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Encyclopedia > Loya jirga
A loya jirga that was held in Kabul, Afghanistan.
A loya jirga that was held in Kabul, Afghanistan.

Loya jirga, occasionally loya jirgah (pashto: لويه جرګه), is, literally, a "grand assembly," a phrase taken from the name of large meetings held among certain central Asian peoples, such as in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Mongolia. In Afghanistan, the loya jirga was originally attended only by Pashtun groups, but later included other ethnic groups. Kabul, Afghanistan June 13, 2002 - Delegates to Afghanistans Loya Jirga, or Grand Council, applaud and cheer after hearing the news that Interim Authority Chairman Hamid Karzai has been elected as the countrys president for up to the next two years. ... Kabul, Afghanistan June 13, 2002 - Delegates to Afghanistans Loya Jirga, or Grand Council, applaud and cheer after hearing the news that Interim Authority Chairman Hamid Karzai has been elected as the countrys president for up to the next two years. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


The words loya (great/grand) and jirga ("council", "assembly", "dispute" or "meeting") are of Turco-Mongolian origin[citation needed] and originally it means in the Mongolian and Turkic language "great tent" (jirga meaning tent). A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ...


Such meetings originate from the Altaïc cultures, so also from the Mongolian Empire. In a Loya Jirga in the year 1206 The Mongolian tribal leaders proclaimed the warrior Timujin their new leader, giving him the name Ghengis Khan (universal ruler).


Under the Timurids and the Moghuls, although they had Turkish and Mongolian roots, the Loja Dschirga was advised in oblivion. On the one hand because they were very strongly persianized and on the other hand, because they had wezirs and diplomats, who were concerned with problems, that concerned the life of the society, completely to the satisfaction of the ruler.


In the afghanic (pashtunic) society the Loya Jirga is still maintained and very strongly practiced, mostly in front of tribal chiefs or with them to solve internal and external tribal problems or disputes with other tribes. The cause Loya Jirga is existing toward Pashtuns is not all Pashtun tribes are of Iranian/indo-aryan origine. For example the pashtun tribe of the Zadrans were originally a Mongolian tribe that became islamized and with it pashtunized. Today they are pashtunized descends of the Mongolian tribe Zadran that became lost in central Asia. Some other non-iranic tribes are the Ghalzais and the Zazais who are descends of the Turco-Mongolian Khaljis and the Jajis. The Zadrans and the Zazais are still known by non-pashtuns as Jajis and Jadran, in Afghanistan.


When the Afghans took the power they tried to legitimize their power with such a Jirga. While on the beginning just Afghans were using the Jirga later other ethnics like Tajiks and Hazaras were driven in by Afghans too but without considering them really in the Jirgas. The member of the Jirgas were mostly members of the Royal Family, religious leaders and tribalic chiefs of Afghans. King Amanullah Khan institutionalized the Jirga. He was also the sole who used it for three times. From Amanullah till the reign of Zaher Shah Khan (1933-1973) and Daud Khan (1973-1978) the Jirga was understood of a common meeting of regionally pashtunic master leaders. King Amanullah Khan Ghazi Amir Amanullah Khan (June 1, 1892 - April 25, 1960) was the ruler of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929. ... Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan (July 18, 1909 - April 28, 1978) was an Afghani statesman and President of the Republic of Afghanistan from 1973 until his assassination in 1978 as a result of a revolution led by the quasi-Marxist Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). ...


The meetings take place in irregular distances.


There is no time limit in a Loya Jirga and the meeting take so long since decisions are made by agreements. Many different problems are advised, like foreign policy, declaration of war, legitimacy of leaders or the introduction of new ideas and laws.

Contents

Afghanistan

Loya jirgas in the history of Greater Khorasan/Khorasan (until 1857/589) include:

Loya jirgas in the [[history of Kabulistan/Kingdom of Kabul include: Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Timur Shah (1748 - 18 May 1793), the second son of Ahmed Shah Abdali and the second of the Durrani Dynasty, was the Shah of Afghanistan from 16 October 1772 until his death. ... Ahmad Shah Abdālī (c. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Kabulistan (Persian: ‎ ) is a historical region around Kabul. ...

Loya Jirga in the history of Afghanistan (since 1911) include: Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan (1844 - October 1, 1901), Emir of Afghanistan, was the third son of Afzul Khan, who was the eldest son of Dost Mahommed Khan, who had established the Barakzais family dynasty in Afghanistan. ... This article is about the history of the area that eventually became known as Afghanistan[1], a territory whose current boundaries were mostly determined in the 19th Century. ...

