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Encyclopedia > Lower Canada Rebellion
Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838
Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838

The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. Together with the simultaneous Upper Canada Rebellion in the neighbouring colony of Upper Canada (now Ontario), it formed the Rebellions of 1837. Image File history File links Patriotes_flag. ... Image File history File links Patriotes_flag. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Republic of Canadas flag - the two stars represent Upper and Lower Canada. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Church of England Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ...

Contents

History

The rebellion of Lower Canada continued in 1838 and is often called Les rébellions de 1837-38 in Quebec. The actions of the rebels resulted in the declaration of martial law and a first armed conflict occurred in 1837 when the 26 members of the Patriote movement who had been charged with illegal activities chose to resist their arrest by the authorities under the direction of John Colborne. In 1838, two major armed conflicts occurred when groups of Lower Canadian Patriotes led by Robert Nelson crossed the American border in an attempt to invade Lower Canada and Upper Canada, drive the British army out and establish independent republics. For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton (February 16, 1778 - April 17, 1863), British field marshal, was born at Lyndhurst, Hants and entered the 2Oth (Lancashire Fusiliers) in 1794, winning thereafter every step in his regimental promotion without purchase. ... Robert Nelson - Lopinion publique, Vol. ...


These events are often misreported[citation needed], which moves the attention away from three decades of political battles between the Parti patriote of James Stuart and Louis-Joseph Papineau, which was seeking responsible government for the colony, and the unelected British Executive and Legislative Councils in the former French colony, which were dominated by a small group of mainly businessmen known as the Château Clique, the equivalent of the Family Compact in Upper Canada. The Parti canadien (also Parti patriote) was a political party in what is now Quebec, Canada, that was founded by members of the liberal elite of French Canada at the beginning of the 19th century. ... Sir James Stuart (March 2, 1780 – July 14, 1853) was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Lower Canada. ... Portrait of Louis-Joseph Papineau. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... The Legislative Council of Lower Canada was the upper house of the bicameral structure of provincial government in Lower Canada until 1838. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The Château Clique was a group of wealthy families in Lower Canada in the early 19th century. ... The Family Compact was the informal name for the wealthy, conservative elite of Upper Canada in the early 19th century. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Church of England Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative...


The movement for reform took shape in a period of economic disenfranchisement of the French-speaking majority and working class English speaking citizens. However, the rebellion was not about language but centered on the unfairness of colonial governing as such, many of the leaders and participants were English-speaking citizens of Lower Canada. In banking, the timber trade, and transportation, Anglophones were seen as disproportionately represented. However, the Roman Catholic church discouraged French-Canadians from commercial activities, asserting it was God's will that they remain an agrarian society. (Out of 775 identified rebels from Lower Canada, 388 were farmers.) At the same time, some among the Anglophone business elite were advocating for a union of Upper and Lower Canada in order to ensure competitiveness on a national scale with the increasingly large and powerful economy of the United States. The unification of the colony was a plan favoured by the British-appointed governor, George Ramsey, Earl of Dalhousie. The reaction was a growing sense of nationalism among English and the French-speaking citizens, which solidified into the Parti canadien. (After 1826 called the Parti patriote.) The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ... George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie (October 23, 1770 - March 21, 1838) was lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia from 1816 to 1820, Governor General of British North America from 1820 to 1828 and later became commander-in-chief in India. ... Patriote leader Louis-Joseph Papineau speaks to the crowd at the Assembly of the Six Counties. ...


