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Encyclopedia > Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Tarquinius Priscus and son-in-law of Servius Tullius, the sixth king. He was of Etruscan descent and ruled between 535 BC and 510 BC, in the years immediately before his expulsion and the founding of the Roman Republic. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I) was the legendary fifth King of Rome, said to have reigned from 616 BC to 579 BC. According to Livy, Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii and was originally named Lucumo (it is now thought that... Servius Tullius was the sixth legendary king of ancient Rome, and the second king of the Etruscan dynasty. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ...

Contents

Early life

Some early stories tell us that Tarquin seized power over Latium after the brutal death of Servius Tullius. It has been said that Tarquin was upset that he did not inherit the throne from his father, and also that his predecessor, Servius Tullius, was the son of a slave. Other stories argue that Tarquin's wife was central in the planning and eventual death of her father, the king. It is apparent that both were involved in the shaming and removing of Tullius from his position. Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


After the removal of Servius Tullius, Tarquin, with his wife's help, summoned the Senate and proclaimed himself to be king of Rome. The new king (or his wife) had assassins complete the coup by murdering Tullius. After which, it is said that Tarquin's wife came across her father's body and continually ran over it with her chariot. To further his grip on power, Tarquin orchestrated the murders of key senators who supported Tullius and proceeded at once to repeal the recent reforms in the constitution, seeking to establish a pure despotism in their place. Wars were waged with the Latins and Etruscans, but the lower classes were deprived of their arms and employed in erecting monuments of regal magnificence (and some important public works, such as the Cloaca Maxima), while the sovereign recruited his armies from his own retainers and from the forces of foreign allies. For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... For the album by CMX, see Cloaca Maxima (album). ...


Reign

Tarquinius Superbus has the Sibylline Books valued.
Tarquinius Superbus has the Sibylline Books valued.

When king Tarquin was approached by the Cumaean Sibyl, she offered him nine books of prophecy at an exorbitant price. Michelangelos rendering of the Cumaean Sibyl The Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, Italy. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ...


Tarquin refused abruptly, and the Sibyl proceeded to burn three of the nine. She then offered him the remaining books, but at the same price. Tarquin hesitated, but refused again. The Sibyl then burned three more books and again offered Tarquin the three remaining Sibylline Books at the original price. At last Tarquin accepted. The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ...


The three books were consulted at many portentous moments in later Roman history, though they were edited and changed many times to agree with the appropriate epoch of Roman history. For example, when Hannibal decimated the Roman Legions at the Battle of Cannae, the books were consulted and recommended that two Gauls and two Greeks be buried alive in the city's marketplace. The magistrates duly followed the advice, showing a traditional willingness to commit atrocities to ensure the well-being of their nation. Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ... Legion redirects here. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Tarquin's authority over the city was confirmed by three actions:

  1. his leveling of the top of the Tarpeian Rock that overlooked the Forum and the removal of its ancient Sabine shrines
  2. the completion of the fortress temple to Jupiter on the nearby Capitoline Hill
  3. the fortunate marriage of his son to the daughter of Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, an alliance that secured him powerful assistance in the field

The Tarpeian Rock (rupes Tarpeia) was a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill, overlooking the Roman Forum in Ancient Rome. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ... The Rape of the Sabine Women by Giambologna The tribe of the Sabines (Latin Sabini - singular Sabinus) was an Italic tribe of ancient Italy. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... Tusculum, an ancient city of Latium, situated in a commanding position on the north edge of the outer crater ring of the Alban volcano, 18 km (11 miles) north-east of the modern Frascati. ...

Deposition

Tarquin's reign was characterised by bloodshed and violence; his son Sextus Tarquinius' rape of Lucretia laid the seeds for the revolt, led by Lucretia's kinsman Lucius Junius Brutus (himself a member of the Tarquin dynasty) and Lucretia's widowed husband. The uprising resulted in the expulsion of most of the royal family, after Tarquin had reigned for twenty-five years, and Brutus became one of the first consuls of the Roman Republic. Sextus Tarquinius was the son of the last legendary king of Rome, L. Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). ... Death of Lucretia by Sandro Botticelli Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the founder of the Roman Republic . ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ...


