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Encyclopedia > Lublin
Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower
Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower
Lublin
Old Town
Official flag of Lublin
Flag
Coat of arms of Lublin
Coat of arms
Lublin (Poland)
Lublin
Coordinates: 51°15′N 22°34′E / 51.25, 22.567
Country Poland
Voivodeship Lublin
Powiat city county
Gmina Lublin
Established before 12th century
City Rights 1317
Government
 - Mayor Adam Wasilewski
Area
 - City 147.5 km²  (57 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 - City 354,967
 - Density 2,407/km² (6,234.1/sq mi)
 - Metro 640,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 20-001 to 20-999
Area code(s) +48 81
Car Plates LU
Website: www.um.lublin.pl

Coordinates: 51°14′N, 22°34′E Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 196 pixelsFull resolution (7994 × 1959 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 196 pixelsFull resolution (7994 × 1959 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links POL_Lublin_flag. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Lublin Voivodeship Coat of Arms Potockis Palace in MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski Old chapel Krzna river Lublin Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubelskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of eastern Poland. ... The following is a list of powiats in Poland. ... The municipality or commune (Polish: gmina, plural: gminy) is the principal unit (lowest level) of territorial division in Poland. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... // Introduction to this topic - includes background information for people living outside Poland Common to many countries - in fact there is a growing tendency to do so since the UK also began regionalising plates in 2002 - Poland has the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate. ... Lublin is the name of a number of people, places and things, all named after the city of Lublin, Poland: // Communities Lublin, Wisconsin Sports teams Bystrzyca Lublin a womens handball team Start Lublin a mens basketball team People Biernat of Lublin a 15th and 16th century Polish poet... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

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Lublin

Lublin (['lublin] is the biggest city in eastern Poland and the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 355,954 (2004). It is Poland's ninth largest city. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Pl-Lublin. ... Lublin Voivodeship Coat of Arms Potockis Palace in Międzyrzec Podlaski Old chapel Krzna river Lublin Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubelskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of eastern Poland. ...

Contents

History

The fire of Lublin, 1719.
The fire of Lublin, 1719.

The first permanent settlements on the Lublin site were established in the early Middle Ages, though archeological finds indicate a long, earlier presence of various cultures in the general area. The earliest, most significant settlement began in the 6th century, on a hill located in the suburb of Czwartek (in Polish Thursday, most likely in reference to the market day of the settlement). It is likely that the surrounding hills, notably the site of the present day Old Town, were also settled at around this time. In the 10th and 11th centuries the Czwartek settlement developed into an important trade centre. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it a military significance. The first fortification on the site may have been built as early as the 8th century, possibly on the Castle Hill. Certainly at the end of the 10th century a significant fortification existed there. As the castle grew, the Old Town hill adjacent to it became the main focus of settlement, and the Czwartek settlement declined in relative importance. The castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but quite possibly present from the start of the 12th, or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1476 × 1103 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1476 × 1103 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_16. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_16. ... View of Lublin Castle from the Old Town. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... A castellan was the governor or caretaker of a castle or keep. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ...


The city was a target of attacks by Tatars, Ruthenes, Yotvingians and Lithuanians and was destroyed a number of times. It received a city charter in 1317. Casimir the Great, appreciating the strategic importance of the site, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls. This article is about the people. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Categories: Baltic peoples | Stub ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents Władysław I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ...


In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Władysław Jagiełło, and with the coming of the peace between Poland and Lithuania developed into a great trade centre carrying a large portion of commerce between the two countries. In 1474 the area around Lublin was combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship. In the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm) were held in Lublin a number of times. On June 26, 1569, one of the most important ones proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... Wladislaus II on Jan Matejkos painting Wladislaus II Jagiello (Polish Władysław II Jagiełło, Lithuanian Jogaila, and in Belarusian as Jahajla (Ягайла)) (c. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... Lublin Voivodeship Coat of Arms Potockis Palace in MiÄ™dzyrzec Podlaski Old chapel Krzna river Lublin Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubelskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of eastern Poland. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the...


