FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Love poem
Bust of Homer, one of the earliest European poets, in the British Museum
Bust of Homer, one of the earliest European poets, in the British Museum

Poetry (ancient Greek: ποιεω (poieo) = I create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. It consists largely of oral or literary works in which language is used in a manner that is felt by its user and audience to differ from ordinary prose. Photograph taken of the bust of Homer in the British Museum, London. ... Photograph taken of the bust of Homer in the British Museum, London. ... The main entrance to the British Museum The British Museum is one of the worlds largest and most important museums of ancient history. ... Resources ArtLex. ... Aesthetics (also esthetics) is the philosophy of beauty and art. ... Meaning is studied in philosophy and linguistics. ... In the main, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Open Directory Project: Literature World Literature Electronic Text Archives Magazines and E-zines Online Writing Writers Resources Libraries, Digital Cataloguing, Metadata Distance Learning Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Classicism in Literature The Universal Library, by Carnegie Mellon University Project Gutenberg Online Library Abacci - Project Gutenberg texts matched with Amazon... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ...


It may use condensed or compressed form to convey emotion or ideas to the reader's or listener's mind or ear; it may also use devices such as assonance and repetition to achieve musical or incantatory effects. Poems frequently rely for their effect on imagery, word association, and the musical qualities of the language used. The interactive layering of all these effects to generate meaning is what marks poetry. Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds within a short passage of verse or prose. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikisource, as part of the 1911 Encyclopedia Wikiproject, has original text related to this article: Music Wikicities has a wiki about Music: Music Music City : a collaborative music database All Music Guide... An incantation is the words spoken during a ritual. ...


Because of its nature of emphasising linguistic form rather than using language purely for its content, poetry is notoriously difficult to translate from one language into another: a possible exception to this might be the Hebrew Psalms, where the beauty is found more in the balance of ideas than in specific vocabulary. In most poetry, it is the connotations and the "baggage" that words carry (the weight of words) that are most important. These shades and nuances of meaning can be difficult to interpret and can cause different readers to "hear" a particular piece of poetry differently. While there are reasonable interpretations, there can never be a definitive interpretation. Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language — the source text — and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language — called the target text, or the translation. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...

Contents


Nature of poetry

Poetry can be differentiated most of the time from prose, which is language meant to convey meaning in a more expansive and less condensed way, frequently using more complete logical or narrative structures than poetry does. This does not necessarily imply that poetry is illogical, but rather that poetry is often created from the need to escape the logical, as well as expressing feelings and other expressions in a tight, condensed manner. A further complication is that prose poetry combines the characteristics of poetry with the superficial appearance of prose, such as in Robert Frost's poem, "Home Burial." Other forms include narrative poetry and dramatic poetry, both of which are used to tell stories and so resemble novels and plays. However, both these forms of poetry use the specific features of verse composition to make these stories more memorable or to enhance them in some way. Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... Prose poetry is prose that breaks some of the normal rules of prose discourse for heightened imagery or emotional effect. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... Verse is a writing that uses meter as its primary organisational mode, as opposed to prose, which uses grammatical and discoursal units like sentences and paragraphs. ...


What is generally accepted as "great" poetry is debatable in many cases. "Great" poetry usually follows the characteristics listed above, but it is also set apart by its complexity and sophistication. "Great" poetry generally captures images vividly and in an original, refreshing way, while weaving together an intricate combination of elements like theme tension, complex emotion, and profound reflective thought. For examples of what is considered "great" poetry, visit the pulitzer prize and nobel prize sections for poetry. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-04-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ...


The Greek verb ποιέω [poiéō (= I make or create)], gave rise to three words: ποιητής [poiētḗs (= the one who creates)], ποίησις [poíēsis (= the act of creation)] and ποίημα [poíēma (= the thing created)]. From these we get three English words: poet (the creator), poesy (the creation) and poem (the created). A poet is therefore one who creates and poetry is what the poet creates. The underlying concept of the poet as creator is not uncommon. For example, in Anglo-Saxon a poet is a scop (shaper or maker) and in Scots makar. The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... SCOP can refer to Structural Classification of Proteins A scop was an Old English poet, the Anglo-Saxon counterpart of the Old Norse skald. ... Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic of the Highlands, is a language used in Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans... A makar in Scottish literature is a poet or bard, often attached to the royal court. ...

