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Encyclopedia > Lucas Cranach the Elder
Portrait of Lucas Cranach the Elder at age 77 by Lucas Cranach the Younger (1550), at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Portrait of Lucas Cranach the Elder at age 77 by Lucas Cranach the Younger (1550), at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1472October 16, 1553) was a German painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was born Lucas Sunder at Kronach in upper Franconia, and learned the art of drawing from his father. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,024 × 2,726 pixels, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,024 × 2,726 pixels, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... The Uffizi Gallery (Italian Galleria degli Uffizi) is a palace or palazzo in Florence, holding one of the most famous museums in the world. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Printmaking is a process for producing a work of art in ink; the work (called a print) is created indirectly, through the transfer of ink from the surface upon which the work was originally drawn or otherwise composed. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Historical town center of Kronach with the river Hasslach in front Kronach is a town in Oberfranken, Bavaria, Germany, located in the Frankenwald area. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ...


It has not been possible to trace his descent or the name of his parents. His name of birth is differently known as Sünder, Sunder or Sonder. Later, he took the name of his birthplace as his surname. We do not know how Cranach was trained, but it was probably with local south German masters, as with his contemporary Matthias Grünewald, who worked at Bamberg and Aschaffenburg. Bamberg is the capital of the diocese in which Kronach lies. The Crucifixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528) is a highly regarded figure from the German Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Bamberg (disambiguation). ... Aschaffenburg (IPA: ; dialect: [ˈaʒəˌbɜːʃ]) is a large town in northwest Bavaria, Germany. ...


According to Gunderam, the tutor of Cranach's children, Cranach demonstrated his talents as a painter before the close of the 15th century. His work then drew the attention of the Elector of Saxony, who attached Cranach to his person in 1504. The records of Wittenberg confirm Gunderam's statement to this extent that Cranach's name appears for the first time in the public accounts on the 24th of June 1504, when he drew 50 gulden for the salary of half a year, as pictor ducalis. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The only clue to Cranach's settlement previous to his Wittenberg appointment is afforded by the knowledge that he owned a house at Gotha, and that Barbara Brengbier, his wife, was the daughter of a burgher of that city. Gotha is a town in Thuringia, in Germany. ...

Contents

Career

The first evidence of his skill as an artist comes in a picture dated 1504. We find him active in several branches of his profession, sometimes a house-painter, more frequently producing portraits and altar-pieces, a designer on wood, an engraver of copper-plates, and draughtsman for the dies of the electoral mint. 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ...

The Stag Hunt of the Elector Frederick the Wise.

Early in the days of his official employment he startled his master's courtiers by the realism with which he painted still life, game and antlers on the walls of the country palaces at Coburg and Locha; his pictures of deer and wild boar were considered striking, and the duke fostered his passion for this form of art by taking him out to the hunting field, where he sketched "his grace" running the stag, or Duke John sticking a boar. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixelsFull resolution (3255 × 2312 pixel, file size: 13. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixelsFull resolution (3255 × 2312 pixel, file size: 13. ... Friedrich III (January 17, 1463 — May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Before 1508 he had painted several altar-pieces for the Castle Church at Wittenberg in competition with Albrecht Dürer, Hans Burgkmair and others; the duke and his brother John were portrayed in various attitudes and a number of the best woodcuts and copper-plates were published. 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Altarpiece by Burgkmair. ...


Great honour accrued to Cranach when he went in 1509 to the Netherlands, and took sittings from the Emperor Maximilian and the boy who afterwards became Charles V. Until 1508 Cranach signed his works with the initials of his name. In that year the elector gave him the winged snake as a motto, and this motto, or Kleinod, as it was called, superseded the initials on all his pictures after that date. 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...

