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Encyclopedia > Loyalism

In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. Two main historical groups of individuals have been specifically called "Loyalists" in English. For Loyalists in the American Revolutionary War, see the main article at Loyalist (American Revolution). The remainder of this article concerns Loyalists in the United Kingdom. Sociologists usually define power as the ability to impose ones will on others, even if those others resist in some way. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen North American colonies. ... This article concerns Loyalists in the American Revolution. ...

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Loyalists in Northern Ireland

A loyalist in Northern Ireland is another name for a Unionist who feels strongly about the political union between Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in...


In recent times, however, some sections of the media have devalued the term to refer to someone on the extreme fringe of Unionism who resorts to murder, or threatens to do so, in what they perceive as their defence of their community, Protestantism and Northern Ireland's position as part of the United Kingdom. Loyalists within Northern Ireland live within small working enclaves within the major urban centres, such as Belfast and Londonderry. The rest of this article mainly refers to this second definition. In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the 1801 Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity. ... Belfast (Béal Feirste in Irish) is the largest city in and capital of both Northern Ireland and Ulster, and the second largest city in Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ...


A number of Loyalist paramilitary groups exist; these include the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF), and the Ulster Volunteer Force. The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a Northern Irish unionist paramilitary organisation outlawed as a terrorist group in the UK and Republic of Ireland, which is perceived by its supporters as defending the unionist community from Irish nationalism. ... The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary organisation outlawed as a terrorist group in the UK and Republic of Ireland, which is perceived by its supporters as defending the unionist community from Irish nationalism. ... The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) are an extremist Loyalist paramilitary grouping in Northern Ireland which broke away from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and was led by the late Billy Wright. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is a Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary group. ...


Though loyalists claim to speak on behalf of their community and the unionist community, the evidence of electoral contests suggest that their support is minimal and exclusively urban, working class based. Only one moderate pro-Belfast Agreement loyalist party (the PUP) won any seats in the Northern Ireland Assembly in 1999. The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) are a small political party from Northern Ireland. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly is a 108-member legislative body for Northern Ireland that sits at Stormont with powers devolved to it from the Westminster parliament. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Ideologically, Loyalism is typified by a militant opposition to Republicanism and devout Protestantism. It stresses identity and community with its own folk heroes and events, e.g. the heroic exploits of the 36th (Ulster) Division during World War I. This article is on the political theory of republicanism. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity. ... The British 36th (Ulster) Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


In 1980, it emerged that loyalists who controlled the Kincora Boys Home in Belfast had allowed members of the civil service and British security forces to sexually molest young boys in the home. They then influenced British government policy by blackmailing the child abusers. Belfast (Béal Feirste in Irish) is the largest city in and capital of both Northern Ireland and Ulster, and the second largest city in Ireland. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


Loyalism has a diverse following ranging from left-wing sympathisers to supporters of an independent Ulster to the British National Front. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh) is one of the four provinces on the island of Ireland. ... In the United Kingdom, the British National Front (most commonly called the National Front or NF) is a far right-wing political party that had its heyday during the 1970s and 80s. ...


Officially most loyalist organisations are in ceasefire mode as a result of the Belfast Agreement, though numerous breaches of the ceasefire have been recorded. Many loyalist groups are heavily involved in the drugs trade.


Loyalists in Scotland

A loyalist in Scotland is someone on the fringes of Scottish unionism and who is often stridently supportive of loyalism and unionism, although mainly concentrating on the Irish union, rather than Scottish politics. Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... Scottish Unionists are those committed to maintaining Scotlands position within the United Kingdom and opposing Scottish nationalism. ...


Although a tiny fraction of the Scottish population, and less so in comparison to their Northern Ireland counterparts, their profile has become more prominent with strident demonstrations of their beliefs since the establishment of a Scottish Parliament - often seen at loyalist marches and through their support for Rangers F.C. Northern Ireland is one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national unicameral legislature of Scotland. ... Rangers Football Club is the worlds most successful football club, based on domestic league wins. ...


On the extreme it will be supportive of violence, or threats of violence, in what they perceive as a "defence" of loyalists, unionists, their version of Protestantism and Northern Ireland's and Scotland's positions as part of the United Kingdom. Protestantism is a movement within Christianity. ...


Although far less active and organised in Scotland than their Northern Ireland counterparts, they have been involved in a small number of activities over the years of the troubles in Northern Ireland. Most notably have been two pub bombings, spontaneous murders of people they perceive as enemies of their version of Protestantism and gun running to Northern Ireland.


Loyalists within Scotland live within very small working enclaves in the major urban centres or industrial villages, in Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, West Lothian and Ayrshire. In areas such as the Highlands, Borders and the North East (including Aberdeen), there are relatively few. Glasgows location in Scotland Glasgow (or Glaschu in Gaelic) is Scotlands largest city, on the River Clyde in west central Scotland. ... Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Renfrewshire (Siorrachd Rinn Friù in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary authority regions in Scotland. ... West Lothian or Linlithgowshire (Lodainn an Iar in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. ... Ayrshire (Scottish Gaelic, Siorrachd Inbhir Àir) is a traditional county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. ...


A number of loyalist paramilitary groups are supported by loyalaists in Scotland, which include the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF), etc. Although it nominally repudiates these organisations the Orange Order in Scotland has members and flute bands who support and are members of these organisations. The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a Northern Irish unionist paramilitary organisation outlawed as a terrorist group in the UK and Republic of Ireland, which is perceived by its supporters as defending the unionist community from Irish nationalism. ... The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary organisation outlawed as a terrorist group in the UK and Republic of Ireland, which is perceived by its supporters as defending the unionist community from Irish nationalism. ... The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) are an extremist Loyalist paramilitary grouping in Northern Ireland which broke away from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and was led by the late Billy Wright. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in northern Ireland and western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ...


Though loyalists claim to speak on behalf of Protestants and unionists, there is no evidence of political support. In fact many of the political representatives in their areas are often from the Labour Party and, far less so, the Scottish National Party. Neither party supports their programme. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Labour Party is a a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) (Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a centre-left political party which favours Scottish independence. ...


Ideologically, Scottish Loyalism is typified by a strident, and at times militant, opposition to Republicanism, Scottish independence and the Roman Catholic Church - particularly the existence of Roman Catholic denominational schools. This article is on the political theory of republicanism. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, thus ended Scottish independence. ... Saint Peters Basilica in Rome. ...


Loyalists in England

Loyalists can also be found in some parts of England, especially Liverpool, Manchester and London, where there are substantial Irish emigrant populations. Liverpools skyline, as seen from the River Mersey. ... Location within the British Isles. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben Tower Bridge at night A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ...


External Links


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