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Encyclopedia > Love
Part of a series on Love
Historically
Courtly love
Greek love
Religious love
Types of Emotion
Erotic love
Platonic love
Familial love
Puppy love
Romantic love
See Also
Unrequited love
Problem of love
Sexuality
Sexual intercourse
Valentine's Day
Close relationships

AffinityAttachmentBondingCasualCohabitationCompersion ConcubinageCourtshipDivorceDower/-ryFriendshipFamilyHusbandInfatuationIntimacyJealousyLimerenceLoveMarriageMonogamyNonmonogamyOffice romance PassionPartnerPederastyPolygamyPlatonic lovePsychology of monogamyRelationship abuseRomanceSexualitySeparationWeddingWidowhoodWife Look up love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Emblem-favorites. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Alcibiades and friend Victorian view of interaction between a Greek adolescent and an adult male Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends (1868) Greek love is a relatively modern coinage (almost universally placed within quotation marks) intended as a euphemistic reference to male-to... This page contains religious views on topic oflove. ... Eroticism is an aesthetic focus on sexual desire, especially the feelings of anticipation of sexual activity. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... In sociology, familial love is a type affinity or natural affection felt between members of a group bound by common ancestry or blood ties. ... For other uses, see Puppy love (disambiguation). ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... Unrequited love is love that is not reciprocated, even though reciprocation is usually deeply desired. ... In philosophy, the problem of love questions whether the desire to do good for another is based solely on the outward ability to love another person because the lover sees something (or someone) worth loving, or if a little self-interest is always present in the desire to do good... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Valentines Day (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... A casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without necessarily demanding or expecting a more formal relationship as a goal. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the family of the bride to the family of the groom at the time of their marriage. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoning passion or love; addictive love. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ... Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic desire for another person (the limerent object). ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... For other uses, see Romance. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

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Love is an intense feeling of affection related to a sense of strong loyalty or profound oneness.[1] The meaning of love varies relative to context. Romantic love is seen as an ineffable feeling of intense attraction shared in passionate or intimate attraction and intimate interpersonal and sexual relationships.[2] Though often linked to personal relations, love is often given a broader signification, a love of humanity, of nature, with life itself, or a oneness with the Universe, a universal love. Love can also be construed as Platonic love,[3] religious love,[4] familial love, and, more casually, great affection for anything considered strongly pleasurable, desirable, or preferred, to include activities and foods.[5][2] This diverse range of meanings in the singular word love is often contrasted with the plurality of Greek words for love, reflecting the concept's depth, versatility, and complexity. Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the experience of the absence of egoic identity boundaries, and, according to some traditions, the realization of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time, or ones ultimate identity with God (see Tat Tvam Asi). ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... To say that something is ineffable means that it cannot or should not, for overwhelming reasons, be expressed in spoken words. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up passion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In social psychology, interpersonal attraction (known as biological attraction in animals/insects) is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Italic text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Signification is the act of signifying or being a sign or meaning. ... The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... This page contains religious views on topic oflove. ... In sociology, familial love is a type affinity or natural affection felt between members of a group bound by common ancestry or blood ties. ... There are a number of different Greek words for love, as the Greek language distinguishes how the word is used. ...

Contents

Definitions

The definition of love is the subject of considerable debate, enduring speculation and thoughtful introspection. The difficulty of finding a universal definition for love is typically tackled by classifying it into types, such as passionate love, romantic love, and committed love. These types of love can often be generalized into a level of sexual attraction. In common use, love has two primary meanings, the first being an indication of adoration for another person or thing, and the second being a state of relational status. Love is an act of identifying with a person or thing, capable of even including oneself (cf. narcissism; reverence). Dictionaries tend to define love as deep affection or fondness.[1] In colloquial use, according to polled opinion, the most favored definitions of love involve altruism, selflessness, friendship, union, family, and bonding or connecting with another.[6] This article is about narcissism as a word in common use. ... The Oxford English Dictionary defines reverence as deep respect and veneration for some thing, place, or person regarded as having a sacred or exalted character. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ...


Thomas Jay Oord has defined love in various scholarly publications as acting intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including God), to promote overall well-being. Oord means for his definition to be sufficient for research in ethics, religion, and science. Thomas Jay Oord (b. ...