Martin Luther (1529, Uffizi)
Martin Luther (1529, Uffizi)

Somewhat later the duke conferred on him the monopoly of the sale of medicines at Wittenberg, and a printer's patent with exclusive privileges as to copyright in Bibles. Cranach's presses were used by Martin Luther. His chemist's shop was open for centuries, and only perished by fire in 1871. Download high resolution version (600x645, 471 KB)Print quality version of Luther46. ... Download high resolution version (600x645, 471 KB)Print quality version of Luther46. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Friendship united the painter with the Protestant Reformers at a very early period; yet it is difficult to fix the time of his first acquaintance with Luther. The oldest reference to Cranach in the Reformer's correspondence dates from 1520. In a letter written from Worms in 1521, Luther calls him his gossip, warmly alluding to his "Gevatterin," the artist's wife. His first engraved portrait by Cranach represents an Augustinian friar, and is dated 1520. Five years later the friar dropped the cowl, and Cranach was present as "one of the council" at the betrothal festival of Luther and Katharina von Bora, and later as godfather to their first child (Johannes, or Hans, born 1526). Reformation redirects here. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Portrait of Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ...


The death at short intervals of the electors Frederick and John (1525 and 1532) brought no change in the prosperous situation of the painter; he remained a favourite with John Frederick I, under whose administration he twice (1531 and 1540) filled the office of burgomaster of Wittenberg. But 1547 witnessed a remarkable change in these relations. Friedrich III (January 17, 1463 — May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... John, Elector of Saxony, known as John the Steadfast or John the Constant (born 1468 at Schweinitz Castle - August 16, 1532) was Elector of Saxony from 1525 until 1532 (from the House of Wettin). ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1531. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


John Frederick was taken prisoner at the Battle of Mühlberg, and Wittenberg was subjected to the stress of siege. As Cranach wrote from his house at the corner of the marketplace to the grand-master Albert of Brandenburg at Königsberg to tell him of John Frederick's capture, he showed his attachment by saying, The Battle of Mühlberg was a large battle in which the Holy Roman Empire decisively dismantled the Schmalkaldic League. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Albrecht in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello grand duke of Lithuania and... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ...

"I cannot conceal from your Grace that we have been robbed of our dear prince, who from his youth upwards has been a true prince to us, but God will help him out of prison, for the Kaiser is bold enough to revive the Papacy, which God will certainly not allow." This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

During the siege Charles bethought him of Cranach, whom he remembered from his childhood and summoned him to his camp at Pistritz. Cranach came, reminded his majesty of his early sittings as a boy, and begged on his knees for kind treatment to the elector.


Three years afterwards, when all the dignitaries of the Empire met at Augsburg to receive commands from the emperor, and Titian came at Charles's bidding to paint Philip of Spain, John Frederick asked Cranach to visit the Swabian capital; and here for a few months he was numbered amongst the household of the captive elector, whom he afterwards accompanied home in 1552. For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ...


He died on the 16th of October 1553 at Weimar, where the house in which he lived still stands in the marketplace. He is commemorated as an artist by the Lutheran Church on April 6. is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cranach's Art

The oldest extant picture by Cranach, the "Rest of the Virgin during the Flight into Egypt," marked with the initials L.C., and the date of 1504, is by far the most graceful creation of his pencil. The scene is laid on the margin of a forest of pines, and discloses the habits of a painter familiar with the mountain scenery of Thuringia. There is more of gloom in landscapes of a later time. The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ...


Cranach's art in its prime was doubtless influenced by causes which but slightly affected the art of the Italians, but weighed with potent consequence on that of the Netherlands and Germany. The business of booksellers who sold woodcuts and engravings at fairs and markets in Germany naturally satisfied a craving which arose out of the paucity of wall paintings in churches and secular edifices. Drawing for woodcuts and engraving of copperplates became the occupation of artists of note, and the talents devoted in Italy to productions of the brush were here monopolized for designs on wood or on copper. Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ...


We have thus to account for the comparative unproductiveness as painters of Dürer and Holbein, and at the same time to explain the shallowness apparent in many of the later works of Cranach; but we attribute to the same cause also the tendency in Cranach to neglect effective colour and light and shade for strong contrasts of flat tint. Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ...

Adam & Eve woodcut
Adam & Eve woodcut

Constant attention to contour and to black and white appears to have affected his sight, and caused those curious transitions of pallid light into inky grey which often characterize his studies of flesh; whilst outlining of form in black became a natural substitute for modelling and chiaroscuro. There are, no doubt, some few pictures by Cranach in which the flesh-tints display brightness and enamelled surface, but they are quite exceptional. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 429 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (458 × 640 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lucas Cranach, Adam and Eve in Paradise Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 429 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (458 × 640 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lucas Cranach, Adam and Eve in Paradise Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in... For other use of the term, see Chiaroscuro (disambiguation). ...