Manuscript of the Rig Veda, Sanskrit verse composed in the 2nd millennium BC.
Manuscript of the Rig Veda, Sanskrit verse composed in the 2nd millennium BC.

Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) Events Second dynasty of Babylon First Bantu migrations from west Africa The Cushites drive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt. ...

Sound in poetry

Perhaps the most vital element of sound in poetry is rhythm. Often the rhythm of each line is arranged in a particular meter. Different types of meter played key roles in Classical, Early European, Eastern and Modern poetry. In the case of free verse, the rhythm of lines is often organised into looser units of cadence. Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ... Metre (American spelling: meter) describes the regular linguistic sound patterns of verse. ... Free verse (or vers libre) is a style of poetry that is based on cadences that are more irregular than those of traditional poetic meter. ...


Poetry in English and other modern European languages often uses rhyme. Rhyme at the end of lines is the basis of a number of common poetic forms, such as ballads, sonnets and rhyming couplets. However, the use of rhyme is not universal. Much modern poetry, for example, avoids traditional rhyme schemes. Furthermore, Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme. In fact, rhyme did not enter European poetry at all until the High Middle Ages, when it was adopted from the Arabic language. The Arabs have always used rhymes extensively, most notably in their long, rhyming qasidas. Some classical poetry forms, such as Venpa of the Tamil language, had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar), which ensured a rhythm. A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... A ballad is a story in song, usually a narrative song or poem. ... Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch, one of the best-known of the early Italian sonnet writers The term sonnet is derived from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a unit. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, 1929-30: The modern style is noted for its rigorous geometrical forms. ... A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming lines in a poem. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Arabic (العربية al-arabiyyah, or less formally arabi) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... A qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... Venpa (வெண்பா in Tamil) is a form of classical tamil poetry. ... The letter ழ் is a consonant believed to be unique to Tamil and Malayalam Tamil is a classical language and one of the major languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. ... In linguistics and computer science, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a formal grammar in which every production rule is of the form V → w where V is a non-terminal symbol and w is a string consisting of terminals and/or non-terminals. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ...


Alliteration played a key role in structuring early Germanic and English forms of poetry (called alliterative verse), akin to the role of rhyme in later European poetry. The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry and the rhyme schemes of Modern European poetry alike both include meter as a key part of their structure, which determines when the listener expects instances of rhyme or alliteration to occur. In this sense, both alliteration and rhyme, when used in poetic structures, help to emphasise and define a rhythmic pattern. By contrast, the chief device of Biblical poetry in ancient Hebrew was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three; a verse form that lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance. Alliteration is a stylistic device, or literary technique, in which successive words (more strictly, stressed syllables) begin with the same consonant sound or letter. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... This article is concerned with Biblical poetry, specifically poetry in the Hebrew Bible. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar) in Western culture. ... This article is about the musical term. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ...


In addition to the forms of rhyme, alliteration and rhythm that structure much poetry, sound plays a more subtle role in even free verse poetry in creating pleasing, varied patterns and emphasising or sometimes even illustrating semantic elements of the poem. Devices such as alliteration, assonance, consonance, dissonance and internal rhyme are among the ways poets use sound. Euphony refers to the musical, flowing quality of words arranged in an aesthetically pleasing way. Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds within a short passage of verse or prose. ... Consonance is a stylistic device, often used in poetry. ... In poetry, dissonance is the deliberate avoidance of patterns of repeated vowel sounds (see assonance). ... Internal rhyme is rhyme which occurs within a single line of verse. ... Euphony describes flowing and aesthetically pleasing speech. ...


Poetry and form

Compared with prose, poetry depends less on the linguistic units of sentences and paragraphs, and more on units of organisation that are purely poetic. The typical structural elements are the line, couplet, strophe, stanza, and verse paragraph. LINES (long interspersed elements) are long DNA sequences that represent reverse-transcribed RNA molecules originally transcribed by RNA polymerase II into mRNA (messenger RNA to be translated into protein on ribosomes). ... A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a unit. ... Strophe (Greek, to turn) is a term in versification which properly means a turn, as from one foot to another, or from one side of a chorus to the other. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... Verse paragraphs are stanzas with no regular number of lines or groups of lines that make up units of sense. ...


Lines may be self-contained units of sense, as in the well-known lines from William Shakespeare's Hamlet: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and one of his most well-known and oft-quoted plays. ...

To be, or not to be: that is the question.

