architectural language that could be used to represent the new era of technological invention and production. He saw a need for an architecture expressive of and in harmony with his epoch, just as Gothic architecture was for an era of spiritualism. He applied a disciplined design process using rational thought to achieve his goal. He believed that architecture communicated the meaning and significance of the culture in which it exists. More than perhaps any other practicing pioneer of modernism, Mies used philosophy as a basis for his work. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


Emigration to the United States

Opportunities for commissions dwindled with the worldwide depression after 1929. In the early 1930s, Mies served briefly as the last Director of the faltering Bauhaus, at the request of his friend and competitor Walter Gropius. After 1933, Nazi political pressure soon forced Mies to close the government-financed school, a victim of its previous association with socialism, communism, and other progressive ideologies. He built very little in these years (one built commission was Philip Johnson's New York apartment); his style was rejected by the Nazis as not "German" in character. Frustrated and unhappy, he left his homeland reluctantly in 1937 as he saw his opportunity for any future building commissions vanish, accepting a residential commission in Wyoming and then an offer to head an architectural school in Chicago. When the refugee from the heavy-handed and constricting order of the Nazi government arrived in the United States after 30 years of practice in Germany, his reputation as a pioneer of modern architecture was already established by American promoters of the international style. His architecture struck a harmonious note with a progressive American sub-culture, and Frank Lloyd Wright now had a serious competitor to his position as America's greatest living architect. Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ...


Career in the United States

IBM Plaza, Chicago, Illinois
IBM Plaza, Chicago, Illinois

Mies settled in Chicago, Illinois where he was appointed as head of the architecture school at Chicago's Armour Institute of Technology (later renamed Illinois Institute of Technology - IIT). One of his conditions for taking this position was that he would be commissioned to design the new buildings of the campus. Some of his most famous buildings still stand there, including Alumni Hall and S.R. Crown Hall, the home of IIT's School of Architecture. In 1944, he became an American citizen, completing his severance from his native Germany. His 30 years as an American architect reflect a more consistent and mature approach towards achieving his goal of a new architecture for the 20th Century. He focused his efforts on the idea of enclosing large open "universal" spaces with clearly ordered structural frameworks, featuring manufactured steel shapes infilled with glass. His early projects at the IIT campus and for developer Herb Greenwald opened the eyes of Americans to a style that culturally resonated as a natural progression of the almost forgotten 19th century Chicago School style. His architecture, with origins in the socialist International style became an accepted mode of building for large American corporations. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 338 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1580 × 2800 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ludwig Mies van... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 338 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1580 × 2800 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ludwig Mies van... IBM Plaza skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois designed by famed architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe . ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... IIT is an initialism which may refer to: A number of institutes of technology, including: Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago Indian Institutes of Technology, a group of 7 autonomous institutes Indiana Institute of Technology, known primarily as Indiana Tech, in Fort Wayne Institute for Information Technology, a research institute...


The Second Chicago School

860–880 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois.
860–880 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois.

His most significant projects in the US include the residential towers of 860-880 Lake Shore Dr, the Farnsworth House, Crown Hall and other structures at IIT, all in and around Chicago, and the Seagram Building in New York. These iconic works became the prototypes for his other projects. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (759x1037, 463 KB) Summary 860–880 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (759x1037, 463 KB) Summary 860–880 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois. ... The 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments are located in Chicago, Illinois at Chicagos Gold Coast. ... The Farnsworth House, designed and constructed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe between 1945-51, is a one-room weekend retreat in a once-rural setting, located 55 miles southwest of Chicagos downtown on a 60 acre estate site adjoining the Fox River (Illinois) south of the city of... S. R. Crown Hall, designed by the German-born Modernist architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is the home of the College of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. ...