Some of the artists and writers of the Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal was established in the city, this being the highest court of the Lesser Poland region. The Polish Renaissance, whose influence originated in Italy, started spreading in Poland in the 15th and 16th century. ... Sebastian Fabian Klonowic (b. ... Jan Kochanowski Jan Kochanowski (1530 - August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet and writer. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... Crown Tribunall (Polish: Trybunał Koronny) was the second and highest appeal court in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for most cases, exceptions being the cases were a noble landowner was threatened with loss of life and/or property - then he could appeal to the Sejm court (parliament court). ... Kraków Katowice Wrocław Łódź Poznań Bydgoszcz Lublin Białystok Gdańsk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O...


Since the second half of the 16th century, Reformation movements developed in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was also established in Lublin around this time. It continued to be a vital part of the city's life until the community ceased to exist during the Nazi Holocaust. Between 1580 and 1764 the Jewish Council of Four Lands Arba Aracot (Sejm of 4 countries) was held in Lublin. 70 delegates of Jewish local kahals met to discuss issue of taxations and other important for Jewish communities issues. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Polish Brethren (also called Antitrinitians, Arians, or Socinians) was the name of a Christian Polish sect from the 16th century. ... Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


Students came to Lublin from all over Europe to study at the yeshiva there. The yeshiva became a centre of learning of both Talmud and Kabbalah. The great scholarship of those who studied there led to the city being named the "Jewish Oxford"; the Rosh yeshiva received the title of rector and equal rights to those in Polish universities with the permission of the King in 1567. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ...

Lublin Castle
Lublin Castle

In the 17th century, the town suffered a decline due to the Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars. After the Third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795 Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule. At the beginning of the 19th century a number of modern urban developments took place, with new squares, streets, and public buildings coming into existence. In 1877 a railway connection to Warsaw and Kovel was built, which spurred industrial development in the city. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897. Image File history File links 5_Lublin_29. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_29. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... King Charles X of Sweden The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms, circa 1993 Kovel (In Ukrainian and in Russian: Ковель, in Polish: Kowel) is a town now situated in western Ukraine in the Volyn oblast. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

The Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the inter war years, the city continued to develop, its population grew, and important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i Laśkiewicz works, later nationalized as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918. The city contained a vibrant Jewish community which formed around 40% of Lublin's population. Image File history File links 4_Lublin_16. ... Image File history File links 4_Lublin_16. ... View of Lublin Castle from the Old Town. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Plage i LaÅ›kiewicz (Plage & LaÅ›kiewicz) was the first Polish aerospace manufacturer, located in Lublin and manufacturing aircraft under Lublin name. ... LWS was the Polish aerospace manufacturer, located in Lublin and producing aircraft between 1936 and 1939. ... The Catholic University of Lublin (in Polish Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, or KUL) is located in Lublin, Poland. ...


After the 1939 German invasion of Poland the city found itself in the General Government. During the German occupation the city's population was a target of various repressions by the occupiers, with a particularly grim fate reserved for the Jewish inhabitants. German plans were aimed towards turning Lublin into Germanised city with its population of Ethnic Germans growing towards 20-25 %, compared with 10-15% in 1939.[1]. Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Lublin Cathedral
Lublin Cathedral

The city served as a German headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate the Jews in occupied Poland. Lublin's Jewish population was forced into the Lublin ghetto established around the area of Podzamcze. The majority of the ghetto's inhabitants, about 26,000 people, were deported to the Bełżec death camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around Majdanek, a large concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Most of them were killed by the war's end. After the war the few Jews who survived in hiding or by escaping to Soviet territory reestablished a small Jewish community in the city, but it quickly shrank to insignificance as most Jews left Poland for Israel and the West in the immediate postwar years. The Majdanek camp, together with the prison established in the Lublin castle, also served as a major centre of terror measures aimed at the non-Jewish population of Lublin and the surrounding district. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 101 KB) Lublin Cathedrial, Poland, form www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 101 KB) Lublin Cathedrial, Poland, form www. ... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhard in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Government and the Bialystok area. ... Belzec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Majdanek Memorial, containing the ashes of cremated victims Majdanek fence in the winter (2005) Majdanek (originally Konzentrationslager Lublin) is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Majdanek Memorial, containing the ashes of cremated victims Majdanek fence in the winter (2005) Majdanek (originally Konzentrationslager Lublin) is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ...

