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Encyclopedia > Lu Xun
Zhou Shuren

Pseudonym: Lu Xun
Born: September 25, 1881
Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China
Died: October 19, 1936, aged 55
Occupation: Novelist, Essayist
Nationality: Chinese
Writing period: 1918-1936

Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: 魯迅; Simplified Chinese: 鲁迅; Pinyin: Lǔ Xùn) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles), pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: 周樹人; Simplified Chinese: 周树人; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Shùrén; Wade-Giles: Chou Shu-jen) (September 25, 1881October 19, 1936) is one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th century. Considered the founder of modern baihua (白話) literature, Lu Xun was a short story writer, editor, translator, critic and essayist. He was one of the founders of the China League of Left-Wing Writers in Shanghai. Image File history File linksMetadata LuXun2. ... A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Shaoxing (Simplified Chinese: 绍兴; Traditional Chinese: 紹興; Pinyin: ShàoxÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Shao-hsing) is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; Traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of printed contemporary Chinese written language, simplified from traditional Chinese by the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; Traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of printed contemporary Chinese written language, simplified from traditional Chinese by the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Though anyone who creates a written work may be called a writer, the term is usually reserved for those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Vernacular Chinese (白话 [白話]; in pinyin: báihuà, literal meaning: Plain Language) is a style of written Chinese which is based on Standard Mandarin. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A managing editor is a senior member of a publications management team. ... Look up Translator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the ninth largest in the world. ...


Lu Xun's works exerted a very substantial influence after the May Fourth Movement to such a point that he was lionized by the Communist regime after 1949. Mao Zedong himself was a lifelong admirer of Lu Xun's works. Though highly sympathetic of the Chinese Communist movement, Lu Xun himself never joined the Chinese Communist Party despite being a staunch socialist as he professed in his works. Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...

Contents

Life

Early life

Born in Shaoxing, Zhejiang province, Lu Xun was first named Zhou Zhangshu and later renamed Shuren, literally, "to nurture a person". He was the eldest of four brothers. His younger brother Zhou Zuoren, four years his junior, would become a notable writer in his own right. Shaoxing (Simplified Chinese: 绍兴; Traditional Chinese: 紹興; Pinyin: Shàoxīng; Wade-Giles: Shao-hsing) is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhou Zuoren (Chinese: 周作人, Wade Giles: Chou Tso-jen) (1885-1967), political figure and well-known Chinese writer and brother of influential writer Lu Xun. ...


The Shaoxing Zhou family was very well-educated and his paternal grandfather Zhou Fuqing 周福清 held posts in the Hanlin Academy; Zhou's mother, née Lu, taught herself to read. However, after a case of bribery was exposed - in which Zhou Fuqing tried to procure an office for his son, Lu Xun's father, Zhou Boyi - the family fortunes declined. Zhou Fuqing was arrested and almost beheaded. Meanwhile, a young Zhou Shuren was brought up by an elderly servant Ah Chang, whom he called Chang Ma; one of Lu Xun's favorite childhood books was the Classic of mountains and seas. The Hanlin Academy (翰林院) was founded in China in the 8th century. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Shanhaijing illustration of Nüwa Shanhaijing illustration of Nine-tailed Fox, companion of Xi Wangmu The Shan Hai Jing (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan Hai Ching; literally Classic of the Mountains and Seas) is a Chinese classic text that is at least 2,000 years old. ...


His father's chronic illness and eventual death during Lu Xun's adolescence, apparently from alcoholism, persuaded Zhou to study medicine. Distrusting traditional Chinese medicine (which in his time was often practised by charlatans, and which failed to cure his father), he went abroad to pursue a Western medical degree at Sendai Medical Speciality School (now medical school of Tohoku University) in Sendai, Japan in 1904. Young Men Organization Teenager and Teen also redirect here. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Look up Charlatan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... The Medicinæ Doctor or Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or D.M.) is a doctorate level degree held by medical doctors. ... Tohoku University (東北大学; Tōhoku Daigaku, abbreviated as 東北大 Tōhokudai), located in the city of Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture in the Tohoku region, is one of Japans most prestigious national universities. ... Sendai ) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and the largest city in the Tōhoku (northeast) region. ...

Lu Xun in his youth
Lu Xun in his youth

Image File history File linksMetadata LuXun. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LuXun. ...

Education

Lu Xun was educated at Jiangnan Naval Academy 江南水師學堂 (1898-99), and later transferred to the School of Mines and Railways 礦路學堂 at Jiangnan Military Academy 江南陸師學堂. It was there Lu Xun had his first contacts with Western learning, especially the sciences; he studied some German and English, reading, amongst some translated books, Huxley's Evolution and Ethics, J. S. Mill's On Liberty, as well as novels like Ivanhoe and Uncle Tom's Cabin. Huxley may refer to one of: Thomas Henry Huxley, British biologist, supporter of Darwin and inventor of the term agnosticism Leonard Huxley, British writer and editor, son of Thomas Henry Leonard Huxley Australian physicist Aldous Leonard Huxley, British writer, son of Leonard Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, British biologist and author... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 - May 8, 1873), aka JS Mill, an English philosopher and political economist, was the most influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... On Liberty is a philosophical work in the English language by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. ... For other uses, see Ivanhoe (disambiguation). ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ...


