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Encyclopedia > Lower Sorbian language
Lower Sorbian
dolnoserbski 
Pronunciation: IPA: [ˈdɔlnɔˌsɛrskʲi]
Spoken in: Germany 
Region: Brandenburg
Total speakers: 14,000
Language family: Indo-European
 Balto-Slavic
  Slavic
   West Slavic
    Sorbian
     Lower Sorbian 
Writing system: Latin (Sorbian variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: dsb
ISO/DIS 639-3: dsb 

Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. It is one of the two literary Sorbian languages, the other being Upper Sorbian. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Brandenburg (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) and lies in the east of the country. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects (443 according to the SIL estimate), including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and Southern Asia. ... The Balto-Slavic language group is a hypothetical language group consisting of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... The Sorbian languages are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Sorbian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet but uses diacritics such as the acute accent and the hacek. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... Brandenburg (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) and lies in the east of the country. ... The Sorbian languages are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbsce) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ...


Lower Sorbian is spoken in and around the city of Cottbus in Brandenburg. Signs in this region are usually bilingual, and Cottbus has a Gymnasium where the language of instruction is Lower Sorbian. Cottbus (Sorbian: Chośebuz, archaic German: Kottbus) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the Spree river. ... Brandenburg (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) and lies in the east of the country. ... A gymnasium (pronounced /gim-/ as opposed to /jim-/) is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ...

Contents


Phonology

The phonology of Lower Sorbian has been greatly influenced by contact with German, especially in Cottbus and larger towns. For example, German-influenced pronunciation tends to have a uvular trill [ʁ] instead of the alveolar trill [r], and a "clear" [l] that is not especially palatalized instead of [lʲ]. In villages and rural areas German influence is less marked, and the pronunciation is more "typically Slavic". Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ... The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


Consonants

The consonant phonemes of Lower Sorbian are as follows: A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ...

  Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p  b
pʲ  bʲ
  t  d         k  g
kʲ  gʲ
 
Affricate       ts tɕ  dʑ tʃ  dʒ      
Nasal m
  n          
Fricative   f  v
fʲ  vʲ
  s  z ɕ  ʑ ʃ  ʒ   x h
Approximant       r
    j    
Lateral approximant                

Lower Sorbian has both final devoicing and regressive voicing assimilation: In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin like stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ), but release as a fricative such as or (or, a couple languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject to understand later context. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ...

  • /dub/ "oak" is pronounced [dup]
  • /susedka/ "(female) neighbor" is pronounced [susetka]
  • /litsba/ "number" is pronounced [lidzba]

The postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ is assimilated to [ɕ] before /tɕ/:

  • /ʃtɕit/ "protection" is pronounced [ɕtɕit]

Vowels

The vowel phonemes are as follows: Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Monophthongs Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Open-mid ɛ   ɔ
Open a
Diphthongs Centering Ending
in /j/
Ending
in /w/
Starting close ij  ɨj  uj iw  ɨw  uw
Starting mid   ej  ɔj ɛw  ow
Starting open   aj aw

A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek and ending tongue positions. ...

Stress

Stress in Lower Sorbian normally falls on the first syllable of the word: In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...

  • Łužyca /ˈvuʒɨtsa/ "Lusatia"
  • pśijaśel /ˈpɕijaɕɛlʲ/ "friend"
  • Chóśebuz /ˈxɨɕɛbus/ "Cottbus"

In loanwords, stress may fall on any of the last three syllables: Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... Cottbus (Sorbian: Chośebuz, archaic German: Kottbus) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the Spree river. ... A loanword is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...

  • internat /intɛrˈnat/ "boarding school"
  • kontrola /kɔnˈtrɔlʲa/ "control"
  • september /sɛpˈtɛmbɛr/ "September"
  • policija /pɔˈlʲitsija/ "police"
  • organizacija /ɔrganʲiˈzatsija/ "organization"

Orthography

The Sorbian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet but uses diacritics such as acute accent and caron. The standard character encoding for the Lower Sorbian alphabet is ISO 8859-2 (Latin-2). The Sorbian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet but uses diacritics such as the acute accent and the hacek. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... č ď Ä› Ǩ Ľ Å™ Å¡ ž A caron ( ˇ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name háček (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... ISO 8859-2, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-2 or less formally as Latin-2, is part 2 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ...


External links

  • Test Wikipedia in Lower Sorbian
  • Ethnologue on Lower Sorbian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Upper and Lower Sorbian language, alphabet and pronunciation (521 words)
Sorbian, or Wendisch, is a member of the West Slavic subgroup of Indo-European languges spoken by about 55,000 people in Upper and Lower Lusatia in the German Länder of Saxony and Brandenburg.
In the mid-19th century, written Upper Sorbian based on the dialect spoken around Bautzen was introduced as the compulsory standard in the Sorbian-speaking area in Upper Lusatia, while written Lower Sorbian based on the Cottbus dialect was introduced as the standard written form in Lower Lusatia.
Sorbian is taught as a subject in a number of secondary schools and used as a medium of instruction for some subjects.
Lower Sorbian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (284 words)
Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg.
Lower Sorbian is spoken in and around the city of Cottbus in Brandenburg.
The standard character encoding for the Lower Sorbian alphabet is ISO 8859-2 (Latin-2).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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