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Encyclopedia > Luciano Berio

Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. He is noted for his experimental work (in particular his 1968 composition Sinfonia for voices and orchestra) and also for his pioneering work in electronic music. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Experimental music is any music that challenges the commonly accepted notions of what music is. ... See also: 1967 in music, other events of 1968, 1969 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // January 4 - Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is jailed by Stockholm police, after trashing a hotel room during a drunken fist fight with bassist Noel Redding. ... Musical composition is: an original piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A musical composition A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance... A philharmonic orchestra An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually a fairly large instrumental ensemble with string, brass, woodwind sections, and possibly a percussion section as well. ... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ...

Contents

Biography

Berio was born in Oneglia (now Borgo d'Oneglia, a small village 3 km N of Imperia). He was taught the piano by his father and grandfather who were both organists. During World War II he was conscripted into the army, but on his first day he injured his hand while learning how a gun worked. He spent time in a military hospital, before fleeing to fight in anti-Nazi groups. Oneglia was a town on the Ligurian seaside (north Italy) that united to Porto Maurizio formed the city of Imperia. ... Imperia is a city and comune in the region of Liguria, Italy. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan The organ is a keyboard instrument with one or more manuals, and usually a pedalboard. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... A gun is a common name given to a device that fires high-velocity projectiles. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Following the war, Berio studied at the Milan Conservatory under Giulio Cesare Paribeni and Giorgio Federico Ghedini. He was unable to continue studying the piano because of his injured hand, so instead concentrated on composition. In 1947 came the first public performance of one of his works, a suite for piano. Milano redirects here. ... Giorgio Federico Ghedini (Cuneo, July 11, 1892 - Nervi, March 25, 1965) was an Italian composer. ... It has been suggested that Suite_de_Danses be merged into this article or section. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ...


Berio made a living at this time accompanying singing classes, and it was in doing this that he met American mezzo-soprano Cathy Berberian, whom he married shortly after graduating (they divorced in 1964). Berio would write many pieces exploiting her versatile and unique voice. A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... Cathy Berberian (Attleboro, Massachusetts, July 4, 1928 - Rome, Italy, March 6, 1983) was a composer, mezzo-soprano singer, and vocalist. ...


In 1951, Berio went to the United States to study with Luigi Dallapiccola at Tanglewood, from whom he gained an interest in serialism. He later attended the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik at Darmstadt, meeting Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Eckhard Unruh, György Ligeti and Mauricio Kagel there. He became interested in electronic music, co-founding the Studio di Fonologia, an electronic music studio in Milan, with Bruno Maderna in 1955. He invited a number of significant composers to work there, among them Henri Pousseur and John Cage. He also produced an electronic music periodical, Incontri Musicali. Luigi Dallapiccola (February 3, 1904 – February 19, 1975) was an Italian composer known for his lyrical twelve-tone compositions. ... Tanglewood Music Shed and lawn. ... Serialism is a technique for composing music that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the composer manipulations of those sets to create music. ... Initiated in 1946 by Wolfgang Steinecke, the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik (Darmstadt new music summer courses), held annually until 1970 and subsequently every two years, encompass both the teaching of composition and interpretation and include premières of new works. ... Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hessen in Germany. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century. ... Eckhard Rabindranath Unruh was a German-American composer, born in Calcutta, India on Nov. ... György Sándor Ligeti (May 28, 1923 – June 12, 2006) was a Jewish Hungarian composer born in Romania who later became an Austrian citizen. ... Mauricio Kagel (born Buenos Aires, December 24, 1931) is an Argentine composer who has lived in Germany for most of his career. ... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ... Bruno Maderna (1920-1973) was an Italian composer of 20th century music. ... Henri Pousseur (Composer Born 1929) Studied at the Academies of Music in Liège and in Brussels. ... John Cage For the character of John Cage from the TV show Ally McBeal see: John Cage (Character) John Milton Cage (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American experimental music composer, writer and visual artist. ...


In 1960, Berio returned to Tanglewood, this time as Composer in Residence, and in 1962, on an invitation from Darius Milhaud, took a teaching post at Mills College in Oakland, California. In 1965 he began to teach at the Juilliard School, and there he founded the Juilliard Ensemble, a group dedicated to performances of contemporary music. Also in 1965, he again married, this time to the noted philosopher of science Susan Oyama (they divorced in 1971). His students include Louis Andriessen, Steve Reich, Luca Francesconi and, perhaps most surprisingly, Phil Lesh of the Grateful Dead. Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Mills College is a liberal arts womens college in Oakland, California. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is the eighth-largest city in California[1] and the county seat of Alameda County. ... The Juilliard School is recognized as one of the best performing arts conservatories in the world. ... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... Louis Andriessen (born June 6, 1939) is a Dutch composer, son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981) and brother of composer Jurriaan Andriessen (1925-1996). ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Phillip Chapman Lesh (born March 15, 1940 in Berkeley, California) is a musician and founding member of the rock band, Grateful Dead; he played bass guitar in that group throughout their entire 30-year career. ... The Grateful Dead were an American psychedelia-influenced rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco. ...