The different aspects of love can be roughly illustrated by comparing their corollaries and opposites. As a general expression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of like), love is commonly contrasted with hate (or neutral apathy); as a less sexual and more mutual and "pure" form of romantic attachment, love is commonly contrasted with lust; and as an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is commonly contrasted with friendship, although other connotations of love may be applied to close friendships as well. For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ...


The very existence of love is sometimes subject to debate. Some categorically reject the notion as false or meaningless.[citation needed] Others call it a recently-invented abstraction, sometimes dating the "invention" to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages.[citation needed] Others maintain that love really exists, and is not an abstraction, but is undefinable, being essentially spiritual or metaphysical in nature.[citation needed] Some psychologists maintain that love is the action of lending one's "boundary" or "self-esteem" to another.[citation needed] Others attempt to define love by applying the definition to everyday life.[citation needed] abstraction in general. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ...


Cultural differences make any universal definition of love difficult to establish. Expressions of love may include the love for a soul or mind, the love of laws and organizations, love for a body, love for nature, love of food, love of money, love for learning, love of power, love of fame, love for the respect of others, etc. Different people place varying degrees of importance on the kinds of love they receive. Love is essentially an abstract concept,[citation needed] easier to experience than to explain. Because of the complex and abstract nature of love, discourse on love is commonly reduced to a thought-terminating cliché, and there are a number of common proverbs regarding love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All you need is love". For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... A thought-terminating cliché is a commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used to quell cognitive dissonance, especially in cases where the person experiencing the cognitive dissonance might resolve it by reaching a thought-provoking epiphany. ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Music sample All You Need Is Love ( file info) Problems? See media help. ...

from http://www. ...

Scientific views

Throughout history, philosophy and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the last century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of evolutionary psychology, evolutionary biology, anthropology, neuroscience, and biology have added to the understanding of the nature and function of love. Throughout history, predominantly, philosophy and religion have speculated the most into the phenomena of love. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...


Chemistry of love

See main: Interpersonal chemistry and human chemistry.
Front cover of 2007 book Human Chemistry (Volume One) by American chemical engineer Libb Thims in which love is viewed as a purely chemical reaction.[7][8][9]

Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like hunger or thirst.[10] Helen Fisher, a leading expert in the topic of love, divides the experience of love into three partly-overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust exposes people to others, romantic attraction encourages people to focus their energy on mating, and attachment involves tolerating the spouse long enough to rear a child into infancy. In the fields of sociology, behavioral psychology, and evolutionary psychology, with specific reference to intimate relationships, romantic relationships, or friendships, interpersonal chemistry is a reaction between two people or the spontaneous reaction of two people to each other, especially a mutual sense of attraction or understanding. ... Front cover of 2007 book Human Chemistry (Volume One) by American chemical engineer Libb Thims in which love is viewed as a purely chemical reaction. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1149 × 1722 pixel, file size: 814 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cover shot of 2007 book Human Chemistry (Volume One) by Libb Thims ISBN 978-1-4303-1049-5 [URL]: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1149 × 1722 pixel, file size: 814 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cover shot of 2007 book Human Chemistry (Volume One) by Libb Thims ISBN 978-1-4303-1049-5 [URL]: http://www. ... In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is one who applies and uses principles of chemical engineering in any of various practical applications; primarily with respect to the study of the design, manufacture, and operation of plant and machinery in industrial chemical processes. ... Front cover of 2007 book Human Chemistry (Volume One) by American chemical engineer Libb Thims in which love is viewed as a purely chemical reaction. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Helen Fisher is an anthropology professor and human behavior researcher at the Rutgers University. ...


Lust is the initial passionate sexual desire that promotes mating, and involves the increased release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen. These effects rarely last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic desire for a specific candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms. Recent studies in neuroscience have indicated that as people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals, including pheromones, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which act similar to amphetamines, stimulating the brain's pleasure center and leading to side-effects such as an increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. Research has indicated that this stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years.[11] Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Estriol. ... In social psychology, interpersonal attraction (known as biological attraction in animals/insects) is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as, beta-phenyl-isopropylamine, and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ...