The Trinitarian Tower (Wieża Trynitarska) and the Lublin Cathedral.
The Trinitarian Tower (Wieża Trynitarska) and the Lublin Cathedral.

On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army and became the capital of a Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established in the city. The capital was moved to Warsaw in January 1945. In the postwar years Lublin continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding in area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. A large automobile factory (FSC) was established in the city. Image File history File links 5_Lublin_04. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_04. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Soviet redirects here. ... A propaganda photo of a citizen reading the PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was the provisional Communist Polish government created under the direction and auspices of Moscow. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (in Polish Universytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, commonly shortened to UMCS) was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin. ... FSC (in Polish Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) is a large automotive factory established in Poland while it was part of the Soviet bloc. ...


In July 1980, the workers of Lublin and nearby Świdnik began the first in the wave of mass strikes aimed against the Communist regime, which eventually led to the emergence of the Solidarity movement. The first strike began on July 8 in the WSK factory in Świdnik. It then quickly spread to other factories in Lublin and the surrounding region. The railroad network and city transit came to a standstill. Ultimately. 150 factories employing 50,000 workers joined the strike. The strikers used a novel tactic of staying inside their factories and occupying them, instead of marching in the streets where the authorities would have found it easy to use force against them. The workers made demands for their economic situation to be improved. They also made political demands, such as: new elections for the leadership of the trade unions, liquidation of privileges for the Communist party governing class, and the reduction of the bureaucracy in the factories. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Åšwidnik is a town in eastern Poland with 40,113 inhabitants (2002), situated in the Lublin Voivodship, very near the city of Lublin. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Åšwidnik is a town in eastern Poland with 40,113 inhabitants (2002), situated in the Lublin Voivodship, very near the city of Lublin. ...

Lublin Holocaust Memorial, with the Carmelite Church in the background
Lublin Holocaust Memorial, with the Carmelite Church in the background

The July strikes lasted two weeks. The Communist authorities eventually managed to bring them to an end peacefully, mainly by granting economic concessions to the workers. However, the momentum generated by the Lublin strikes quickly gave rise to a new wave of strikes in the Gdańsk region in August 1980. The workers there used similar tactics as the Lublin workers used a month before, and this time the Communist authorities had to agree to the strikers' demand to set up an independent trade union, which soon became the Solidarity. Image File history File links 5_Lublin_69. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_69. ... The Holocaust Memorial in Lublin (Polish: ) commemorates the Jewish inhabitants of the city who perished during the Holocaust. ... The Carmelite Church was the first to be used for spiritual functions during the building of the city in mid of 16th century. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ...


Economy

Districts of Lublin
Districts of Lublin

The Lublin region had the unfortunate distinction of having the lowest per capita GDP in the entire European Union, until Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007 (it was 32% of EU average in 2002). It is a part of eastern Poland, which has generally benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than other regions of Poland located closer to Western Europe. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 523 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (927 × 1062 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/png) City map of Lublin, Poland, self-made Ariok 19:39, 19 Jun 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 523 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (927 × 1062 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/png) City map of Lublin, Poland, self-made Ariok 19:39, 19 Jun 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...


While the standard of living in the city of Lublin is considerably higher than in the surrounding countryside, the city's relatively poor economic performance is unavoidably tied to the poverty of its surrounding region.

Lublin - view from the Trinitarian Tower (Wieża Trynitarska).
Lublin - view from the Trinitarian Tower (Wieża Trynitarska).

The factories build under the Communist regime in the city have generally done poorly in the new market economy. The large car factory FSC (Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) seemed to have a brighter future when acquired by the South Korean Daewoo conglomerate in the early 1990s. Unfortunately, with Daewoo's financial troubles in 1998, the production at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy. Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company in order not to lose its prime market. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1118x470, 746 KB) aufgenommen November 2003 von Sicherlich File links The following pages link to this file: Lublin ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1118x470, 746 KB) aufgenommen November 2003 von Sicherlich File links The following pages link to this file: Lublin ... FSC (in Polish Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) is a large automotive factory established in Poland while it was part of the Soviet bloc. ... For the history of Korea, see Korea. ... This article is about the chaebol Daewoo Group. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy is being reoriented towards the service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS). Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (in Polish Universytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, commonly shortened to UMCS) was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin. ...