All this time Berio had been steadily composing and building a reputation, winning the Italian Prize in 1966 for Laborintus II. His reputation was cemented when his Sinfonia was premiered in 1968.


In 1972, Berio returned to Italy. From 1974 to 1980 he acted as director of the electro-acoustic division of IRCAM in Paris, and in 1977 he married for the third time with musicologist Talia Pecker. In 1987 he opened Tempo Reale in Florence, a centre similar in intent to IRCAM. The IRCAM, Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique, was founded in the 1970s by Pierre Boulez. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Florences skyline Florences skyline at night from Piazza Michaelangelo Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... The IRCAM, Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique, was founded in the 1970s by Pierre Boulez. ...


In 1994 he became Distinguished Composer in Residence at Harvard University, remaining there until 2000. He was also active as a conductor and continued to compose to the end of his life. In 2000, he became Presidente and Sovrintendente at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. Luciano Berio died in 2003 in a hospital in Rome. Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in a musical academy and symphonic organization based in Rome, Italy. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi...


Berio's music

See also: List of compositions by Luciano Berio

Berio's electronic work dates for the most part from his time at Milan's Studio di Fonologia. One of the most influential works he produced there was Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) (1958), based on Cathy Berberian reading from James Joyce's Ulysses. A later work, Visage (1961) sees Berio creating a wordless emotional language by cutting up and rearranging a recording of Cathy Berberian's voice. A list of works by the Italian composer Luciano Berio Pastorale for piano (1937) Toccata for piano (1939) Preludio a una festa marina for string orchestra (1944) Lannunciazione for soprano and chamber orchestra (1946) Due cori popolari for chorus (1946) Tre lirichi greche for voice and piano (1946) O... Cathy Berberian (Attleboro, Massachusetts, July 4, 1928 - Rome, Italy, March 6, 1983) was a composer, mezzo-soprano singer, and vocalist. ... James Joyce James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Seamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Ulysses is a 1922 novel by James Joyce, first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from 1918 to 1920, and published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Cathy Berberian (Attleboro, Massachusetts, July 4, 1928 - Rome, Italy, March 6, 1983) was a composer, mezzo-soprano singer, and vocalist. ...


In 1968, Berio completed O King a work which exists in two versions: one for voice, flute, clarinet, violin, cello and piano, the other for eight voices and orchestra. The piece is in memory of Martin Luther King, who had been assassinated shortly before its composition. In it, the voice(s) intones first the vowels, and then the consonants which make up his name, only stringing them together to give his name in full in the final bars. The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as the ch in cheese), is a stringed instrument and a member of the violin family. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... A philharmonic orchestra An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually a fairly large instrumental ensemble with string, brass, woodwind sections, and possibly a percussion section as well. ... The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr, Ph. ...


The orchestral version of O King was, shortly after its completion, integrated into what is perhaps Berio's most famous work, Sinfonia (1968-69), for orchestra and eight amplified voices. The voices are not used in a traditional classical way; they frequently do not sing at all, but speak, whisper and shout words by Claude Lévi-Strauss (whose Le cru et le cuit provides much of the text), Samuel Beckett (from his novel The Unnamable), instructions from the scores of Gustav Mahler and other writings. Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... The Unnamable is a short story written by science fiction/fantasy author Howard Phillips Lovecraft in 1925. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ...


In the third movement of the piece Berio takes the third movement from Mahler's Symphony No. 2 and has the orchestra play a slightly cut-up and re-shuffled version of it. At the same time, the voices recite texts from various sources, and the orchestra plays snatches of Claude Debussy's La Mer, Maurice Ravel's La Valse, Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, as well as quotations from Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and many others, creating a dense collage, occasionally to humorous effect; when one of the reciters says "I have a present for you", the orchestra follows immediately with a fragment from Don (French for "gift"), the first movement from Pli selon pli by Pierre Boulez. The Symphony No. ... Achille-Claude Debussy (IPA ) (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a French composer. ... La Mer is an orchestral composition by the French composer Claude Debussy. ... Joseph-Maurice Ravel (March 7, 1875 – December 28, 1937) was a French 20th century composer and pianist, known especially for the subtlety, richness and poignancy of his music. ... External links Maurice Ravels La Valse An analysis and history of Maurice Ravels La Valse Category: ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer who first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Serge Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilevs Ballets Russes (Russian Ballet): LOiseau de feu (The Firebird) (1910), Petrushka (1911... The Rite of Spring (French: Le Sacre du printemps; Russian: Весна священная, Vesna svjaščennaja) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. ... Schoenberg redirects here. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Collage (From the French: , to stick) is regarded as a work of visual arts made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. ... Pli selon pli (Fold by fold) is a piece of classical music by the French composer Pierre Boulez. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ...


