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Encyclopedia > Luce Irigaray

Luce Irigaray (born 1930 Belgium) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist. She is best known for her works Speculum of the Other Woman (1974) and This Sex Which Is Not One (1977). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French feminism (which is a phrase mostly used in English-speaking countries) refers to the work of a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the early 1990s. ... Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases. ... Culture theory is the branch of anthropology and other related social science disciplines (e. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

Contents

Biography

Irigaray received a Master's Degree from the University of Louvain (Leuven) in 1955. She taught in a Brussels school from 1956-1959. She moved to France in the early 1960s. In 1961 she received a Master's Degree in psychology from the University of Paris. In 1962 she received a Diploma in Psychopathology. From 1962-1964 she worked for the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) in Belgium. She then began work as a research assistant at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Catholic University of Leuven is the largest and most prominent university in Belgium. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Fund for Scientific Research (NFSR) (Dutch: NFWO, French: FNRS) is a government institution in Belgium for supporting scientific research. ... The Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) is the largest and most prominent public research organization in France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


In the 1960s Irigaray participated in Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytic seminars. She trained as and became an analyst. In 1968 she received a Doctorate in Linguistics. From 1970-1974 she taught at the University of Vincennes. At this time Irigaray was a member of the École Freudienne de Paris (EFP), a school directed by Lacan. In 1969 she analysed Antoinette Fouque, a feminist leader of the time. Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Paris VIII was founded in 1969 as a direct response to events of May 1968. ... The École Freudienne de Paris (EFP) was a French psychoanalytic professional body formed in 1963, of which Jacques Lacan was a founding member. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


Irigaray's second Doctorate thesis, "Speculum of the Other Woman," was closely followed by the termination of her employment at Vincennes University.


In the second semester of 1982, Irigaray held the chair in Philosophy at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. Research here resulted in the publication of An Ethics of Sexual Difference, establishing Irigaray as a major Continental philosopher. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Erasmus University Rotterdam is a university in the Netherlands, located in Rotterdam. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ...


Irigaray has conducted research since the 1980s at the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Paris on the difference between the language of women and the language of men. In 1986 she transferred from the Psychology Commission to the Philosophy Commission as the latter is her preferred discipline.


In December 2003, Luce Irigaray was awarded the degree of Doctor of Literature honoris causa by the University of London. From 2004-2006, Irigaray was a visiting professor in the department of Modern Languages at the University of Nottingham. As of 2007, she will be affiliated with the University of Liverpool. Honoris causa (plural: Causae) is a Latin term meaning for the sake of honor, abbreviated as . ... Website http://www. ...


Feminist conceptualizations

Irigaray is inspired by the psychoanalytic theories of Jacques Lacan and the deconstruction of Jacques Derrida. Her work exposes the masculinist ideology underlying language and gestures toward a "new" feminine language that would allow women to express themselves if it could be spoken. Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ...


Irigaray's work also challenges phallogocentrism, noting that society’s two gender categories, man and woman, are in fact just one, man, as he is made the universal referent. The centering of the masculine (phallus) in constructing meaning about or views of the world. ...


Her aim, then, is to create two equally positive and autonomous terms, and to acknowledge two sexes, not one. Following this line of thought, with Lacan’s mirror stage and Derrida’s theory of logocentrism in the background, Irigaray also criticises the favouring of unitary truth within patriarchal society. In her theory for creating a new disruptive form of feminine writing (Écriture féminine), she focuses on the child’s pre-Oedipal phase when experience and knowledge is based on bodily contact, primarily with the mother. Here lies one major interest of Irigaray's: the mother-daughter relationship, which she considers devalued in patriarchal society. In the realm of Feminist theory, Irigaray is one of the most prominent figure of French feminism, alongside Julia Kristeva, Hélène Cixous and Bracha Ettinger. Jacques Lacan Jacques Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was an influential French psychoanalyst as well as a structuralist who based much of his theories on Ferdinand de Saussures theories on language. ... Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, considered the first to develop deconstruction. Positioning Derridas thought Derrida had a significant effect on continental philosophy and on literary theory, particularly through his long-time... In critical theory and deconstruction, logocentrism is a phrase coined by the German philosopher Ludwig Klages in the 1920s to refer to the perceived tendency of Western thought to locate the center of any text or discourse within the logos (a Greek word meaning word, reason, or spirit). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... French feminism (which is a phrase mostly used in English-speaking countries) refers to the work of a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the early 1990s. ... Julia Kristeva in 2007 Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Hélène Cixous (born June 5, 1937) is a professor, French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher, literary critic and rhetorician. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ...


Criticism

There is an extensive body of literature critiquing and engaging with the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. Margaret Whitford's Luce Irigaray: Philosophy in the Feminine and her edited collection of essays Engaging With Irigaray provide a useful starting point.


Sarah Kofman, in The Enigma of Woman: Woman in Freud's Writing, contests Irigaray's reading of Freud's ideas regarding female sexuality. Sarah Kofman (September 14, 1934 - October 15, 1994) was a French philosopher, author of numerous books, particularly on Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud. ...


Bibliography

  • Speculum of the Other Woman 1974, (Eng. trans. 1985)
  • This Sex Which Is Not One 1977, (Eng. trans. 1985)
  • And the One Doesn't Stir without the Other 1979, (Eng. trans. 1981)
  • Marine Lover: Of Friedrich Nietzsche, 1980, (Eng. trans. 1980)
  • Elemental Passions 1982, (Eng. trans. 1992)
  • Belief Itself 1983
  • The Forgetting of Air: In Martin Heidegger 1983, (Eng. trans. 1999)
  • An Ethics of Sexual Difference 1984, (Eng. trans. 1993)
  • To Speak is Never Neutral 1985, (Eng. trans. 2002)
  • Sexes and Genealogies 1987, (Eng. trans. 1993)
  • Thinking the Difference: For a Peaceful Revolution 1989, (Eng. trans. 1993)
  • Je, tu, nous: Towards a Culture of Difference 1990, (Eng. trans. 1993)
  • I Love to You: Sketch for a Felicity Within History 1990, (Eng. trans. 1993)
  • Democracy Begins Between Two 1994, (Eng. trans. 2000)
  • To Be Two 1997, (Eng. trans. 2001)
  • Between East and West 1999, (Eng. trans. 2001)
  • The Way of Love 2002

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Luce Irigaray (735 words)
Luce Irigaray was born in Belguim in the 1930s.
Irigaray's second Doctorate thesis, "Speculum of the Other Woman," was closely followed by the cessation of her employment at the University of Vincennes.
Early receptions of Irigaray in the English-speaking world often mistakenly labeled her an 'essentialist.' this view is now generally considered false, as a better understanding of the complex linguistic, philosophical and psychoanalytic precepts Irigaray writes from is gained.
sociology - Luce Irigaray (295 words)
Luce Irigaray (born 1930) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist.
Luce Irigaray is inspired by the psychoanalytic theories of Jacques Lacan and the deconstructionism of Jacques Derrida.
Irigaray was criticised by Alan Sokal in Intellectual Impostures for arguing that E=mc² is a "sexed equation" (because it privileges the speed of light) and arguing that fluid mechanics has been neglected by "masculine" science because it prefers to deal with "masculine" rigid objects rather than "feminine" fluids [1].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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