In 2001 Lublin became a sister city to its only namesake outside Poland; Lublin, Wisconsin, USA [citation needed]. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Lublin is a village located in Taylor County, Wisconsin. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked...



UPDATE 2007


The great advantage for the investor in Lublin area is the easy access to cheap land and labour in this city of charming historical architecture resembling that of Cracow and with its vibrant young inhabitants - www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmf8bB4bzT0.


BUSINESS


The prices of land and investing costs are still considerably lower than that in western part of Poland. However, the Lublin area is one of main beneficiaries of the EU development funds- http://www.um.lublin.pl/um/index.php?t=200&id=45863. Mr. Jerzy Kwiecinski, the Deputy Secretary of State in the Ministry for Regional Development at the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (Poland in the European Union – new possibilities for foreign investors) said: -


“In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be the largest beneficiaries of the EU - every fifth Euro will be spent in Poland. In total we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR, assigned exclusively for post development activities. This sum will be an enormous boost for our country”. http://www.paiz.gov.pl/nowosci/?id_news=1392&lang_id=1


In September 2007 the Prime Minister has signed a bill which had created a 70 ha large, special economic area in Lublin, which encourages investment with tax incentives. It is part of the “Park Mielec” – the European Economic Development area - http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,35640,4527639.html; www.um.lublin.pl. At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest here e.g. Carefaur, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol and Perła Browary Lubelskie - http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,35640,4527639.html; http://ww2.tvp.pl/3903,20051107265122.strona. At the same time the energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which build Poland's first nuclear power station will have its main offices in Lublin.


There are number of new shopping centers build in Lublin such as Lublin Plaza with its giant multikino and galeria Gala - the largest shopping centre in Lublin, covering 33500 square metres. Similar investments are already being advanced or planned for in the near future e.g. Park Felin (Felicity) and new gallery between Świętoduska and Lubartowska streets - http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,36651,3823552.html.


Lublin will also take an active part in the preparations for the upcoming EURO 2012 championships, with several preliminary matches being held in the city. This will bring the associated investment in infrastructure.


INTERESTING ACHIEVEMENTS - http://www.um.lublin.pl/um/index.php?t=200&id=46739.


STUDENTS


Lublin has a massive student population of around 100,000. It is sometimes called a “Polish Oxford” for its 5 public Universities and other private higher education establishments (www.umcs.lublin.pl; www.kul.lublin.pl/uk; www.am.lublin.pl; www.pollub.pl; www.ar.lublin.pl).


How to get there?


Trains run ten times a day to Krakow and Warsaw as well as all other major cities in Poland. Buses also run from below the castle in the Old Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network. The fast train to Warsaw takes around two and half hours and public transport is available to the Frederick Chopin Airport, which is only 10km outside the centre and has flights worldwide. The Polski Express bus service runs seven daily buses from the airport direct to Lublin and the journey takes around three and a half hours (http://www.odleglosci.pl/mapa,polski,Lublin.html; http://www.rozklad.mortin.pl/lublin.html).


A NEW AIRPORT IN ŚWIDNIK NEAR LUBLIN


The new airport in Świdnik, which has finally been accepted and will receive a large EU funds, will be open by 2011 at the latest and will serve a large young population of this area as well as business- http://www.spedycje.pl/aktualnosci/wiadomosci/3933/a_jednak_lotnisko_w_swidniku.html; www.koziolek.lublin.pl/news.php?did=21&idnews=62891&PHPSESSID=bbbb5fdd13cde5de728a3dd8e725c9a5; www.um.lublin.pl.


TURISM and NIGHTLIFE


In addition to being an important historical site Lublin has decent bars, cafes and restaurants, which are all significantly cheaper than neighbouring Warsaw. The gigantic student population supports a good music and nightclub scene - http://www.lsi.lublin.pl/de/deptak1.htm. Lublin has many high quality theatres, philharmony and museums (www.teatr-osterwy.lublin.pl; www.galeria.pl/nominacja.htm; http://filharmonialubelska.pl/; http://zamek-lublin.pl/index.php?l=pl&r=1).