The result is a narrative with the usual tension and release of classical music, but using a completely different language. The actual chords and melodies at any one time do not seem as important as the fact that we are hearing such and such a part of Mahler, a particular bit of Alban Berg and certain words by Beckett. Because of this, the movement is seen as one of the first examples of Postmodern music. It has also been described as a deconstruction of Mahler's Second Symphony, just as Visage was a deconstruction of Berberian's voice. Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Portrait of Alban Berg by Arnold Schoenberg, c. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... In contemporary philosophy and social sciences, the term deconstruction denotes a process by which the texts and languages of (particularly) Western philosophy appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions they suggest about and absences they reveal within themselves. ...


A-Ronne (1974) is similarly collaged, but with the focus more squarely on the voice. It was originally written as a radio program for five actors, and reworked in 1975 for eight vocalists and an optional keyboard part. The work is one of a number of collaborations with the poet Edoardo Sanguineti, who for this piece provided a text full of quotations from sources including the Bible, T. S. Eliot and Karl Marx. The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888–January 4, 1965) was a poet, dramatist and literary critic, whose works, such as The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, and Four Quartets, are considered defining achievements of twentieth century Modernist poetry. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


Another example of the influence of Sanguineti is the large work Coro, scored for orchestra, solo voices, and a large choir, whose members are paired with instruments of the orchestra. The work extends over roughly an hour, and explores a number of themes within a framework of folk music from a variety of regions; Chile, North America, Africa. Recurrent themes are the expression of love and passion; the pain of being parted from loved ones; death of a wife or husband. A line repeated often is "come and see the blood on the streets", a reference to a poem by Pablo Neruda, written in the context of savage events in Latin America under various military regimes. Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the pen name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ...


Sequenza

Berio also produced work which does not quote the work of others at all. Perhaps best known among these is his series of works for solo instruments under the name Sequenza. The first, Sequenza I came in 1958 and is for flute; the last, Sequenza XIV (2002) is for cello. These works explore the possibilities of each instrument to the full, often calling for extended techniques. Sequenza is the name borne by several pieces of music for solo instruments by Luciano Berio. ... Sequenza I was first published by Suvini-Zerboni. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as the ch in cheese), is a stringed instrument and a member of the violin family. ...


The various Sequenza are as follows;

  • Sequenza I for flute (1958);
  • Sequenza II for harp (1963);
  • Sequenza III for woman's voice (1965);
  • Sequenza IV for piano (1966);
  • Sequenza V for trombone (1965);
  • Sequenza VI for viola (1967);
  • Sequenza VII for oboe (1969);
  • Sequenza VIII for violin (1976);
  • Sequenza IX for clarinet (1980);
  • Sequenza X for trumpet in C and piano resonance (1984);
  • Sequenza XI for guitar (1987-88);
  • Sequenza XII for bassoon (1995);
  • Sequenza XIII for accordion "Chanson" (1995);
  • Sequenza XIV for violoncello (2002).

Sequenza XI for solo Guitar (1987-1988) is one of a series of Sequenzas by Luciano Berio. ... Sequenza XII was written by Luciano Berio in 1995. ...

Transcriptions and arrangements

Berio is known for adapting and transforming the music of others, but he also adapted his own compositions: the series of Sequenze gave rise to a series of works called Chemins each based on one of the Sequenze. Chemins II (1967), for instance, takes the original Sequenza VI (1967) for viola and adapts it for solo viola and nine other instruments. Chemins II was itself transformed into Chemins III (1968) by the addition of an orchestra, and there also exists Chemins IIb, a version of Chemins II without the solo viola but with a larger ensemble, and Chemins IIc, which is Chemins IIb with an added solo bass clarinet. The Sequenze were also shaped into new works under titles other than Chemins; Corale (1981), for example, is based on Sequenza VIII. The viola (in French, alto; in German Bratsche) is a string instrument played with a bow which serves as the middle voice of the violin family, between the upper lines played by the violin and the lower lines played by the cello and double bass. ... The viola (in French, alto; in German Bratsche) is a string instrument played with a bow which serves as the middle voice of the violin family, between the upper lines played by the violin and the lower lines played by the cello and double bass. ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ...