Between 1946 and 1951 Mies van der Rohe designed and built the Farnsworth House, a weekend retreat outside Chicago for an independent professional woman, Dr. Edith Farnsworth. Here, Mies explored the relationship between the individual, man-made shelter, and nature. This masterpiece showed the world that exposed industrial structural steel and glass were materials capable of great architecture. The glass pavilion is raised six feet above a floodplain next to the Fox River, surrounded by forest and rural prairies. The highly crafted pristine white structural frame and all-glass walls define a simple rectangular interior space, letting nature and light envelop the interior space. A wood paneled core (housing mechanical equipment, kitchen, fireplace, and toilets) is positioned within the open space to define the living, dining and sleeping spaces without using walls to surround rooms. No partitions touch the surrounding all-glass enclosure. Without solid exterior walls, full-height draperies on a perimeter track allows freedom to provide full or partial privacy when and where desired. The house has been described as sublime, a temple hovering between heaven and earth, a poem, a work of art. The Farnsworth House and its 60 acre wooded site was purchased at auction for US$7.5 million by preservation groups in 2004 and is now operated by the Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois as a public museum. The influential building spawned hundreds of modernist glass houses, most notably the Glass House by Philip Johnson, located near New York City and now owned by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. The iconic Farnsworth House is considered among Mies's greatest works. The house is an embodiment of Mies' mature vision of modern architecture: a minimal "skin and bones" framework provides an enclosure with a clearly understandable order, counter-balanced by free-flowing open space to suggest freedom of use, elegantly stated with clarity and simplicity, and using materials that represent our times. The Farnsworth House, designed and constructed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe between 1945-51, is a one-room weekend retreat in a once-rural setting, located 55 miles southwest of Chicagos downtown on a 60 acre estate site adjoining the Fox River (Illinois) south of the city of... The Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1971 to prevent the demolition of the Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan designed Chicago Stock Exchange Building. ... A model of the Glass House on display at MOMA in NYC Another view The Glass house or Johnson house, built in 1949 in New Canaan, Connecticut was an important project for architect Phillip Johnson, and for modern architecture. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... The National Trust for Historic Preservation is an American member-supported organization which was founded in 1949 to support preservation of historic buildings and neighborhoods through a range of programs and activities. ...


In 1958 Mies van der Rohe designed what has been regarded as the pinnacle of the modern high-rise architecture, the Seagram Building in New York. Mies was chosen by the daughter of the client, Phyllis Bronfman Lambert, who has become a noted architectural figure and patron in her own right. The Seagram Building has become an icon of the growing power of that defining institution of the 20th Century, the corporation. In a bold and innovative move, the architect chose to set the tower back from the property line to create a forecourt plaza and fountain on Park Avenue. Although now acclaimed and widely influential as an urban design feature, Mies had to convince Bronfman's bankers that a taller tower with significant "wasted" open space was a viable idea. Mies design included a bronze curtain wall with external H-shaped mullions that were exaggerated in depth beyond what is structurally necessary, touching off a conversation among some of his more zealous followers about whether Mies had or had not committed Adolf Loos' "crime of ornamentation". Philip Johnson had a role in interior materials selections and the plaza, and he designed the sumptuous Four Seasons restaurant. The Seagram Building is said to be an early example of the innovative "fast-track" construction process, where design and construction are done concurrently. Using the Seagram as a prototype, Mies' office designed a number of modern high-rise office towers, notably the Chicago Federal Center, which includes the Dirksen and Klusinski Federal Buildings and Post Office (1959) and the IBM Plaza in Chicago, the Westmount Square in Montreal and the Toronto-Dominion Centre in 1967. For the TD Centre he designed the font used on all the signage including the concourse area. The signage was still used in 2007, although is slowly being replaced as retailers update their store facades as leases turn over. The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Toronto-Dominion Centre. ... Park Avenue in the Upper East Side (2004) Park Avenue, looking north toward the Metlife building from the Union Square Area Park Avenue (formerly Fourth Avenue) is a wide boulevard that carries traffic north and south in Manhattan in New York City. ... Ornament and Crime is an essay written by the influential Austrian architect Adolf Loos in 1908. ... High-rise is a 1975 novel by J. G. Ballard. ... The Everett McKinley Dirksen Federal Courthouse is a skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... Flamingo by Alexander Calder The Kluczynski Federal Building is a skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... IBM Plaza skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois designed by famed architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe . ... Westmount Square is one of Montreals most prestigious addresses. ... The Toronto-Dominion Centre. ...

TD Centre towers frame CN Tower in Toronto.
TD Centre towers frame CN Tower in Toronto.

Mies also designed a series of four middle-income high-rise apartment buildings for developer Herb Greenwald (and his successor firms after his untimely death in a plane crash), the 860/880 and 900/910 Lake Shore Drive towers on Chicago's Lakefront. These towers, with facades of steel and glass, were radical departures from the typical residential brick apartment buildings of the time (interestingly, Mies found their unit sizes too small for himself, choosing instead to continue living in a spacious traditional luxury apartment a few blocks away). Again, these towers became the prototype for many more apartment tower blocks across the country designed by Mies' office. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1901 × 2551 pixel, file size: 689 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1901 × 2551 pixel, file size: 689 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ... 860–880 Lake Shore Drive 860–880 Lake Shore Drive is a twin pair of glass-and-steel apartment towers on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, Illinois. ...


During 1951-1952, Mies' designed the steel, glass and brick McCormick House, located in Elmhurst, Illinois (15 miles west of the Chicago Loop), for real-estate developer Robert Hall McCormick Jr. A one story adaptation of the exterior curtain wall of his famous 860-880 Lake Shore Drive towers, it served as a prototype for an unbuilt series of speculative houses to be constructed in Melrose Park, Illinois. The house exists today as a part of the Elmhurst Art Museum.[1].