Alternatively a line may end in mid-phrase or sentence:

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

this linguistic unit is completed in the next line,

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.

This technique is called enjambment, and is used to create a sense of expectation in the reader and/or to add a dynamic to the movement of the verse. Enjambement is the breaking of a linguistic unit (phrase, clause or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. ...


In many instances, the effectiveness of a poem derives from the tension between the use of linguistic and formal units. With the advent of printing, poets gained greater control over the visual presentation of their work. As a result, the use of these formal elements, and of the white space they help create, became an important part of the poet's toolbox. Modernist poetry tends to take this to an extreme, with the placement of individual lines or groups of lines on the page forming an integral part of the poem's composition. In its most extreme form, this leads to the writing of concrete poetry. This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... Concrete poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ...


Poetry and rhetoric

Rhetorical devices such as simile and metaphor are frequently used in poetry. Indeed, Aristotle wrote in his Poetics that "the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor". However, particularly since the rise of Modernism, some poets have opted for reduced use of these devices, preferring rather to attempt the direct presentation of things and experiences. Other 20th-century poets, however, particularly the surrealists, have pushed rhetorical devices to their limits, making frequent use of catachresis. A rhetorical device is a technique, sometimes called a resource of language, used by an author or speaker to induce an emotional response. ... Simile is an Italian musical term meaning similarly; it indicates that the performer should continue to apply the preceding directive, whatever it was. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs; 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ... Poetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, 1929-30: The modern style is noted for its rigorous geometrical forms. ... The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Surrealism is a philosophy, a cultural and artistic movement, and a term used to describe unexpected juxtapositions. ... A rhetorical device is a technique, sometimes called a resource of language, used by an author or speaker to induce an emotional response. ... Catachresis is the (usually intentional) use of any figure of speech that flagrantly violates the norms of a language community. ...


History of poetry

Poetry as an art form predates literacy. In preliterate societies, poetry was frequently employed as a means of recording oral history, storytelling (epic poetry), genealogy, law and other forms of expression or knowledge that modern societies might expect to be handled in prose. The Ramayana, a Sanskrit epic which includes poetry, was probably written in the 3rd century BCE in a language described by William Jones as "more perfect than Latin, more copious than Greek and more exquisitely refined than either." Poetry is also often closely identified with liturgy in these societies, as the formal nature of poetry makes it easier to remember priestly incantations or prophecies. The greater part of the world's sacred scriptures are made up of poetry rather than prose. Literacy is the ability to read and write. ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, which retells in a continuous narrative the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Corruption Jurisprudence Philosophy of law Law (principle) List of legal abbreviations Legal code Intent Letter versus Spirit Natural Justice Natural law Religious law Witness intimidation Legal research Critical legal studies External links Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law Look up law in Wiktionary, the free dictionary... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...


The use of verse to transmit cultural information continues today. Most English speakers know that "in 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue". An alphabet song teaches the names and order of the letters of the alphabet; another jingle states the lengths and names of the months in the Gregorian calendar. Preliterate societies, lacking the means to write down important cultural information, use similar methods to preserve it. Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Christopher Columbus For information about the film director, see the article on Chris Columbus. ... The alphabet song is a popular method for speakers (especially children) to learn the Latin alphabet. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar widely used in the Western world. ...


Some writers believe that poetry has its origins in song. Most of the characteristics that distinguish it from other forms of utterance—rhythm, rhyme, compression, intensity of feeling, the use of refrains—appear to have come about from efforts to fit words to musical forms. However, in the European tradition the earliest surviving poems, the Homeric and Hesiodic epics, identify themselves as poems to be recited or chanted to a musical accompaniment rather than as pure song. Another interpretation, developed from 20th-century studies of living Montenegran epic reciters by Milman Parry and others, is that rhythm, refrains, and kennings are essentially paratactic devices that enable the reciter to reconstruct the poem from memory. A refrain (from the Old French refraindre to repeat, likely from Vulgar Latin refringere) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the chorus of a song. ... Bust of Homer in the British Museum For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Hesiod (Hesiodos) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, believed to have lived around the year 700 BCE. From the 5th century BCE, literary historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer. ... Milman Parry, who was a student of the linguist Antoine Meillet at the Sorbonne, revolutionized Homeric studies. ... This article is about kenning as a poetic notion. ... Parataxis (contrasted to syntaxis) is a writing or rhetorical style that favors short, simple sentences, often without the use of conjunctions. ...