Since the lust and attraction stages are both considered temporary, a third stage is needed to account for long-term relationships. Attachment is the bonding which promotes relationships that last for many years, and even decades. Attachment is generally based on commitments such as marriage and children, or on mutual friendship based on things like shared interests. It has been linked to higher levels of the chemicals oxytocin and vasopressin than short-term relationships have.[11] Mother and child. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ...


In 2005, Italian scientists at Pavia University found that a protein molecule known as the nerve growth factor (NGF) has high levels when people first fall in love, but these levels return to as they were after one year. Specifically, four neurotrophin levels, i.e. NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4, of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love were compared with levels in a control group who were either single or already engaged in a long-term relationship. The results showed that NGF levels were significantly higher in the subjects in love than as compared to either of the control groups.[12] In 2007, building on German polymath Johann von Goethe's theories of amorous Elective Affinities between couples, American chemical engineer Libb Thims published a two-volume book on the subject of the chemistry of love, in which people are viewed as reactive chemical species that form bonds, break bonds, and evolve according to the laws of chemistry, particularly the combined law of thermodynamics.[7][8] The University of Pavia (Italian: Università degli Studi di Pavia, UNIPV) is a university located in Pavia, Italy. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). ... Neurotrophins are a family of molecules that encourage survival of nervous tissue. ... NGF may refer to Nerve growth factor Naval gunfire, see naval gunfire support This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is exactly as it states; a neurotrophic factor usually derived in the brain. ... Neurotrophin-3, or NT-3 is a neurotrophic factor, in the NGF (Nerve Growth Factor)-family of neurotrophins. ... NT-4 like (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor that signals predominantly through the TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 26, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Elective Affinities (in German, Die Wahlverwandtschaften) is an 1809 novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... In the fields of neuroscience, behavioral psychology, and evolutionary psychology, with specific reference to intimate relationships, romantic relationships, or friendships, interpersonal chemistry is a reaction between two people or the spontaneous reaction of two people to each other, especially a mutual sense of attraction or understanding. ... Chemical species is a common, general name for atoms, molecules, molecular fragments and ions as entities being subjected to a chemical process or to a measurement. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Chemical laws are those laws of nature relevant to chemistry. ... In thermodynamics, the combined law of thermodynamics is simply a mathemtical summation of the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics subsumed into a single concise mathematical statement as shown below: Here, U is internal energy, T is temperature, S is entropy, P is pressure, and V...


Psychology of love

Further information: Human bonding

Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologist Robert Sternberg formulated a triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Intimacy is a form by which two people can share secrets and various details of their personal lives. Intimacy is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is going to last forever. The last and most common form of love is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. This led researchers such as Yela[citation needed] to further refine the model by separating passion into two independents components: erotic passion and romantic passion. The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... A psychologist is a scientist or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Robert J. Sternberg (8 December 1949-) is the Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University and is the former IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. ... The triangular theory of love characterizes love in an interpersonal relationship on three different scales: intimacy, passion and commitment. ...


Following developments in electrical theories, such as Coulomb's law, which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as "opposites attract". Over the last century, research on the nature of human mating has generally found this not to be true when it comes to character and personality; people tend to like people like themselves. However, in a few unusual and specific domains, such as immune systems, it seems that humans prefer others who are unlike themselves (e.g. with an orthogonal immune system), since this will lead to a baby which has the best of both worlds.[13] In recent years, various human bonding theories have been developed described in terms of attachments, ties, bonds, and affinities. Coulombs torsion balance In physics, Coulombs law is an inverse-square law indicating the magnitude and direction of electrostatic force that one stationary, electrically charged object of small dimensions (ideally, a point source) exerts on another. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ...


Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of Scott Peck, whose works in the field of applied psychology explored the definitions of love and evil. Peck maintains that love is a combination of the "concern for the spiritual growth of another", and simple narcissism.[14] In combination, love is an activity, not simply a feeling. Morgan Scott Peck, M.D. (May 22, 1936 – September 25, 2005) was an American psychiatrist and best-selling author. ...