As a composer Cranach was not greatly gifted. His ideal of the human shape was low; but he showed some freshness in the delineation of incident, though he not unfrequently bordered on coarseness. His copper-plates and woodcuts are certainly the best outcome of his art; and the earlier they are in date the more conspicuous is their power. Striking evidence of this is the "St Christopher" of 1506, or the plate of "Elector Frederick praying before the Madonna" (1509). 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ...


It is curious to watch the changes which mark the development of his instincts as an artist during the struggles of the Reformation. At first we find him painting Madonnas. His first woodcut (1505) represents the Virgin and three saints in prayer before a crucifix. Later on he composes the marriage of St Catherine, a series of martyrdoms, and scenes from the Passion. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... Saint Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine (Greek ) is a Christian saint and martyr claimed to have been a noted scholar in the early 4th century. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ...


After 1517 he illustrates occasionally the old Gospel themes, but he also gives expression to some of the thoughts of the Reformers. In a picture of 1518 at Leipzig, where a dying man offers "his soul to God, his body to earth, and his worldly goods to his relations," the soul rises to meet the Trinity in heaven, and salvation is clearly shown to depend on faith and not on good works. Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


Again sin and grace become a familiar subject of pictorial delineation. Adam is observed sitting between John the Baptist and a prophet at the foot of a tree. To the left God produces the tables of the law, Adam and Eve partake of the forbidden fruit, the brazen serpent is reared aloft, and punishment supervenes in the shape of death and the realm of Satan. To the right, the Conception, Crucifixion and Resurrection symbolize redemption, and this is duly impressed on Adam by John the Baptist, who points to the sacrifice of the crucified Saviour. There are two examples of this composition in the galleries of Gotha and Prague, both of them dated 1529. For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ... St. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... St. ... Gotha may refer to: A district in the German state of Thuringia A town in the District of Gotha (its capital) A former Thuringian Dukedom, see Sachsen-Gotha the Gothaer Waggonfabrik Company. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ...


One of the latest pictures with which the name of Cranach is connected is the altarpiece which Cranach's son completed in 1555, and which is now (1911) in the Stadtkirche (city church) at Weimar. It represents Christ in two forms, to the left trampling on Death and Satan, to the right crucified, with blood flowing from the lance wound. John the Baptist points to the suffering Christ, whilst the blood-stream falls on the head of Cranach, and Luther reads from his book the words, "The blood of Christ cleanseth from all sin." Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ...


Cranach sometimes composed Gospel subjects with feeling and dignity. "The Woman taken in Adultery" at Munich is a favourable specimen of his skill, and various repetitions of Christ receiving little children show the kindliness of his disposition.

Portrait of a Saxon Princess by Lucas Cranach the Elder

But he was not exclusively a religious painter. He was equally successful, and often comically naïve, in mythological scenes, as where Cupid, who has stolen a honeycomb, complains to Venus that he has been stung by a bee (Weimar, 1530; Berlin, 1534), or where Hercules sits at the spinning-wheel mocked by Omphale and her maids. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,024 × 2,564 pixels, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,024 × 2,564 pixels, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... It has been suggested that Cupid (holiday character) be merged into this article or section. ... Venus is the Roman goddess of love, equivalent to Greek Aphrodite and Etruscan Turan. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Omphale was a queen or princess of Lydia. ...


Humour and pathos are combined at times with strong effect in pictures such as the "Jealousy" (Augsburg, 1527; Vienna, 1530), where women and children are huddled into telling groups as they watch the strife of men wildly fighting around them.


Very realistic must have been a lost canvas of 1545, in which hares were catching and roasting sportsmen. In 1546, possibly under Italian influence, Cranach composed the "Fons Juventutis" ("Fountain of Youth") of the Berlin Gallery, executed by his son, a picture in which hags are seen entering a Renaissance fountain, and are received as they issue from it with all the charms of youth by knights and pages. For other uses, see Fountain of Youth (disambiguation). ... Tsukioka Yoshitoshi, The Hag, August 1890. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ...