In preliterate societies, all these forms of poetry were composed for, and sometimes during, performance. As such, there was a certain degree of fluidity to the exact wording of poems, given this could change from one performance or performer to another. The introduction of writing tended to fix the content of a poem to the version that happened to be written down and survive. Written composition also meant that poets began to compose not for an audience that was sitting in front of them but for an absent reader. Later, the invention of printing tended to accelerate these trends. Poets were now writing more for the eye than for the ear. Download high resolution version (1985x2453, 1533 KB)This image was made in 1887 in New York, by photographer George C. Cox. ... Download high resolution version (1985x2453, 1533 KB)This image was made in 1887 in New York, by photographer George C. Cox. ... Walt Whitman Walt Whitman, age 37, frontispiece to Leaves of Grass, Fulton St. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) The 19th century lasted from 1801 to 1900 in the Gregorian calendar (using the Common Era system of year numbering). ... Emily Dickinson, one of the best known American poets. ... Writing may refer to two activities: the inscribing of characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other constructs that represent language or record information, and the creation of material to be conveyed through written language. ... The folder of newspaper web offset printing press Printing is an industrial process for mass production of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. ...


The development of literacy gave rise to more personal, shorter poems intended to be sung. These are called lyrics, which derives from the Greek lura or lyre, the instrument that was used to accompany the performance of Greek lyrics from about the seventh century BCE onward. The Greek's practice of singing hymns in large choruses gave rise in the sixth century BCE to dramatic verse, and to the practice of writing poetic plays for performance in their theatres. Lyric can have a number of meanings. ... A Lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity. ... Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general terms is poetic drama. ... A play is a common form of literature, usually consisting chiefly of dialog between characters, and usually intended for performance rather than reading. ... Theatre is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed any one or more elements of the other performing arts. ...


In more recent times, the introduction of electronic media and the rise of the poetry reading have led to a resurgence of performance poetry and have resulted in a situation where poetry for the eye and poetry for the ear coexist, sometimes in the same poem. The late 20th-century rise of the singer-songwriter and Rap culture and the increase in popularity of Slam poetry have led to a renewed debate as to the nature of poetry that can be crudely characterised as a split between the academic and popular views. As of 2005, this debate is ongoing with no immediate prospect of a resolution. A poetry reading is a performance of poetry, normally given on a small stage in a cafe or bookstore, although poetry readings given by notable poets frequently are booked into larger venues (amphitheaters, college auditoriums, etc. ... Performance Poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during performance before an audience. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop as well as the distinguishing feature of most hip hop music. ... Slam poetry is a form of performance poetry that occurs within a competitive poetry event, called a slam, at which poets perform their own poems (or, in rare cases, those of others) that are judged on a numeric scale by randomly picked members of the audience. ...


Terms

Periods, styles and movements

For movements see List of schools of poetry.

(Organised alphabetically, not by date) Schools of poetry may be self-identified by the poets that form them or defined by critics who see unifying characteristics of a body of work by more than one poet. ...