There are great riding schools (http://www.skj-poczernin.stadniny.pl/oferty/1140631942; http://www.turystyka.lubelskie.pl/index.php/lrt/page/888/), old forests and you can kayak and bike around the Bystrzyca river (http://duch.mimuw.edu.pl/~abuczyns/rower/index.php?a=okolice_lublina; http://www.eko.lublin.pl/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1672). The Zemborzycki Zalew is a large man made lake with some wind surfing, fishing and other lake activities - http://zalewzemborzycki.pl.


Lublin’s Old Town has uncial atmosphere with its cobbled streets and buildings that are certainly worth seeing. The Classicist superstructure of Old Town Hall or Tribunal is set in the middle of the Market Square and is surrounded by burgher houses with equally interesting adornments. The views over the Bystrzyca and Czechowka rivers are superb and a great contrast to the intriguing and meandering narrow lanes that wind through the area (http://www.lsi.lublin.pl/stm/stmia.htm; http://hucal-jacek.webpark.pl/galery_files/smiasto1.htm; http://www.lublin-art.pl/thumbnails.php?album=14).


There are some very quaint establishments around the Old Town, and some excellent cafes in the centre such as the basement establishment Vanilla on Krakowskie Przedmiescie, Ulice Miasta by Krakowska Gate and many, many others around the city centre and in the Old Town - http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/Europe/Poland/Wojewodztwo_Lubelskie/Lublin-486892/Restaurants-Lublin-BR-1.html.


Education

Lublin, Krakowskie Przedmieście street
Lublin, Krakowskie Przedmieście street

It has six schools of higher education, including Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS) and Catholic University of Lublin (KUL). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (in Polish Universytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, commonly shortened to UMCS) was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin. ... The Catholic University of Lublin (in Polish Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, or KUL) is located in Lublin, Poland. ...

  • Akademia Medyczna – http://www.am.lublin.pl/ (Medical University of Lublin)
  • Akademia Rolnicza – http://www.ar.lublin.pl/
  • Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski – http://www.kul.lublin.pl/
  • Lubelska Szkoła Biznesu – http://www.lbs.pl/
  • Politechnika Lubelska – http://www.pollub.pl/
  • Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej – http://www.umcs.lublin.pl/
  • Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomii i Innowacji w Lublinie – http://www.wsei.lublin.pl/
  • Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Społecznych z siedzibą w Lublinie – http://www.wsns.lublin.pl/
  • Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Administracji – http://www.wspa.lublin.pl/
  • Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno-Przyrodnicza w Lublinie – http://www.wssp.edu.pl/

Medical University of Lublin has its origins in the year 1944 in Lublin, Poland. ... The Catholic University of Lublin (in Polish Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski, or KUL) is located in Lublin, Poland. ... Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (in Polish Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, commonly shortened to UMCS) was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin. ...

Sports

Start Lublin is a Polish basketball team, based in Lublin, playing in Era Basket Liga. ... Era Basket Liga (EBL) or Polish Basketball League (=Polska Liga Koszykówki, PLK) is the highest level league of basketball in Poland 2004 Championship Playoffs for 1st place: Idea Śląsk Wrocław (2nd place) - Prokom Trefl Sopot (Polish Champion) Playoffs for 3rd place: Anwil W&#322... Bystrzyca Lublin is a Polish womens handball team, based in Lublin, playing in Polish Ekstraklasa Womens Handball League (Premiership League). ... Handball is a popular team sport in Poland. ... Season 2004/2005 teams Season 2003/2004 final results 1st-6th place group 1. ... The Womens EHF Cup is an official competition for womens handball clubs of Europe and takes place every year. ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... A speedway race in Poland Motorcycle speedway, normally referred to as Speedway, is a motorcycle sport that involves usually 4 and sometimes up to 6 riders competing over 4 laps. ...