  • 1928, September --at Paghman, called by King Amanullah: the third Loya jirga of his reign (1919-1929) to discuss reforms.
  • 1930, September -- a meeting of 286 called by Mohammed Nadir Shah to confirm his accession to the throne.
  • 1941 -- called by Mohammed Zahir Shah, to approve neutrality in World War II.
  • 1947 -- held by Pashtuns in the Tribal Agencies to choose between joining India or Pakistan.
  • 1949 -- called during a dispute with Pakistan, declared that it did not recognise the Durand Line forming the border between the two countries.
  • 1964, September -- a meeting of 452 called by Mohammed Zahir Shah to approve a new constitution.
  • 1974, July--a meeting about Duran-Line and asking Pakistan of it (with terrible consequences)
  • 1977, January -- approved the new constitution of Mohammed Daoud Khan establishing one-party rule in the Republic of Afghanistan.
  • 1985, April -- to ratify the new constitution of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
  • 2001, September -- there were four different loya jirga movements anticipating the end of Taliban rule. There was little communication between each of them:
    • The first was based in Rome around Mohammed Zahir Shah, and it reflected the interests of moderate Pashtuns from southeastern Afghanistan, the same ethnic group from which the Taliban draws much of its support. The Rome initiative called for fair elections, support for Islam as the foundation of the Afghan state and respect for human rights.
    • The second was based in Cyprus and led by Homayoun Jarir, a renegade member of the Islamic Party of his father-in-law, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, who fought a battle over Kabul with rivals before the Taliban took over in 1996. Critics of the Cyprus initiative suspected it of serving the interests of Iran. The members of the Cyprus initiative, however, considered themselves closer to the Afghan people and regard the Rome group as too close to the long-isolated nobility.
    • The most significant was based in Bonn, which resulted in the Bonn Agreement (Afghanistan). This agreement was made under UN auspices, established the Afghan Interim Authority, and paved the way for the later jirgas that established the Constitution of Afghanistan.
    • A lesser initiative based in Pakistan.
  • 2002 -- organized by the interim administration of Hamid Karzai, with about 2000 delegates, either selected through elections in the various regions of the country or allocated to various political, cultural and religious groups. It was held in a large tent in the grounds of Kabul Polytechnic from June 11 and scheduled to last about a week. It formed a new Transitional Administration which took office shortly afterwards.
  • 2003, December -- to consider the Proposed Afghan Constitution. See 2003 Loya jirga.
  • 2006 - Afghan president Hamid Karzai said that he and the Pakistani president will jointly lead Loya jirga to end row over border attacks.[1]

Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paghman is a town in the hills near Kabul, Afghanistan. ... King Amanullah Khan was the bravest Afghan who defeated British Forces and Kicked them out of our great Afghanistan in 1919. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammed Nadir Khan; 1883 - November 8, 1933) was king of Afghanistan from 1929 until his assassination in 1933 (see Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Insert non-formatted text here Mohammed Zahir Shah (16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King (Shah) of Afghanistan, reigning for four decades, from 1933 to 1973. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Durand Line is the term for the 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Daouds Republic (July 17, 1973 - April 28, 1978) The welcome Mohammed Daoud Khan received on returning to power on July 17, 1973 reflected the citizenrys disappointment with the lackluster politics of the preceding decade. ... This article is about the year. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... This article is about the year. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Insert non-formatted text here Mohammed Zahir Shah (16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King (Shah) of Afghanistan, reigning for four decades, from 1933 to 1973. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (born 1947) Islamist Mujahideen leader and warlord. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Officially the Agreement on Provisional Arrangements in Afghanistan Pending the Re-Establishment of Permanent Government Institutions, the Bonn Agreement was the initial series of agreements intended to re-create the State of Afghanistan following the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, an... The Constitution of afghanistan became the official law of Afghanistan when the 2003 Loya jirga approved it by the consensus on January 4, 2004. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Hamid Karzai (Persian: حامد کرزى and Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... The Afghan Transitional Administration was established in June and July of 2002. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitution of afghanistan became the official law of Afghanistan when the 2003 Loya jirga approved it by the consensus on January 4, 2004. ... A 502-delegate loya jirga convened in Kabul, Afghanistan, on December 14, 2003, to consider the proposed Afghan Constitution. ... Hamid Karzai (Persian: حامد کرزى and Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ...

Baloch

April 29 2006 Former Balochistan chief minister Taj Muhammad Jamali offered to arranged a meeting between President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf and a Loya Jirga (grand jirga) for peace in Balochistan.[2] A Grand jirga was held at Kalat in September 2006 to announce that a case would be filed in the International Court of Justice regarding the sovereignty and rights of the Baloch people.[3][4][5][6] Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... Distribution of Balochs is marked in pink. ... The city of Kalat is located roughly in the center of Balochistan, Pakistan, south and slightly west of the provincial capital Quetta. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Language(s) Balochi Religion(s) Islam Sunni (predominantly) and Zikris around Turbat[17][18] [19] Related ethnic groups Iranian people Especially Pashtuns, Kurds, Laks, Zazas Persians and Mazandaranis The Baloch (بلوچ; alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Bloach,Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ...


See also

A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ... The House of the People, also known natively as the The Wolesi Jirga is the lower house of the bicameral national assembly of Afghanistan. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The House of Elders, also natively known as the Meshrano Jirga is the upper house of the bicameral national assembly of Afghanistan. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ...

References

  1. ^ "Musharraf, Karzai to lead Loya jirga", Frontier Post, October 1, 2006. 
  2. ^ Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan
  3. ^ Grand jirga in Kalat decides to move ICJ. The Dawn Edition (September 22, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  4. ^ Baloch chiefs to approach International Court of Justice. India eNews (September 26, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  5. ^ The Nation, 3 October 2006 Jirga rejects mega projects
  6. ^ Daily Times, 4 October 2006 Baloch jirga to form supreme council to implement decisions

The Frontier Post is a newspaper based in Peshawar in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Q&A: What is a loya jirga?
  • Loya Jirga

  Results from FactBites:
 
Loya jirga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (591 words)
Loya jirga, occasionally loya jirgah, is a large meeting held in Afghanistan, originally attended by Pashtun groups but later including other ethnic groups.
The attendees of loya jirga variously suck dick include tribal or regional leaders, political, military and religious figures, royalty, government officials, etc. The meetings are called irregularly, often by the ruler.
There are no time limits in a loya jirga and it continues until decisions are reached.
2003 Loya jirga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (619 words)
A 502-delegate loya jirga convened in Kabul, Afghanistan, on December 14, 2003, to consider the proposed Afghan Constitution.
On January 1, the loya jirga broke down when close to half of the assembly, consisting mostly of Uzbek, Tajik, Hazara and Turkmen minorities, boycotted the first and only ballot, forcing chairman Sibghatullah Mojadedi to call for a 2-day adjourning.
The Loya jirga convened beneath a large tent on the grounds of a Soviet-built university.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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