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Encyclopedia > Ludwig Büchner

Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Büchner ( 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 22 - Ashantis crush British forces in the Gold Coast Cimetière du Montparnasse established The Dutch sign the Masang Agreement temporarily ending hostilities in the Padri War March 17 signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty... 1824- 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January January 1 - End of Spanish rule in Cuba. January 1 - Queens and Staten Island merge with New York City. January 3 - The first known use of the word automobile, in an editorial in the New York... 1899) was a German A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. The word, philosopher, literally means lover of wisdom. Popular Western philosophers in (approximate) historical order Not listed above: (some of) The Presocratics -- Epicurus place after Aristotle --Hellenistic Philosophers -- Cicero -- Avicenna -- Sir Thomas Browne -- Francis Bacon -- Thomas Reid... philosopher, Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what... physiologist and The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. A physician is a person who practices medicine. In the United States the term physician is traditional and commonly used. In Britain and Australia, the term doctor is more common as physician... physician who became one of exponents of Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. For usage related to the prioritization of spending resources, see economic materialism. In one view, materialism expresses the view that the only thing that exists is matter; that all particulars are materially constituted. It is best understood in... scientific materialism.


Büchner was born at Map of Germany showing Darmstadt Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hessen in Germany. Its population is estimated (2003) at 137,900. The city is located to the south of the conjoined metropolitan areas of Frankfurt and Wiesbaden. History Darmstadt was first mentioned towards the end... Darmstadt, The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany, on March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). There are 277 days remaining. Events up to 19th century 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Edward IV of England. 1638 - Swedish... March 29, 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 22 - Ashantis crush British forces in the Gold Coast Cimetière du Montparnasse established The Dutch sign the Masang Agreement temporarily ending hostilities in the Padri War March 17 signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty... 1824. From 1842 to 1848 he studied Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), Nature) is the science of Nature in the broadest sense. Physicists study the behavior and properties of matter in a wide variety of contexts, ranging from the sub-microscopic particles... physics, -1... chemistry, Botany is the scientific study of plant life. As a branch of biology, it is also sometimes referred to as plant science(s) or plant biology. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, and evolution of plants. Nearly all the food... botany, Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Studies also include the processes of mineral creation and destruction. The International Mineralogical Association is an organization whose members are organizations representing mineralogists in individual countries. Its activities include managing naming of... mineralogy, Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. It, therefore, requires a meta-philosophy to adjudicate. Although it can be conceded that philosophy aims at some kind of understanding, knowledge or wisdom about fundamental matters such... philosophy and See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. This article is about medical practice. Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with restoring and maintaining health. Broadly, it is the practical science of preventing and curing diseases. However, medicine often refers more specifically to... medicine at the The University of Gießen (Giessen), officially called Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen after its most famous member, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertilizer. The University of Gießen was founded in 1607 as a Lutheran university in the city of Gießen in... University of Giessen, where he graduated in 1848 with a dissertation entitled Beiträge zur Hall'schen Lehre von einem excitomotorischen Nervensystem (Contributions to the Hallerian Theory of a Excitomotor Nervous System). Afterwards. he continued his studies at the University of Strasbourg townscape Strasbourg (German Straßburg, road to castle, Alsatian Strossburi) is the capital and principal city of the Alsace région of northeastern France. It is the préfecture (capital) of the Bas-Rhin département. Population: 250,000. Population of the metropolitan area (in French: agglomération) at... Strassburg, University of Würzburg (where he studied Pathology (in ancient Greek pathos = pain/pation and logos = word) is the study of diseases. It is a form of science and a branch of medicine that involves testing samples and diagnosing physical health problems from their evidence. Pathologists are skilled in interpreting test results and physical evidence. See also... pathology with the great Dr. R.L.K. Virchow Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (October 13, 1821, in Schivelbein, Pomerania - September 5, 1902, in Berlin) was a German doctor, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, and politician. He is credited as the first to recognize leukemia. Virchow studied medicine in Berlin at the military academy of Prussia, where... Rudolf Virchow) and at the The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) was founded in 1365 by Rudolph IV and hence named Alma mater Rudolphina. It is the second oldest German speaking university. The University of Prague was founded in 1348, the university of Heidelberg in 1386. To distinguish it from other Viennese universities... University of Vienna. In 1852 he became lecturer in See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. This article is about medical practice. Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with restoring and maintaining health. Broadly, it is the practical science of preventing and curing diseases. However, medicine often refers more specifically to... medicine at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen) is a state-supported university. It is located on the Neckar river, in Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was founded in 1477 by Count Eberhard VI (Eberhard in the Beard... University of Tübingen, where he published his great work Kraft und Stoff: Empirisch-naturphilosophische Studien (Force and Matter: Empiricophilosophical Studies, 1855). In this work, the product, according to Lange, of a fanatical enthusiasm for humanity, he sought to demonstrate the indestructibility of Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. One [contemporary] view on matter takes it as all scientifically observable entities whatsoever. Matter can more accurately be defined as the energy that has a low vibratory rate, a compressed energy state. Commonly, the definition is limited to such entities explored... matter and In physics, a net force acting on a body causes that body to accelerate; that is, to change its velocity. The concept appeared first in the second law of motion of classical mechanics. It is usually expressed by the equation F = m · a where F is the force, measured in... force, and the finality of physical force. The extreme This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. For usage related to the prioritization of spending resources, see economic materialism. In one view, materialism expresses the view that the only thing that exists is matter; that all particulars are materially constituted. It is best understood in... materialism of this work excited so much opposition that he was compelled to give up his post at Tübingen. He retired to Map of Germany showing Darmstadt Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hessen in Germany. Its population is estimated (2003) at 137,900. The city is located to the south of the conjoined metropolitan areas of Frankfurt and Wiesbaden. History Darmstadt was first mentioned towards the end... Darmstadt, where he practiced as a physician and contributed regularly to pathological and physiological magazines.