As well as original works, Berio made a number of arrangements of works by other composers, among them Claudio Monteverdi, Henry Purcell, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler and Kurt Weill. For Berberian he wrote Folk Songs (1964; a set of arrangements of folk songs). He also wrote an ending for Giacomo Puccini's opera Turandot (premiered in Los Angeles on May 27 2002 and in the same year in Amsterdam and Salzburg) and in Rendering (1989) took the few sketches Franz Schubert made for his Symphony No. 10, and completed them by adding music derived from other Schubert works. In music, an arrangement loosely describes rewriting a piece of pre-existing music for a specific set of instruments or voices, often in harmony or with additional original material. ... Portrait of Claudio Monteverdi in Venice, 1640, by Bernardo Strozzi. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: [1]; September 10 (?) [2], 1659–November 21, 1695), a Baroque composer, is generally considered to be one of Englands greatest composers—indeed, he has often been called Englands finest native composer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... An album of Weills music by operatic soprano Teresa Stratas… …and one by industrial music band The Young Gods. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire[1]. Some of his melodies, such as O mio babbino caro... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Original Turandot poster For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ... Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ...


In fact, transcription is a vital part of even Berio's "creative" works. In "Two Interviews," Berio muses about what a college course in transcription would look like, looking not only at Liszt, Busoni, Stravinsky, Bach, himself, and others, but to what extent composition is always self-transcription. In this respect, Berio rejects and distances himself from notions of "collage," preferring instead the position of "transcriber," arguing that "collage" implies a certain arbitrary abandon that runs counter to the careful control of his highly intellectual play, especially within Sinfonia but throughout his "deconstructive" works. Rather, each quotation carefully evokes the context of its original work, creating an open web, but an open web with highly specific referents and a vigorously defined, if self-proliferating, signifier-signified relationship. "I'm not interested in collages, and they amuse me only when I'm doing them with my children: then they become an exercise in relativizing and 'decontextualizing' images, an elementary exercise whose healthy cynicism won't do anyone any harm," Berio tells interviewer Rossana Dalmonte, in what reads like Berio attempting to distance himself from the haphazard image many more careless second-hand analysts have of him.


Perhaps Berio's most notable contribution to the world of post-WWII non-serial experimental music, running throughout most of his works, is his engagement with the broader world of critical theory (epitomized by his life-long friendship with linguist and critical theorist Umberto Eco) through his compositions. Berio's works are often analytic acts: deliberately analyzing myths, stories, the components of words themselves, his own compositions, or preexisting musical works. other works In other words, it is not only the composition of the "collage" that conveys meaning; it is the particular composition of the component "sound-image" that conveys meaning, even extra-musical meaning. The technique of the "collage," that he is associated with, is, then, less a neutral process than a conscious, Joycean process of analysis-by-composition, a form of analytic transcription of which Sinfonia and The Chemins are the most prurient examples. Berio often offers his compositions as forms of academic or cultural discourse themselves rather than as "mere" fodder for them.



Among Berio's other compositions are Circles (1960), Sequenza III (1966), and Recital I (for Cathy) (1972), all written for Berberian, and a number of stage works, with Un re in ascolto, a collaboration with Italo Calvino, the best known. Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) was an Italian writer and novelist. ...


Berio's "central instrumental focus", if such a thing exists, is probably with the voice, the piano, the flute, and the strings. He wrote many remarkable pieces for piano which vary from solo pieces to essentially concerto pieces (points on the curve to find, concerto for two pianos, and Coro, which has a strong backbone of harmonic and melodic material entirely based on the piano part).


Lesser known works make use of a very distinguishable polyphony unique to Berio that develops in a variety of ways. This occurs is several works, but most recognisably in compositions for small instrumental combinations. Examples are Differences, for flute, harp, clarinet, cello, violin and electronic sounds, Agnus, for three clarinets and voices, Tempi concertanti for flute and four instrumental groups, Linea, for marimba, Vibraphone, and two pianos, and Chemins IV, for eleven strings and oboe.


Bibliography

  • Osmond-Smith, David. 1991. Berio. Oxford studies of composers 24. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Luciano Berio
  • Obituary from the Daily Telegraph
  • Obituary from the New York Times
  • Centro Tempo Reale

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Listening

  • Luciano Berio's vocal music at the Avant Garde Project has FLAC files made from high-quality LP transcriptions available for free download.
  • Luciano Berio's instrumental music at the Avant Garde Project has FLAC files made from high-quality LP transcriptions available for free download.

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Meirion Bowen - Articles (1284 words)
Luciano Berio's encounter with the Novissimi group of avant- garde writers in the early 1960s was crucial in determining his fu- ture development as a composer.
Berio's recent description of Sanguineti's poetry might well be applied to his own music, for it too is 'replete with images of today, of stereotyped sentiments, with harsh and bitter shapes, ironic invention, parody and quotations that...
Berio's prolific (and ever prolife-rating) musical output, and his ability to communicate with the listener at many different levels, stemmed from Sanguineti as a 'polyphonic' conception of language and a multi-layered, open conception of form.
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