Emily Dickinson, one of the best known American poets. ... Australian literature began soon after the establishment of the country by Europeans. ... Surrealism in art, poetry, and literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration. ... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... The British Poetry Revival is the general name given to a loose poetic movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... Chinese poetry can be divided into three main periods: the early period, characterised by folk songs in simple, repetitive forms; the classical period from the Han dynasty to the fall of the Qing dynasty, in which a number of different forms were developed; and the modern period of Westernised free... Concrete poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Cowboy poetry is a form of poetry that focuses on the culture, features and lifestyle of the West, both the Old West and its modern equivalents. ... Digital poetry refers to a wide range of approaches to poetry that all have in common prominent and crucial use of computers. ... An epitaph (literally: on the grave in ancient Greek) is text honoring the dead, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ... Erasure poetry is created by erasing words from an existing text in prose or verse and arranging the new text into lines and/or stanzas. ... Found poetry is the rearrangment of words or phrases taken randomly from other sources (example: clipped newspaper headlines, bits of advertising copy, handwritten cards pulled from a hat) in a manner that gives the rearranged words a completely new meaning. ... Ezra Pound, one of the prime movers of Imagism. ... A 1907 engraving of William Butler Yeats, one of Irelands best-known poets. ... Korean poetry is oral or written poetry, given in performance or written down, in the Korean language, or by Koreans overseas. ... A limerick is a short, often humorous and ribald poem developed to a very specific structure. ... Lyric poetry is the purest form of poetry, which does not attempt to tell a story, as do epic poetry and dramatic poetry. ... Martian poetry. ... Medieval poetry was often preserved by mere happenstance. ... Minnesang was the tradition of lyric and song writing in Germany which flourished in the 12th century and continued into the 14th century. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... Mountebanks ... The Movement was a term coined by J. D. Scott, literary editor of the Spectator, in 1954 to describe a group of writers including Kingsley Amis, Philip Larkin, Donald Alfred Davie, D.J. Enright, John Wain, Elizabeth Jennings and Robert Conquest. ... The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City. ... The Objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s. ... The Parnassians were a group of 19th-century French poets, so called from their journal, the Parnasse contemporain, itself named after Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses in Greek mythology. ... Titians The Pastoral Concert Pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds. ... Performance Poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during performance before an audience. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... The term San Francisco Renaissance is used as a global designation for a range of poetic activity centred around that city and which brought it to prominence as a hub of the American poetic avant-garde. ... Sound poetry is a form of literary or musical composition in which the phonetic aspects of human speech are foregrounded at the expense of more conventional semantic and syntactic values; verse without words. By definition, sound poetry is intended primarily for performance. ... A troubador (or troubadour) was a composer and performer of songs in particular styles during the Middle Ages in Europe. ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... Welsh poetry may refer to poetry in the Welsh language, Anglo-Welsh poetry, or other poetry written in Wales or by Welsh poets. ...

Technical means

Accent in poetry refers to the stressed portion of a word. ... Accentual verse has a fixed number of stresses per line or stanza regardless of the number of syllables that are present. ... Aleatory (or aleatoric) means pertaining to luck, and derives from the Latin word alea, the rolling dice. ... Alliteration is a stylistic device, or literary technique, in which successive words (more strictly, stressed syllables) begin with the same consonant sound or letter. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... Anacrusis, in music or poetry, is a word for the lead-in syllables or notes that precede the first full measure. ... Aposiopesis is a figure of speech, in particular a form of ellipsis, in which the speaker breaks off suddenly in the middle of speaking, giving the impression that he is unwilling or unable to continue. ... Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds within a short passage of verse or prose. ... A cæsura, in prosody, is an audible pause that breaks up a long line of verse. ... Chain rhyme is the linking together of stanzas by carrying a rhyme over from one stanza to the next. ... Consonance is a stylistic device, often used in poetry. ... In poetry, dissonance is the deliberate avoidance of patterns of repeated vowel sounds (see assonance). ... Enjambement is the breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. ... In verse, a foot is the basic unit of meter used to describe rhythm. ... Half rhyme, sometimes known as slant rhyme or less commonly eye rhyme, is consonance on the final consonants of the words involved. ... Eye rhyme is a similarity in spelling between words that are pronounced differently and hence, not an auditory rhyme. ... This article is about kenning as a poetic notion. ... The sound of hitting a ball can be described as Whack. In rhetoric, linguistics and poetry, onomatopoeia is a figure of speech that employs a word, or occasionally, a grouping of words, that imitates, echoes, or suggests the object it is describing, such as bang, click, fizz, hush or buzz... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming lines in a poem. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ... Sprung rhythm is a poetic rhythm designed to imitate the rhythm of natural speech. ... Stichomythia is a technique in drama or poetry, in which alternating lines, or half-lines, are given to alternating characters, voices, or entities. ... Syllabic verse is a poetic form having a fixed number of syllables per line or stanza regardless of the number of stresses that are present. ...

Tropes

Another meaning of Trope is Jewish cantillation. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Simile is an Italian musical term meaning similarly; it indicates that the performer should continue to apply the preceding directive, whatever it was. ... // Defining irony Irony is a form of speech in which the real meaning is concealed or contradicted by the words used. ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek meta = after/later and onoma = name) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... Synecdoche (pronounced sin-EK-duh-kee) is a figure of speech that presents a kind of metonymy in which: A part of something is used for the whole, The whole is used for a part, The species is used for the genus, The genus is used for the species, or... Ellipsis Έλλειψις (plural: ellipses ελλείψεις, Greek for omission) in linguistics refers to any omitted part of speech that is understood, i. ...