He continued his philosophical work in defence of materialism, and published Natur und Geist (Nature and Soul, 1857), Aus Natur und Wissenschaft (From Nature and Science, vol. I., 1862; vol. II., 1884), Der Fortschritt in Natur und Geschichte im Lichte der Darwinschen Theorie (Progress in Nature and History in the Light of the Darwinian Theory, 1884), Tatsachen und Theorien aus dem naturwissenschaftlichen Leben der Gegenwart (Facts and Theories from the Scientific Life of Present, 1887), Fremdes und Eigenes aus dem geistligen Leben der Gegenwart (Extraneous and Self from the Spiritual Life of Present, 1890), Darwinismus und Socialismus (1894), Im Dienste der Wahrzeit (In the Service of Truth, 1899).


Ludwig Büchner's materialism was the founding ground for the Freethought is a characteristic of individuals whose opinions are formed on the basis of an understanding and rejection of tradition, authority or established belief. This definition as for example is applicable to thought based on rejection of religious dogma. Freethinkers tend to form opinions primarily using facts and reason. The... freethinkers' movement in Germany. In Events January - April January 16-24 ? Siege of Geok Tepe ? Russian troops under general Skobeleff defeat Turkomans January 25 - Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company February 5 - Phoenix, Arizona is incorporated. February 13 - First issue of the feminist newspaper La Citoyenne is published... 1881 he founded in Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. Situated on the Main river, it has a population of approximately 650,000 (but about 5 million in its metropolitan area). Among English speakers... Frankfurt the "Deutsche Freidenkerbund" (German Freethinkers League), where the first Atheism is the state either of being without theistic beliefs, or of actively disbelieving in the existence of deities. In antiquity, Epicureanism incorporated aspects of atheism, but it disappeared from the philosophy of the Greek and Roman traditions as Christianity gained influence. During the Age of Enlightenment, the concept of... atheists got publicly together in that country.


He died at Darmstadt on May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). There are 244 days remaining. Events 300-1899 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as... May 1st, 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January January 1 - End of Spanish rule in Cuba. January 1 - Queens and Staten Island merge with New York City. January 3 - The first known use of the word automobile, in an editorial in the New York... 1899.


In estimating Büchner's philosophy it must be remembered that he was primarily a Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what... physiologist, not a Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy, and related to the natural sciences, like physics, psychology and the biology of the brain; and also to mysticism, religion, and other spiritual subjects. It is notoriously difficult to define, but for purposes of briefly introducing... metaphysician. Matter and force (or Energy is a fundamental quantity that every physical system possesses; it allows us to predict how much work the system could be made to do, or how much heat it can exchange. In the past, energy was discussed in terms of easily observable effects it has on the properties of... energy) are Infinity is a word carrying a number of different meanings in mathematics, philosophy, theology and everyday life. Popular usage is often not in accordance with the terms more technical meanings. In theology, for instance in the work of Duns Scotus, the infinity of God carries the sense not so... infinite; the Conservation of energy (the first law of thermodynamics) is one of several conservation laws. It states that the total inflow of energy into a system must equal the total outflow of energy from the system, plus the change in the energy contained within the system. In other words, energy can... conservation of force follows from the imperishability of matter, the ultimate basis of all science.