Cranach's chief occupation was that of portrait painting, and we are indebted to him chiefly for the preservation of the features of all the German Reformers and their princely adherents. He painted not only Mathin Luther himself but also Luther's wife, mother and father (see gallery below). But he sometimes condescended to depict such noted followers of the papacy as Albert of Brandenburg, archbishop elector of Mainz, Anthony Granvelle and the Duke of Alva. Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Albrecht in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello grand duke of Lithuania and... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, the third Duke of Alva (or Alba) (1508-January 12, 1583) was a Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1567 - 1573), nicknamed the Iron Duke because of his cruelty, giving the Protestants of the Low Countries a firsthand taste of the Black Legend. ...


A dozen likenesses of Frederick III and his brother John are found to bear the date of 1532. It is characteristic of Cranach's readiness, and a proof that he possessed ample material for mechanical reproduction, that he received payment at Wittenberg in 1533 for "sixty pairs of portraits of the elector and his brother" in one day. Amongst existing likenesses we should notice as the best that of Albert, elector of Mainz, in the Berlin Museum, and that of John, elector of Saxony, at Dresden. There were three rulers known as Frederick (German Friedrich) III of Germany: Frederick the Handsome, Duke of Austria from 1308 to 1330, who was elected as German King in the time of Louis the Bavarian (1326) as the result of a compromise between the Houses of Wittelsbach and Habsburg. ...


Cranach had three sons, all artists: John Lucas Cranach, who died at Bologna in 1536; Hans Cranach, whose life is obscure; and Lucas, born in 1515, who died in 1586. He also had a daughter, Barbara Cranach, married to Christian Brück (Pontanus), ancestors of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Staghunt of Prince Johann Friedrich (detail) 1544 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Lucas Cranach the Younger (October 4, 1515 - January 25, 1586) was a German Renaissance painter. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... “Goethe” redirects here. ...


Gallery of Lucas Cranach the Elder's Works

References

  • Posse, Hans (1942) Lucas Cranach d. ä. A. Schroll & Co., Vienna OCLC 773554 in German
  • Descargues, Pierre (1960) Lucas Cranach the Elder (translated from the French by Helen Ramsbotham) Oldbourne Press, London, OCLC 434642
  • Ruhmer, Eberhard (1963) Cranach (translated from the German by Joan Spencer) Phaidon, London, OCLC 1107030
  • Friedländer, Max J.and Rosenberg, Jakob (1978) The Paintings of Lucas Cranach Tabard Press, New York ISBN 0-914427-31-8
  • Schade, Werner (1980) Cranach, a Family of Master Painters (translated from the German by Helen Sebba) Putnam, New York, ISBN 0-399-11831-4
  • Stepanov, Alexander (1997) Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1472-1553 Parkstone, Bournemouth, England, ISBN 1-85995-266-6
  • Koerner, Joseph Leo (2004) The reformation of the image University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ISBN 0-226-45006-6
  • Moser, Peter (2005) Lucas Cranach: His Life, His World, His Pictures (translated from the German by Kenneth Wynne) Babenberg Verlag, Bamberg, Germany, ISBN 3-933469-15-5
  • Brinkmann, Bodo et al. (2007) Lucas Cranach Royal Academy of Arts, London, ISBN 1-905711-13-1
  • Heydenreich, Gunnar (2007) Lucas Cranach the Elder: Painting materials, techniques and workshop practice, Amsterdam University Press, ISBN 9789053567456

See also

Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ...

External links

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Lucas Cranach d. Ä.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cranach, Lucas the Elder - MSN Encarta (433 words)
Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 4 October 1472 – October 16, 1553) was a German painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving
Cranach was a friend of Martin Luther, and his art expresses much of the spirit and feeling of the German Reformation.
Cranach's sons were both artists, but the only one to achieve distinction was Lucas Cranach the Younger, who was his father's pupil and often his assistant.
Biography (435 words)
Lucas Cranach the Elder was a German Renaissance painter and graphic artist who excelled in portraits and in female nudes.
Lucas Cranach adopted his surname from his birthplace, Kronach, a town of Upper Franconia in the diocese of Bamberg.
In 1505 Cranach became court painter to the electors of Saxony at Wittenberg, a position he held until 1550.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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