Philosophical views

People, throughout history, have often considered phenomena such as "love at first sight" or "instant friendships" to be the result of an uncontrollable force of attraction or affinity.[15] One of the first to theorize in this direction was the Greek philosopher Empedocles, who in the 4th century BC argued for the existence of two forces, love (philia) and strife (neikos), which were used to account for the causes of motion in the universe. These two forces were said to intermingle with the classical elements, i.e., earth, water, air, and fire, in such a manner that love served as the binding power linking the various parts of existence harmoniously together. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... its made by jaypeeng magandang google wikepedia For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand “The Four Elements” redirects here. ...


Later, Plato interpreted Empedocles' two agents as attraction and repulsion, stating that their operation is conceived in an alternate sequence.[16] From these arguments, Plato originated the concept of "likes attract", e.g., earth is attracted to earth, water to water, and fire to fire. In modern terms this is often phrased in terms of "birds of a feather flock together". PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ...


Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value", as opposed to relative value. Thomas Jay Oord defines love as acting intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including God), to promote overall well-being. Oord means for his definition to be adequate for religion, philosophy, and the sciences. Robert A. Heinlein, one of the most prolific science fiction writers of the 20th century, defined love in his novel Stranger in a Strange Land as the point of emotional connection which leads to the happiness of another being essential to one's own well being. This definition ignores the ideas of religion and science and instead focuses on the meaning of love as it relates to the individual. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Relative value is the attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another. ... Thomas Jay Oord (b. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... For other uses, see Stranger in a Strange Land (disambiguation). ...


Also, an ancient proverb states that love is a high form of tolerance. This view is one that many philosophers and scholars have researched, and is widely accepted.


Religious views

Love in early religions was a mixture of ecstatic devotion and ritualized obligation to idealized natural forces (pagan polytheism).[citation needed] Later religions shifted emphasis towards single abstractly-oriented objects like God, law, church and state (formalized monotheism). A third view, pantheism, recognizes a state or truth distinct from (and often antagonistic to) the idea that there is a difference between the worshiping subject and the worshiped object. Love is reality, of which we, moving through time, imperfectly interpret ourselves as an isolated part.[citation needed] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This page contains religious views on topic oflove. ...


The Bible speaks of love as a set of attitudes and actions that are far broader than the concept of love as an emotional attachment. Love is seen as a set of behaviors that humankind is encouraged to act out. One is encouraged not just to love one's partner, or even one's friends but also to love one's enemies. The Bible describes this type of active love in 1 Corinthians 13:4-8: This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...

Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails.

Romantic love is also present in the Bible, particularly the Song of Songs. Traditionally, this book has been interpreted allegorically as a picture of God's love for Israel and the Church. When taken naturally, we see a picture of ideal human marriage:[17] Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ...

Place me like a seal over your heart, like a seal on your arm; for love is as strong as death, its jealously unyielding as the grave. It burns like a blazing fire, like a mighty flame. Many waters cannot quench love; rivers cannot wash it away. If one were to give all the wealth of his house for love, it would be utterly scorned.

The passage dodi li v'ani lo (Hebrew: דודי לי ואני לו), i.e. "my beloved is mine and I am my beloved", from Song of Songs 2:16, is an example of a biblical quote commonly engraved on wedding bands. The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ...


The Bible states love is a characteristic of God. I John 4:8 states "God is Love". In essence, God is the epitomy of love - in action and relation. It is God that first loved mankind and desired a relationship. (John 3:16-17) Love is the underlying drive in most people.[citation needed] The search for love seems endless within the human race, throughout the ages.[citation needed] The Bible defines God as being the completeness of love. Love, as being defined by Him, is demonstrated in his character and personality. Another way of defining this type of love is "godly love", a love shown through the example of Christ's sacrifice on the cross. However, this "sacrificial" love can also be expressed by humans, although imperfectly. For example, the love of a mother for her child. Many mothers would sacrifice anything for their children. It is this type of love that the Bible teaches us to follow and to share with one another. Love, in the end, is truly a sacrifice, ultimately expressed in the crucifixion of Jesus as described in the New Testament. C.S. Lewis discusses Christian ideas about love in his book The Four Loves The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Four Loves is a 1960 book by C. S. Lewis in which he explores the nature of love from a Christian perspective. ...


Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, defines Love as one of 7 synonyms for God. This indicates that Deity is more than a being that has benevolent concerns for mankind, but rather that God is Love itself. Love is also synonymous with Principle, Mind, Soul, Spirit, Life, and Truth and indicate the depth and wholeness of Love.[citation needed] Mary Baker Eddy (born Mary Morse Baker July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in 1879 and was the author of its fundamental doctrinal textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published in 1875). ...


In Aramaic, the language that Jesus spoke, there are six words for Unconditional Love (Kenoota, Khooba, Makikh, Abilii, Rukha and Dadcean Libhoun) which are untranslatable and are all translated as the one word “Love” in the English Bible. They are explained here Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


The Bhagavad Gita, a Hindu scripture, helps devotees to see that love conquers all. It says, "Sattva—pure, luminous, and free from sorrow—binds us to happiness and wisdom" (Number 6). Sattva, translated as purity, helps one to see that love evolves from selflessness. Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ...


Cultural views

Main article: Love (cultural views)
The traditional Chinese character for love (愛) consists of a heart (心, in the middle) inside of "accept", "feel", or "perceive", which shows a graceful emotion.
The traditional Chinese character for love (愛) consists of a heart (心, in the middle) inside of "accept", "feel", or "perceive", which shows a graceful emotion.

Although there exist numerous cross-cultural unified similarities as to the nature and definition of love, as in there being a thread of commitment, tenderness, and passion common to all human existence, there are differences. The heart, a frequent modern symbol of love This page contains cultural views on the topic of love. ... Image File history File links Love-zh. ... Image File history File links Love-zh. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...




See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Mother and child. ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... The word charisma (from the Greek word χάρισμα (kharisma), gift or divine favor, from kharizesthai, to favor, from kharis, favor: see also charism) refers to a rare trait found in certain human personalities usually including extreme charm and a magnetic quality of personality and/or appearance along with innate and powerfully... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Eroticism is an aesthetic focus on sexual desire, especially the feelings of anticipation of sexual activity. ... Erotomania is a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that another person, usually of a higher social status, is in love with them. ... Erotophobia is the fear of marriage and romantic relationships. ... Falling in love is a mainly Western term used to describe the process of moving from a feeling of neutrality towards someone, to one of love. ... Flirting is alleged to be a form of human interaction, usually expressing a sexual or romantic interest in the other person. ... There are a number of different Greek words for love, as the Greek language distinguishes how the word is used. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... The phrase I love you is a phrase used to express the emotion of love. ... Italic text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An intimate relationship is a particularly close interpersonal relationship. ... Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic desire for another person (the limerent object). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A love-hate relationship is a personal relationship between humans or organizations, or figuratively between a human and an inanimate object, like a computer, a field of study, a body of ideas, or a profession, involving simultaneous or alternating emotions of love and enmity. ... “Love letters” redirects here. ... The term love-shyness is sometimes used to designate a specific type of severe chronic shyness. ... Love sickness has historically been viewed as a mental illness brought on by the intense changes associated with falling in love. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Mettā (मेत्ता in Devanagari) is a Pāli word meaning unconditional loving-kindness. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Thomas Jay Oord (b. ... Personal commitment is an interaction dominated by obligations. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ... A philia is the love or obsession with a particular thing or subject. ... Suffixes with the common part -phil- (-phile, -philia, -philic) are used to specify some kind of attraction or affinity to something, in particular the love or obsession with something. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... Polyamory (from poly=multiple + amor=love) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... The Oxford English Dictionary defines reverence as deep respect and veneration for some thing, place, or person regarded as having a sacred or exalted character. ... A romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. ... Romantics redirects here. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... // In sociology, seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person into an act. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The triangular theory of love characterizes love in an interpersonal relationship on three different scales: intimacy, passion and commitment. ... For the Drawn Together episode, see Terms of Endearment (Drawn Together episode). ...