Measures of verse

Types of metre Types of line

An amphibrac is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... An anapaest is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... A trochee is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... A dactyl (Gr. ... A pyrrhic is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... An iamb is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... A pyrrhic is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... In poetry, a spondee is a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables. ... A tribrach is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... A trochee is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... In poetry, a monometer is a line of verse with just one metrical foot, exemplified by this portion of Robert Herricks Upon His Departure Hence: Thus I Passe by, And die: As one, Unknown, And gone. ... In poetry, a dimeter is a metrical line of verse with two feet. ... A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a unit. ... In poetry, a trimeter is a metre of three metrical feet per line - example: When here the spring we see, Fresh green upon the tree. ... In poetry, a tetrameter is a line of four metrical feet: And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea (Anapaest tetrameter) (Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib) You who are bent and bald and blind (Iambic tetrameter, except for the first foot which is a trochee) (W... In poetry, a pentameter is a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet: Be what you can if thus your heart so deem, For more the man will less the foible seem. ... Hexameter is a literary and poetic form, consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. ... Alternate meaning: Alexandrine of Denmark An alexandrine is a metrical verse of iambic hexameter - a line of six feet or measures (iambs), each of which has two syllables with an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, or a short syllable followed by a long syllable, as in the word... Heptameter is one or more lines of verse containing seven metrical feet (usually fourteen or twenty-one syllables). ... Octameter in poetry is a line of eight metrical feet. ... Poulters measure is a meter consisting of alternate Alexandrines and Fourteeners (12 and 14 syllable lines, respectively), often used in the Elizabethan era. ...

Other

Concrete poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... The sport of cricket has inspired much poetry, most of which romanticises the sport. ... Dub Poetry is a form of performance poetry consisting of spoken word over reggae rhythms, that originated in Jamaica in the 1970s. ... E-poetry, short for electronic poetry, is poetry generated electronically, including hypertext poetry, interactive poetry written in various computer languages such as BASIC, and poetry that is partially or completely randomly generated by electronic (usually computer) means. ... Hypertext poetry, a form of e-poetry, is hard to delineate, since it is often very visual, thus seeping into hypertext fiction and visual arts. ... This is a list of poems that have a page about them in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of anthologies of poetry that have a page about them in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of poetry collections with their own Wikipedia pages. ... This is a list of poetry groups and movements that have pages in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of poets. ... Poetry analysis is the process of investigating a poems form, content, and history in an informed way, with the aim of heightening ones own and others understanding and appreciation of the work. ... Where verse is set to music, the distinction between poem and song may become artificial — to the point of being untenable. ... Prose poetry is prose that breaks some of the normal rules of prose discourse for heightened imagery or emotional effect. ... Slam poetry is a form of performance poetry that occurs within a competitive poetry event, called a slam, at which poets perform their own poems (or, in rare cases, those of others) that are judged on a numeric scale by randomly picked members of the audience. ... Spoken word is a form of music or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ... Arthur Dent being read Vogon poetry in the TV series Vogon Poetry is poetry written by Vogons, a fictional race in Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. ...

See also

This is a list of articles about poetry in a single language or produced by a single nation. ... This is a list of verse forms: ... DeFoes Robinson Crusoe, Newspaper edition published in 1719 A novel (from French nouvelle, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed...

References

  • Alex Preminger, Terry V.F. Brogan and Frank J. Warnke (Eds): The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (Princeton University Press; 3rd edition, 1993). ISBN 0691021236

External links

Listen to this article · (info)
Icon of loudspeaker
This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-04-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (audio help)
More spoken articles

  Results from FactBites:
 
Love Poems (765 words)
Love and Friendship Poems A subcategory of Love Poems, this category explores the fine line that exists between Friendship and Love.
Poems About Teen Love A subcategory of Love Poems, this category deals with the very real joys and pains of discovering love as a teen, often for the first time.
This poem is meant to remind us of that "special day", when words spoken from the heart in front of friends and family, confirm our love to one another.
Romance Love Poems (160 words)
If you are searching for romance love poems, you have come to the right place.
We would review poems and poetry submitted to us every end of the month, and as long as we do not have your love poems, we would sure post it on this site.
But the catch is this, the 3 winners of the poetry contest of the previous month will have their poetry posted here, at the homepage for 1 full month as "poems of the month" while the rest of the submitted poems will be posted at the respective love poem category.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m