Famous people

"Lublin Eye"
"Lublin Eye"
Lublin Old Town
Lublin Old Town
Lublin Old Town
Lublin Old Town

Image File history File links 5_Lublin_27. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_27. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_34. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_34. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_36. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_36. ... Janusz Lewandowski (born 13 June 1951 in Lublin) is a Polish economist and politician belonging to the Gdansk liberals group, and a member of the European Parliament (elected on 13 June 2004). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Eustachy Potocki Anna Kątska Consorts Aleksandra Lubomirska Children with Aleksandra Lubomirska Aleksander Stanisław Potocki Date of Birth November, 1755 Place of Birth Lublin Date of Death September 14, 1821 Place of Death Wilanów Count Stanisław Kostka Potocki... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin, also Jacob Isaac of Lublin, or Y. Y. Horowitz (Polish: Jakub Izaak Horowic, Hebrew: יעקב יצחק הורוביץ), known as The Chozeh of Lublin (החוזה מלובלין, The Seer of Lublin), or simply as the Chozeh, (1745-July 15, 1815) was a Hasidic rabbi from Poland. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Henryk Wieniawski (July 10, 1835 Lublin, Poland - March 31, 1880 Moscow) was a Polish composer and violinist. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ... Jacek Bąk (born March 24, 1973 in Lublin) is a Polish footballer. ... 2006 World Cup redirects here. ...

Politics

Lublin constituency

Lublin Crown Tribunal, in the center of the Old Town main square
Lublin Crown Tribunal, in the center of the Old Town main square
Lublin Town Hall
Lublin Town Hall

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Lublin constituency: Image File history File links 5_Lublin_13. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_13. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_59. ... Image File history File links 5_Lublin_59. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...

  • Zyta Gilowska, PIS
  • Stanisław Głębocki, Samoobrona
  • Arkadiusz Kasznia, SLD-UP
  • Elżbieta Kruk, PiS
  • Grzegorz Kurczuk, SLD-UP
  • Robert Luśnia, LPR
  • Andrzej Mańka, PiS
  • Gabriela Masłowska, LPR
  • Wiktor Osik, SLD-UP
  • Zdzisław Podkański, PSL
  • Tadeusz Polański, PSL
  • Izabella Sierakowska, SLD-UP
  • Zygmunt Jerzy Szymański, SLD-UP
  • Leszek Świętochowski, PSL
  • Marian Widz, Samoobrona
  • Józef Żywiec, Samoobrona
  • Janusz Palikot, PO

Zyta Gilowska Zyta Janina Gilowska (born July 7, 1949 in Nowe Miasto Lubawskie) - Polish economist and politician. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish central-right political party, established in 2001, by the Kaczyński brothers: Lech, the former justice minister and the current mayor of the capital, Warsaw, and Jarosław, who is the President of the party. ... Self-Defense of the Polish Republic ( Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitiej Polskiej, SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... SLD can mean the following: In Polish, SLD is short for Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej which is a Polish political party. ... Labor Union (Unia Pracy) is a Polish political party. ... Polish politician, member of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice) party. ... Grzegorz Kurczuk (born September 20, 1949 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician. ... This article or section should be merged with Berkeley printing system. ... Andrzej MaÅ„ka (born April 18, 1967 in Lublin) is a Polish politician. ... Gabriela MasÅ‚owska (born June 27, 1950 in Batorz) is a Polish politician. ... ZdzisÅ‚aw Zbigniew PodkaÅ„ski ZdzisÅ‚aw Zbigniew PodkaÅ„ski (born on 18 October 1949 in Guzówka) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Lublin Voivodship with the Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliament... PSL is an abbreviation for Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe Penang Sign Language Property Specification Language Percentage of the speed of light Personal Seat License Process Specification Language Pixel Shader Language Premier Soccer League, in South Africa Pusca Semiautomat cu Luneta Romanian sniper rifle. ... Izabella Antonina Sierakowska, maiden name KruszyÅ„ska (born September 22, 1946) is a Polish politician and one of the leading and the most popular persons of the Polish left. ... Janusz Palikot (born October 26, 1964 in BiÅ‚goraj) is a Polish politician. ...