In 1811, James Stuart became leader of the Parti canadien in the assembly and in 1815, reformer Louis-Joseph Papineau was elected Assembly speaker. The Assembly, while elected, had little power; its decisions could be vetoed by a legislative council and the governor appointed by the British government. Dalhousie and Papineau were soon at odds over the issue of uniting the Canadas, and Dalhousie forced an election in 1827 rather than accept Papineau as speaker. Sympathizers to the reform movement in England had Dalhousie forced from his position and reappointed to India. Still, the legislative council and the assembly were not able to reach a compromise, and by 1834, the assembly had passed the Ninety-Two Resolutions, outlining its grievances against the legislative council. At that point, the Patriote movement was supported by an overwhelming majority of the population in all origins. The Ninety-Two Resolutions were drafted by Louis-Joseph Papineau and other members of the Parti patriote of Lower Canada in 1834. ...


Later in 1834 the Parti Patriote swept the election with more than three-quarters of the popular vote. However, the reformers in Lower Canada were divided over several issues. A moderate reformer named John Neilson had quit the party in 1830 and joined the Constitutional Association 4 years later. Papineau's anti-clerical position alienated reformers in the Catholic Church, and his support for secular rather than religious schools made him a powerful enemy in Bishop Jean-Jacques Lartigue. Lartigue called on all Catholics to reject the reform movement and support the authorities, forcing many to choose between their religion and their political convictions. This article needs cleanup. ... Jean-Jacques Lartigue (June 20, 1777 – April 19, 1840) was the only son of a noted Montreal family. ...


However, Papineau continued to push for reform. He petitioned the British government to bring about reform, but in March of 1837 the government of Lord Melbourne rejected all of Papineau's requests. Papineau then organized protests and assemblies, and eventually approved the paramilitary Société des Fils de la Liberté during the Assemblée des six-comtés. Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... The Société des Fils de la Liberté was a paramilitary organization founded in August of 1837 in Lower Canada (modern-day Quebec) by young supporters of the Parti patriote who became impatient with the pace of progress of the movement for constitutional and parliamentary reforms. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Papineau escaped to the United States, but the rebels set themselves up in the countryside, and, led by Wolfred Nelson defeated a British force at Saint-Denis on November 23. However, the British troops soon beat back the rebels, defeating them at Saint-Charles on November 25 and at Saint-Eustache on December 14. Saint-Eustache was then pillaged and ransacked. On December 5th, martial law was declared in Montréal. Wolfred Nelson, (July 10, 1791 – June 17, 1863) was from 1854 – 1856 the mayor of Montreal, Quebec. ... This was the only village in which Les Fils de la Liberté (The Sons of Liberty) had won the battle against the British Army while Canada was divided into two Upper Canada and Lower Canada. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint-Eustache is a city in western Quebec, west of Montreal on the southwestern end of the Rivière des Mille-ÃŽles. ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


When news of the arrest of the Patriote leaders reached Upper Canada, William Lyon Mackenzie launched an armed rebellion in December of 1837. In the mean time, filibusters from the United States, the Hunter Patriots, formed a small militia and attacked Windsor, Ontario to further support the Canadian Patriots. These revolts were quickly put down. The following year, leaders who had escaped across the border into the United States raided Lower Canada in February of 1838, and a second revolt began at Beauharnois in November of the same year. This too was crushed by the British. William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and leader of an unsuccessful rebellion. ... A filibuster is a private individual who engages in unauthorized warfare against a foreign country, often with the intent of overthrowing the existing government. ... The Hunters were an obscure secret society from early 19th century America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Meanwhile, Britain had dispatched Lord Durham to investigate the cause of the rebellion. His report recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony (the Province of Canada) so as to assimilate the French-speaking Canadiens into the culture of the British Empire. However, he recommended acceding to the rebels' grievances by granting responsible government to the new colony. John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham (also known as Radical Jack) GCB PC (London 12 April 1792 – 28 July 1840 Cowes), was a British Whig statesman and colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America. ... The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as Lord Durhams Report, is an important document in the history of Canada and the British Empire. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Afterwards

Following the military defeat of the Patriotes, Lower Canada was merged with Upper Canada under the Union Act and the Canadiens became a minority in the new political entity. Eight years after the Union, a responsible government was set up in the united Province of Canada. The great instability of this new regime (see Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada) eventually led to the formation of the Great coalition, and another major constitutional change, the Canadian Confederation of 1867. The Act of Union passed in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841, abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity the Province of Canada to replace them. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada were the leaders of the Province of Canada, from the 1841 unification of Upper Canada and Lower Canada until Confederation in 1867. ... The Great Coalition refers to the grand coalition of political parties that formed in the Province of Canada in 1864. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...