Mies last work was the Neue Nationalgalerie art museum in Berlin. Considered one of the most perfect statements of his architectural approach, the upper pavilion is a precise steel framework with a glass enclosure, a simple pavilion that is a powerful expression of his ideas about flexible interior space, open and unencumbered by the external structural order. Neue Nationalgalerie exterior Neue Nationalgalerie is a museum for classical modern art in Berlin, with main focus on early the 20th century. ...


Furniture

Mies designed modern furniture pieces using new industrial technologies that have become popular classics, such as the Barcelona chair and table, and the Brno chair. His furniture is known for fine craftsmanship, a mix of traditional luxurious fabrics like leather combined with modern chrome frames, and a distinct separation of the supporting structure and the supported surfaces, often employing cantilevers to enhance the feeling of lightness created by delicate structural frames. During this period, he collaborated closely with interior designer and companion Lilly Reich. Modern furniture was a tremendous departure from all furniture design that had gone before it. ... // The Barcelona Lounge Chair is a classic of 20th century modernist furniture design by architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and his partner Lilly Reich. ... The Brno chair (model number MR50) is a modernist cantilever chair designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1929-1930 for the bedroom of the Tugendhat House in Brno, Czechoslovakia. ... Lilly Reich (16 June 1885–14 December 1947) was a German modernist designer. ...


Mies as Educator

Mies played a significant role as an educator, believing his architectural language could be learned, then applied to design any type of modern building. He worked personally and intensively on prototype solutions, and then allowed his students, both in school and his office, to develop derivative solutions for specific projects under his guidance. But when none was able to match the genius and poetic quality of his own work, he agonized about where his educational method had gone wrong.


Famous for his poetic aphorisms "Less is More" and "God is in the details," Mies sought to create free and open spaces, enclosed within a structural order with minimal presence. Over the last twenty years of his life, Mies achieved, and built, his vision of a monumental "skin and bones" architecture that reflected his goal to provide the individual a place to fulfill himself in the modern era.


Mies placed great importance on education of architects who could carry on his design principles. He devoted a great deal of time and effort leading the architecture program at IIT. Mies served on the initial Advisory Board of the Graham Foundation in Chicago. His own practice was based on intensive personal involvement in design efforts to create prototype solutions for building types (860 Lake Shore Dr, the Farnsworth, Seagram, S.R. Crown Hall, The New National Gallery), then allowing his studio designers to develop derivative buildings under his supervision. Mies's grandson Dirk Lohan and two partners led the firm after he died in 1969. Lohan, who had collaborated with Mies on the New National Gallery, continued with existing projects but soon led the firm on his own independent path. Other disciples continued his teachings for a few years, notably Gene Summers, David Haid, Myron Goldsmith, Jaques Brownsom, Helmut Jahn, and other architects at the firms of C.F. Murphy and Skidmore Owings & Merrill. IIT is an initialism which may refer to: A number of institutes of technology, including: Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago Indian Institutes of Technology, a group of 7 autonomous institutes Indiana Institute of Technology, known primarily as Indiana Tech, in Fort Wayne Institute for Information Technology, a research institute... Madlener House The Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, based in Chicago was created in 1956 by a bequest from prominent Chicago architect Ernest R. Graham (1866-1936), is committed to providing project-based grants to individuals and institutions working to address issues in architecture and the... An illuminated, suspended, oval roof covers the 102m span of the central Forum of the Sony Center, Berlin. ...


But while Mies' work had enormous influence and critical recognition, his approach failed to sustain a creative force as a style after his death and was eclipsed by the new wave of Post Modernism by the 1980s. He had hoped his architecture would serve as a universal model that could be easily imitated, but the aesthetic power of his best buildings proved impossible to match, instead resulting mostly in drab and uninspired structures. The failure of his followers to meet his high standard may have contributed to demise of Modernism and the rise of new competing design theories, notably Postmodernism; alternatively, his disregard for costs, context, and his clients' needs may have damaged Modernism's reputation along with his own. 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... The term Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Pomo[1]) was a reaction to modernism (not post in the purely temporal sense of after). Largely influenced by the disillusionment induced by the Second World War, postmodernism tends to refer to a cultural, intellectual, or artistic state lacking a clear central hierarchy or organizing...


Death

Mies van der Rohe died in 1969, and was buried near Chicago's other famous architects in Uptown's Graceland Cemetery. [1] Skyline of Uptown, looking northeast Uptown is a diverse neighborhood located north of Chicagos downtown. ... Graceland Cemetery is a large Victorian-era cemetery located in the north side community area of Uptown, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. Established in 1860, its main entrance is at Clark and Irving Park. ...