Other

At ul. Raabego, there is a 104 metre tall concrete TV Tower (not accessible for tourists) of unconventional design, as it consists of a frame structure in which the tower stucks. [2].


Twin cities

Alcalá de Henares, Debrecen, Delmenhorst, Erie, Lancaster, Münster, Nancy, Nykøbing Falster, Pernik, Panevėžys, Rishon Le Zion, Luhans'k, Lutsk, L'viv, Starobielsk, Viseu, Windsor Location Location of Alcalá Coordinates : 40º28’N , 3º22’W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alcalá de Henares (Spanish) Spanish name Alcalá de Henares Founded Preromanian Postal code 28. ... Debrecen , (approximate pronounciation, Deb-ret-sen), (Romanian: , German: ) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... Delmenhorst is an urban district (Kreisfreie Stadt) in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... “Erie” redirects here. ... Lancaster is a city within Lancashire, in North West England. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Nancy (IPA pronounciation ; archaic German: ; Luxembourgish: Nanzeg) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ... Nykøbing Falster is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of Storstrøm. ... Overview of the city Pernik (Bulgarian: ) is a city in western Bulgaria with a population of 91,883 as of 2006. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Panevėžys County Municipality Panevėžys city municipality Coordinates General Information Capital of Panevėžys County Panevėžys city municipality Panevėžys district municipality Panevėžys rural elderate Population 115,604 in 2005 (5th) First mentioned 1503 Granted city rights 1837 Panevėžys ( (help... Rishon Le Zion in 2002 Rishon LeZion, or Rishon LeZiyyon (ראשון לציון) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, in the Center District of Israel, just south of Tel Aviv, and part of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area (Gush... Luhansk ( Ukrainian: Луганськ, Luhansk; Russian: Луга́нск, Lugansk) is a city in southeastern Ukraine. ... Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк) is the capital of the Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... Lviv coat of arms Motto: Semper fidelis Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population    total 2000    density 808,900 4786/km² Founded city rights... Starobielsk is a village near Kharkov in Ukraine. ... Location  - Region  - Subregion  - District or A.R.   {{{Region}}} {{{Subregion}}} Viseu Mayor  - Party Fernando Ruas PSD Area 507. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ...


See also

  • Lublin Department (Polish: Departament Lubelski): a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland's Duchy of Warsaw, 1806–1815
  • Nasze Miasto Lublin local newspaper
  • Teatr Muzyczny w Lublinie Musical Theatre in Lublin (opera,operetta,musical,balet) http://teatrmuzyczny.eu
  • Filharmonia Lubelska Lublin Philharmonic http://filharmonialubelska.pl

Lublin Department (Polish: Departament Lubelski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Nasze Miasto Lublin is a free local polish newspaper about Lublin. ...

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lublin
  • Lublin Municipality official website (in Polish) (in English)
  • Genealogy in Lublin and a lot more interesting information about the city than on the city's homepage
  • A photo tour of Lublin
  • Official website of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin (English version)
  • Lublin Museum (in Polish)
  • The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Lublin
  • Website of the Jewish Community of Warsaw – Lublin Branch
  • Lublin map via Encarta World Atlas
  • Lublin in Old Postcards

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lublin (1146 words)
Lublin, lies on the Bistrzyca, a tributary of the Vistula, and in 1897 had a population of 50,152, of whom 30,914 were Catholics.
Lublin was founded in the eleventh century, and soon began to flourish.
Lublin being likewise permanent Vicar Apostolic of Podlachia.
Lublin/Majdanek Concentration Camp: Administration (581 words)
The camp was located three miles east southeast of Lublin on the road that led to Chelm.
On a visit to Lublin on July 20-21, 1941, four weeks after the invasion of the Soviet Union, SS chief Heinrich Himmler ordered the SS and Police Leader for District Lublin, SS Major General Odilo Globocnik, to establish a large concentration camp in Lublin with the capacity to hold up to 50,000 prisoners.
Despite this administrative subterfuge, the camp administration and the guard detachment at Majdanek were, as was the case for other German concentration camps such as Buchenwald, Dachau, and Mauthausen, subordinated to the Inspectorate of Concentration Camps in Berlin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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