References

  1. ^ a b Oxford Illustrated American Dictionary (1998) + Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2000).
  2. ^ a b http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/love
  3. ^ Kristeller, Paul Oskar (1980). Renaissance Thought and the Arts: collected essays. Princeton University. ISBN 0691020108. 
  4. ^ Mascaró, Juan (2003). The Bhagavad Gita. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0140449183. (J. Mascaró translator)
  5. ^ Casual application of the word love also includes idiomatic expressions and uses with differing connotations. For example, as a sardonic expression of disapproval: "I just love how politicians always make empty promises."
  6. ^ '04 Poll of 250 Chicagoans – Institute of Human Thermodynamics (Chicago)
  7. ^ a b Thims, Libb (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One). LuLu. ISBN 978-1-4303-1049-5. 
  8. ^ a b Thims, Libb (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two). LuLu. ISBN 978-1-4303-2840-7. 
  9. ^ Is Love a Chemical Reaction? - Institute of Human Thermodynamics
  10. ^ Lewis, Thomas; Amini, F., & Lannon, R. (2000). A General Theory of Love. Random House. ISBN 0-375-70922-3. 
  11. ^ a b Winston, Robert (2004). Human. Smithsonian Institution.
  12. ^ Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). “Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love.” Abstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
  13. ^ Berscheid, Ellen; Walster, Elaine, H. (1969). Interpersonal Attraction. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.. CCCN 69-17443. 
  14. ^ Peck, Scott (1978). The Road Less Traveled. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-25067-1. 
  15. ^ Fisher, Helen (2004). Why We Love – the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-6913-5. 
  16. ^ Jammer, Max (1956). Concepts of Force. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-40689-X. 
  17. ^ Bible, 8:6-7, NIV.

An idiom is an expression (i. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Look up love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Roger Allen, Hillar Kilpatrick, and Ed de Moor, eds. Love and Sexuality in Modern Arabic Literature. London: Saqi Books, 1995.
  • Shadi Bartsch and Thomas Bartscherer, eds. Erotikon: Essays on Eros, Ancient and Modern. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
  • Mary Baker Eddy, "Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. 2006
  • Helen Fisher. Why We Love: the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love
  • Gabriele Froböse, Rolf Froböse, Michael Gross (Translator): Lust and Love: Is it more than Chemistry? Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, ISBN 0-85404-867-7, (2006).
  • bell hooks, 'All About Love: New Visions'. New York: Harper Perennial, 2000.
  • Johnson, P (2005) 'Love, Heterosexuality and Society'. Routledge: London.
  • Thomas Jay Oord, Science of Love: The Wisdom of Well-Being. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2004.
  • R. J. Sternberg. A triangular theory of love. 1986. Psychological Review, 93, 119–135
  • R. J. Sternberg. Liking versus loving: A comparative evaluation of theories. 1987. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 331–345
  • Sternberg, Robert (1998). Cupid's Arrow - the Course of Love through Time. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47893-6. 
  • Dorothy Tennov. Love and Limerence: the Experience of Being in Love. New York: Stein and Day, 1979. ISBN 0-8128-6134-5
  • Dorothy Tennov. A Scientist Looks at Romantic Love and Calls It "Limerence": The Collected Works of Dorothy Tennov. Greenwich, CT: The Great American Publishing Society (GRAMPS), [1]
  • Wood, Wood and Boyd. The World of Psychology. 5th edition. 2005. Pearson Education, 402–403
  • Jones, Del. "One of USA's Exports: Love, American Style" USA Today: February, 14, 2006.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Mary Baker Eddy (born Mary Morse Baker July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in 1879 and was the author of its fundamental doctrinal textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. ... Gloria Jean Watkins (born on September 25, 1952), better known as bell hooks, is an African-American intellectual, feminist, and social activist. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Love Poems and Love Quotes :: LL (453 words)
Love Poems and Love Quotes :: LL Loading...
Im only 16 yes too young to know about love i agree.I had never once been called beautiful or "pretty" until my sophmore year.I was usually that type of "nerdy" girl n I didnt mind It was ok with me.It was a saturday February 11 when i met him.I was
Love is one of those strong words to say
Love (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (10951 words)
Soble's intent in understanding eros to be a reason-dependent sort of love is to articulate a sharp contrast with agape, a sort of love that does not respond to the value of its object.
To summarize: if x loves y then x wants to benefit and be with y etc., and he has these wants (or at least some of them) because he believes y has some determinate characteristics ψ in virtue of which he thinks it worth while to benefit and be with y.
So it is because love involves forming a “we” that we must understand other persons and not properties to be the objects of love, and it is because my very identity as a person depends essentially on that “we” that it is not possible to substitute without loss one object of my love for another.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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