Büchner is not always clear in his theory of the relation between matter and force. At one time he refuses to explain it, but generally he assumes that all natural and spiritual forces are indwelling in matter. Just as a A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, converting it to mechanical work. Steam engines were used in pumps, locomotive trains and steam ships, and were essential to the Industrial Revolution. They are still used for electrical power... steam engine, he says in Kraft und Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), produces This article is about motion in physics. See also motion (legal), motion (democracy) and Apple Motion. In physics, motion means a change in the position of a body with respect to time, as measured by a particular observer in a particular frame of reference. Until the end of the 19th... motion, so the intricate Organic has several meanings and related topics. Its original meaning is Part of or derived from living matter. It can be related to, or derived from living organisms: organic matter. It can mean, relating to, or affecting a bodily organ: an organic disease. In farming or gardening, organic can refer... organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a Unity is oneness. The word unity is used in a variety of ways: In mathematics, unity refers to the number one. This also extends to electrical engineering, particularly to audio (see unity gain). Expressed in decibels, unity is 0dB. Unity is the name of the belief system held by the... unity, are called by us The mind is the term most commonly used to describe the higher functions of the human brain, particularly those of which humans are subjectively conscious, such as personality, thought, reason, memory, intelligence and emotion. Although other species of animals share some of these mental capacities, the term is usually used... mind, This page is about the core essence of a being. For the music genre, see soul music; for the chief city of South Korea see Seoul. The soul, in several philosophical movements and many religious traditions, is the core principle of life. Some traditions considered it immortal; others mortal. In... soul, Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. Concepts akin to thought are sentience, consciousness, idea and imagination. Thinking involves manipulation of information, as when we form concepts, engage... thought. Here he postulates force and mind as emanating from original matter, a materialistic Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. Monism is to be distinguished from dualism, which holds that ultimately there are two kinds of substance, and from pluralism, which holds that ultimately there are many kinds of substance. Monism is often seen in... monism. But in other parts of his works he suggests that mind and matter are two different aspects of that which is the basis of all things a monism which is not necessarily materialistic, and which, in the absence of further explanation, constitutes a confession of failure.


Büchner was much less concerned to establish a scientific metaphysics than to protest against the romantic In philosophy, idealism is any theory positing the primacy of spirit, mind, or language over matter. It includes claiming that thought has some crucial role in making the world the way it is--that thought and the world are made for one another, or that they make one another. (For... idealism of his predecessors and the Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. History of the term The term theologia is used in Classical Greek literature, with the meaning... theological Cosmology is the study of the large-scale structure and history of the universe. In particular, it deals with subjects regarding its origin and evolution. It is studied by Astronomy, Philosophy, and Religion. See also cosmogony. Subjects in cosmology include: Physical cosmology The Big Bang The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson... interpretations of the universe. For alternative meanings, see nature (disambiguation). The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF team. The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Aphthona flava flea beetle... Nature according to him is purely physical; it has Teleology is the philosophical study of purpose (from the Greek teleos, perfect, complete, which in turn comes from telos, end, result). One of the classic arguments for the existence of God is the teleological argument, which says that the world (and particularly living things) has clearly been constructed in a... no purpose, no will, no laws imposed by extraneous In politics, authority generally refers to the ability to make laws, independent of the power to enforce them, or the ability to permit something. People obey authority out of respect, while they obey power out of fear. For example, the congress has the authority to pass laws vs the police... authority, no The supernatural refers to conscious magical, religious or unknown forces that cannot ordinarily be perceived except through their effects. This word is often used interchangeably with preternatural or paranormal. Unlike natural forces, these putative supernatural forces can not be shown to exist by the scientific method. Supernatural claims assert phenomena... supernatural Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. This is one part of value theory (axiology) – the other part is... ethical sanction.


Friedrich Büchner was the brother of Georg Büchner, a famous A playwright is an author of plays for performance in the theater. The earliest playwrights with surviving works are a group of playwrights from Greece during the 5th century BC, notably Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes. The term dramatist is sometimes synonymous with playwright, but often is not meant to... playwright.


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This article incorporates text from the The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. (Proprietary interest is typically represented by a copyright or patent.) Such works and inventions are considered part of... public domain The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. The edition is still often regarded as the greatest edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, with many articles being up to 10 times the length of... 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.


 
 

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