On a Qing government scholarship, Lu Xun left for Japan in 1902. He first attended the Kobun Gakuin (Hongwen xueyuan, 弘文學院), a preparatory language school for Chinese students attending Japanese universities. His earliest essays, written in Classical Chinese, date from here. Lu also practised some jujutsu. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Lu Xun returned home briefly in 1903. Aged 22, he complied to an arranged marriage with a local gentry girl, Zhu An 朱安. Zhu, illiterate and with bound feet, was handpicked by his mother. Lu Xun possibly never consummated this marriage, although he took care of her material needs all his life. Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster An arranged marriage is a marriage that is established before involving oneself in a lengthy courtship, and often involves the arrangement of someone other than the persons getting married. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The bound feet of an adult woman Foot binding (纏足, 包腳, 裹小腳, or 紮腳) is a now obsolete Chinese custom, considered for centuries to be aesthetic, of producing very small feet in adult women through the application of tight bandage wrappings on the feet of...


Sendai

Lu Xun, in the Preface to Nahan, his first story collection, revealed why he gave up pursuing a medical career. One day after class, one of his Japanese instructors screened a lantern slide documenting the imminent execution of an alleged Chinese spy during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05. Lu Xun was shocked by the apathy of the Chinese onlookers; he decided it was more important to cure his compatriots' spiritual ills rather their physical diseases. SPY may refer to: SPY (spiders), ticker symbol for Standard & Poors Depository Receipts SPY (magazine), a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps SPY (Ivory Coast), airport code for San Pédro, Côte dIvoire SPY (Ship Planning Yard), a U.S. Navy acronym SPY, short for MOWAG SPY, a... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over...

At the time, I hadn't seen any of my fellow Chinese in a long time, but one day some of them showed up in a slide. One, with his hands tied behind him, was in the middle of the picture; the others were gathered around him. Physically, they were as strong and healthy as anyone could ask, but their expressions revealed all too clearly that spiritually they were calloused and numb. According to the caption, the Chinese whose hands were bound had been spying on the Japanese military for the Russians. He was about to be decapitated as a 'public example.' The other Chinese gathered around him had come to enjoy the spectacle. (Lyell , pp 23).

Career

In May 1918, Lu Xun used his pen name for the first time and published the first major baihua short story, Kuangren Riji (狂人日記, A Madman's Diary). He chose the surname Lu as it was his mother's maiden family name. Partly inspired by the Gogol short story, it was a scathing criticism of outdated Chinese traditions and Confucian feudalism which was metaphorically 'gnawing' at the Chinese like cannibalism. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A Madmans Diary (Chinese: 狂人日記, Kuangren Riji) was written by Lu Xun, a founder of baihua (白話, vernacular) Chinese, in May 1918. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: Николай Васильевич Гоголь) (March 31, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ...


Another of his well-known longer stories, The True Story of Ah Q (A Q Zhengzhuan, 阿Q正傳), was published in the 1920s. The latter became his most famous work. Both works were included in his short story collection Na Han (吶喊) or Call to Arms, published in 1923. The True Story of Ah Q, or Ä€ Q Zhèngzhuàn (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ), is a long short fiction by Lu Xun, first published between December 1921 and February 1922. ... A call to arms is in general a call to battle or a battle cry, as in The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Between 1924 to 1926, Lu wrote his masterpiece of ironic reminiscences, Zhaohua Xishi (朝花夕拾, Dawn Dew-light Collected at Dusk, published 1928), as well as the prose poem collection Ye Cao (野草, Wild Grass, published 1927). Lu Xun also wrote some of the stories to be published in his second short story collection Pang Huang (彷徨, Wandering) in 1926. In 1930 Lu Xun published Zhongguo Xiaoshuo Lueshi (中國小說略史, A Concise History of Chinese Fiction), which was a comprehensive overview of Chinese fiction drawn from his lectures at Peking University and one of the landmark pieces of twentieth-century Chinese literary criticism. 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


His other important works include volumes of translations — notably from Russian (he particularly admired Nikolai Gogol and made a translation of Dead Souls, and his own first story's title is inspired by a work of Gogol) — discursive writings like Re Feng (热风, Hot Wind), and many other works such as prose essays, which number around 20 volumes or more. As a left-wing writer, Lu played an important role in the history of Chinese literature. His books were and remain highly influential and popular even today. Lu Xun's works also appear in high school textbooks in Japan. He is known to Japanese by the name Rojin (ロジン in Katakana or 魯迅 in Kanji). Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: ; IPA: ; Ukrainian: ) (April 1, 1809 — March 4, 1852) was a Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin. ... For other uses, see Dead Souls (disambiguation). ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ...