Photo gallery

List of Buildings

Canada

Czech Republic The Toronto-Dominion Centre. ... Westmount Square is one of Montreals most prestigious addresses. ... Motto: Robur meum civium fides (My strength is the faithfulness of my citizens) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1874 Established 1908 Government  - City Mayor Karin Marks Area  - City 4. ...

Germany The Villa Tugendhat is considered a masterpiece of the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ...

  • Riehl House - Residential Home, Potsdam (1907)
  • Peris House - Residential Home, Zehlendorf (1911)
  • Werner House - Residential Home, Zehlendorf (1913)
  • Urbig House - Residential Home, Potsdam (1917)
  • Kempner House - Residential Home, Charlottenburg (1922)
  • Eichstaedt House - Residential Home, Wannsee (1922)
  • Feldmann House - Residential Home, Wilmersdorf (1922)
  • Mosler House - Residential Home, Babelsberg (1926)
  • Weissenhof Apartments - Residential Apartments, Stuttgart
  • H. Lange House - Residential Home, Krefeld
  • New National Gallery - Modern Art Museum, Berlin
  • Auf dem Hügel - Essen

Mexico Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Location of Charlottenburg in Berlin Charlottenburg palace Charlottenburg is an area of Berlin within the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... Map of Berlin-Wannsee The Wannsee is both a locality in the southwestern Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, in Germany, and a linked pair of lakes adjoining the locality. ... Wilmersdorf is an area of Berlin, formerly a borough but since 2001 part of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... Castle of Babelsberg with the river Havel as one part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Observatory on the Babelsberg UEFA Womens Cup final Potsdam-Babelsberg or short Babelsberg is the largest district of the city of Potsdam, Germany today. ... , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Neue Nationalgalerie exterior Neue Nationalgalerie is a museum for classical modern art in Berlin, with main focus on early the 20th century. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...

  • Bacardi Office Building - Office Building, Mexico City

Spain Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...

United States The reconstructed Barcelona Pavilion The Barcelona Pavilion, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was the German Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...

Caroline Weiss Law Building, Museum of Fine Art, Houston - Art Museum 1954 American Life Building - Louisville, Kentucky Furniture This article is about the main public library of Washington, D.C. For others, see Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... IBM Plaza skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois designed by famed architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe . ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... 860–880 Lake Shore Drive 860–880 Lake Shore Drive is a twin pair of glass-and-steel apartment towers on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... S. R. Crown Hall, designed by the German-born Modernist architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is the home of the College of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... The Farnsworth House, designed and constructed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe between 1945-51, is a one-room weekend retreat in a once-rural setting, located 55 miles southwest of Chicagos downtown on a 60 acre estate site adjoining the Fox River (Illinois) south of the city of... Plano is a city in Kendall County, Illinois, United States. ... The Everett McKinley Dirksen Federal Courthouse is a skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... Flamingo by Alexander Calder The Kluczynski Federal Building is a skyscraper in downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... The Highfield House is located at the southwest corner of Highfield Road and Charles Street in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ... The Lafayette Park development is a large park and complex of apartment buildings just east of downtown Detroit, Michigan. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: , Country State County Wayne County Founded 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (D) Area  - City  143. ...

// The Barcelona Lounge Chair is a classic of 20th century modernist furniture design by architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and his partner Lilly Reich. ...

References

  1. ^ a b "Mies van der Rohe Dies at 83; Leader of Modern Architecture", New York Times, August 19, 1969. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Mies van der Rohe, one of the great figures of 20th-century architecture, died in Wesley Memorial Hospital here late last night. He was 83 years old.” 

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Dennis Sharp, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Architects and Architecture, New York: Quatro Publishing, 1991, ISBN 0-8230-2539-X. NA40.I45. p109.
  • Franz Schulze, "Mies van der Rohe, a Critical Biography", The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1985, ISBN 0-226-74059-5

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2263 words)
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is considered one of the masters of modern architecture.
Mies was chosen by the daughter of the client, Phyllis Bronfman Lambert, who has become a noted architectural figure and patron in her own right.
Mies van der Rohe is buried in Uptown's Graceland Cemetery.
bauhaus-archiv museum of design - bauhaus 1919 - 1933 - architecture - mies van der rohe (439 words)
The appointment of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe as director of the Bauhaus was programmatic: It was expected of him to reconcile Bauhaus patrons with the institution, to continue with the reforms introduced by Meyer, and, with the help of his outstanding artistic personality, to present a new Bauhaus image, particularly in architecture.
Mies avoided organizing the life of the inhabitants of his houses right until the last detail so as to minimize the inside surface of the apartments; he created incomparably qualitative spaces in which spatial freedom could be experienced.
Mies' architecture was very attractive to students who had concluded their technical education in building and wished to further their aesthetic studies with him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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