After his exile, Tarquin attempted to gain the support of other Etruscan and Latin kings, claiming that the republicanism would spread beyond Rome. Even though the powerful Etruscan lord Lars Porsenna of Clusium (modern Chiusi) backed Tarquin's return, all efforts to force his way back to the throne were in vain. Tarquin died in exile at Cumae in Campania in 496 BC. Tarquin's death ended the time of the Kings; the Roman people would no longer trust sole power in one ruler and so a Republic was formed. Lars Porsena (sometimes spelled Lars Porsenna) was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome. ... Chiusi (Latin: Clusium; Etruscan: Clevsin; Umbrian: Camars) is a town and comune in Siena province, Tuscany. ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ...


Cultural references

  • Lucius Tarquinius appears as the villain in Shakespeare's narrative poem, The Rape of Lucrece (1593-4). Macbeth also mentions Tarquin in his famous dagger soliloquy (2.1.55).
  • A quote concerning Tarquinius and a message delivered to his son appears in the beginning of Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling.
  • According to Livy, Tarqinius cut off the heads of the tallest poppies in his garden as an allegory to instruct his son Sextus Tarquinius to pacify a recently-conquered enemy city by executing its leading citizens. This leads to the modern expression of "Tall Poppy Syndrome" to describe the phenomenon of tearing down individuals who rise too far above the majority.
  • A sketch from Monty Python's Flying Circus concerns a political candidate named Tarquin Fin-tim-lin-bin-whin-bim-lim-bus-stop-F'tang-F'tang-Olé-Biscuitbarrel. The same name was later assumed by one John Lewis in a 1981 parliamentary election held in Britain.
  • Patrick Henry refers to Tarquin in his famous speech ending, "If this be treason, then make the most of it."
  • In Robert Ludlum's "Ambler Warning," Tarquin is the field alias of the protagonist Hal Ambler.
Preceded by
Servius Tullius
King of Rome
535510/09
Succeeded by
Position abolished

The Earl of Southampton, painted in 1594, aged 21, the year that Shakespeare dedicated The Rape of Lucrece to him The narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece is the graver work promised by English dramatist-poet William Shakespeare in his dedication to his patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Fear and Trembling Fear and Trembling (original Danish title: Frygt og Bæven) is a philosophical work by Søren Kierkegaard, published in 1843 under the pseudonym Johannes de Silentio. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Tall poppy syndrome (TPS) is a pejorative term used in Australia and New Zealand to describe what is seen as a levelling social attitude. ... This article is about the television series. ... Tarquin Fin-tim-lin-bin-whin-bim-lim-bus-stop-Ftang-Ftang-Olé-Biscuitbarrel was the name of a candidate for the British parliament in 1981. ... Servius Tullius was the sixth legendary king of ancient Rome, and the second king of the Etruscan dynasty. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created...

Footnotes

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC Events and Trends Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria 719 BC - Zhou Huan Wang of the... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC Events and Trends Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria 719 BC - Zhou Huan Wang of the... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC Events and Trends 677 BC - Death of Zhou li wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Domus Tullus Hostilius (r. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC Events and Trends 677 BC - Death of Zhou li wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Ancus Marcius (r. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang... Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I) was the legendary fifth King of Rome, said to have reigned from 616 BC to 579 BC. According to Livy, Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii and was originally named Lucumo (it is now thought that... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC Events and Trends 579 BC - Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as king of Rome. ... Servius Tullius was the sixth legendary king of ancient Rome, and the second king of the Etruscan dynasty. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC Events and Trends 579 BC - Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as king of Rome. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus - Wikipedia (610 words)
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (of Tarquinius II de Hoogmoedige) was volgens de oud-Romeinse overlevering de zevende en laatste koning van Rome (534 - 509 v.
Tarquinius stelde intussen alles in het werk om zijn troon te heroveren, en nam in het geheim contact op met zijn aanhangers in de stad.
Tarquinius, die in de strijd zijn zoon Sextus had zien sneuvelen, gaf de strijd op en vluchtte naar Cumae, waar hij later overleed.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus - Wikipedia (413 words)
Tarquinius Superbus gehört zu den drei etruskischen Königen in Rom, deren Geschichtlichkeit heute kaum noch angezweifelt wird.
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