The rebellion of the Patriotes Canadiens of Lower Canada is often seen as the example of what might have happened to the United States of America if the American Revolutionary War had failed. In Quebec, the rebellion (as well as the parliamentary and popular struggle) is now commemorated as the Journée nationale des Patriotes (National Patriotes Day) by the use of the Canadian Statutory Holiday, Victoria Day. It has become a symbol for the contemporary Quebec independence movement. Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Dutch Republic, Spain, American Indians Kingdom of Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, American Indians Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene, Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the... The National Patriots Day (French Journée nationale des Patriotes) commemorates the memory of Lower Canada Patriots heritage in Quebec. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holidays in Canada. ... Victoria Day (French: Fête de la Reine) is a Canadian Statutory Holiday celebrated on the Monday on or before May 24 in honour of both Queen Victorias birthday and the current reigning Canadian Sovereigns birthday. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ...


Leaders

Thomas Storrow Brown (born July 7, 1803 - died November 26, 1888) was a Canadian journalist, writer, orator, and revolutionary. ... Jean-Olivier Chénier (December 9, 1806–December 14, 1838) was a physician in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec). ... François-Marie-Thomas Chevalier de Lorimier (December 27, 1803–February 15, 1839), also known under various shorter names as François-Marie-Thomas de Lorimier, Marie-Thomas Chevalier de Lorimier or Chevalier de Lorimier, was a notary who fought as a Patriote and Frère chasseur for the independence... Edmund Bailey OCallaghan, (probably 27 February 1797 – 29 May 1880) born in Mallow, Ireland, was a doctor and journalist. ... Robert Nelson - Lopinion publique, Vol. ... Wolfred Nelson, (July 10, 1791 – June 17, 1863) was from 1854 – 1856 the mayor of Montreal, Quebec. ... Portrait of Louis-Joseph Papineau. ...

References

  • Lepailleur, François-Maurice. 1980. Land of a Thousand Sorrows. The Australian Prison Journal 1840-1842, of the Exiled Canadien Patriote, François-Maurice Lepailleur. Translated and edited by F. Murray Greenwood. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. ISBN 0-7748-0123-9.

The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public university with its main campus located at Point Grey, in the University Endowment Lands adjacent to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and another smaller campus known as UBC Okanagan located in Kelowna, British Columbia. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Patriote movement

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article presents a detailed timeline of Quebec history both as part of the British Empire and the Dominion of Canada. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Canada Bay is a Local Government Area of New South Wales, Australia and located in the metropolitan area of Sydney. ... The National Patriotes Day (French Journée nationale des Patriotes) is celebrated on the same day as the Victoria Day, a Canadian Statutory Holiday celebrated annually on the Monday preceding May 25. ... Most discussions regarding the Lower-Canada Rebellions have not rigorously deciphered the specific role played by the Iroquois community of Kahnawake in. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Upper Canada Rebellion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (851 words)
The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Lower Canada Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838.
In Upper Canada, one of the most controversial issues in the early 19th century was the allocation of land.
After the War of 1812 the government of Upper Canada was run by the wealthy owners of most of this reserve land, known as the Family Compact.
Lower Canada Rebellion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1059 words)
The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province.
The rebellion of the Patriotes Canadiens of Lower Canada is often seen as the example of what might have happened to the United States of America if the American Revolutionary War had failed.
Following the military defeat of the Patriotes, Lower Canada was merged with Upper Canada under the Union Act and the Canadiens became a minority in the new political entity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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