Lu Xun was also the editor of several left-wing magazines such as New Youth (新青年, Xin Qingnian) and Sprouts (萌芽, Meng Ya). He was the brother of another important Chinese political figure and essayist Zhou Zuoren. Because of his leanings, and of the role his works played in the subsequent history of the People's Republic of China, Lu Xun's works were banned in Taiwan until late 1980s. He was among the early supporters of the Esperanto movement in China. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... New Youth (新青年, pinyin: Xīn Qīngnián) was an influential Chinese revolutionary magazine in the 1920s that played an important part during the May Fourth Movement. ...   is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. ...


Death

Lu Xun died in 1936. His remains were interred in a mausoleum within Lu Xun Park in Shanghai. St. ... Lu Xun Park is a small park in Hongkou District in the city of Shanghai. ...


Style and legacy

Lu Xun's style is wry and incisive. His essays are often sardonic in his societal commentary. His mastery of the vernacular language, coupled with his expertise with tone — often refusing to occupy any easy position — make some of his literary works (like A Q Zhengzhuan, 阿Q正傳, The True Story of Ah Q) truly difficult to translate.


Lu Xun's importance to modern Chinese literature lies in the fact that he contributed significantly to every modern literary genre except the novel during his lifetime.


Thought

Lu Xun, hailed as "commander of China's cultural revolution" by Mao Zedong, is typically regarded as the most influential Chinese writer who was associated with the May Fourth Movement. He produced harsh criticism of social problems in China, particularly in his analysis of the "Chinese national character". He has often been considered to have had leftist leanings. Called by some a "champion of common humanity," he helped bring many fellow writers to support communist thought, though he never took the step of actually joining the Communist Party. It should be remarked, however, that throughout his work the individual is given more emphasis over collectivistic concerns. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


Works

Stories

  • from Call to Arms (1922)
    • "A Madman's Diary" (1918)
    • "Kong Yiji" (1919)
    • "Medicine" (1919)
    • "Tomorrow" (1920)
    • "A Small Incident" (1920)
    • "The Story of Hair" (1920)
    • " Storm in a Teacup" (1920)
    • "My Old Home" (1921)
    • "The True Story of Ah Q" (1921)
    • "The Double Fifth Festival" (1922)
    • "The White Light" (1922)
    • "The Rabbits and the Cat" (1922)
    • "The Comedy of the Ducks" (1922)
    • "Village Opera" (1922)
    • "New Year Sacrifice" (1924)
  • from Old Tales Retold (1935)
    • Mending Heaven (1935)
    • The Flight to the Moon (1926)
    • Curbing the Flood (1935)
    • Gathering Vetch (1935)
    • Forging the Swords (1926)
    • Leaving the Pass (1935)
    • Opposing Aggression (1934)
    • Resurrecting the Dead (1935)

Lu Xun Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Lǔ Xùn) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles) (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936), the pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Zhōu Shùrén), has been considered one of the most influential Chinese writers... A Madmans Diary (Chinese: 狂人日記, Kuangren Riji) was written by Lu Xun, a founder of baihua (白話, vernacular) Chinese, in May 1918. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The True Story of Ah Q, or Ā Q Zhèngzhuàn (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ), is a long short fiction by Lu Xun, first published between December 1921 and February 1922. ...

Essays

  • "My Views on Chastity" (1918)
  • "What is Required of us as Fathers Today" (1919)
  • "Knowledge is a Crime" (1919)
  • "My Moustache" (1924)
  • "Thoughts Before the Mirror" (1925)
  • "On Deferring Fair Play" (1925)

Collections

  • Call to Arms (Na Han) (1923)
  • Wandering (Pang Huang) (1925)
  • Old Tales Retold (Gu Shi Xin Bian) (1935)
  • Wild Grass (Ye Cao)
  • Dawn Blossoms Plucked at Dusk, a collection of essays about his youth
  • Brief History of Chinese Fiction, a substantial study of pre-modern Chinese literature

Lu Xun Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Lǔ Xùn) or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles) (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936), the pen name of Zhou Shuren (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Zhōu Shùrén), has been considered one of the most influential Chinese writers... // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ...

External links

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Lu Xun
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Translations

Persondata
NAME Shuren, Zhou
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Xun, Lu; 魯迅 (Traditional Chinese); 鲁迅 (Simplified Chinese); Xùn, Lǔ (pinyin); Hsün, Lu (Wade-Giles); 周樹人 (Traditional Chinese); 周树人 (Simplified Chinese); Shùrén, Zhōu (Hanyu Pinyin); Shu-jen, Chou (Wade-Giles)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Chinese Novelist, Essayist
DATE OF BIRTH September 25, 1881
PLACE OF BIRTH Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China
DATE OF DEATH October 19, 1936, aged 55
PLACE OF DEATH

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