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Encyclopedia > Lourdes

Coordinates: 43°06′N 0°03′W / 43.1, -0.05 Lourdes is a site of religious pilgrimage in southern France. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Commune of Lourdes

Rosary Basilica at night, during the Torchlight Procession
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 361 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Matt - London 18:14, 21 January 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Location
Administration
Country France
Region Midi-Pyrénées
Department Hautes-Pyrénées
Arrondissement Argelès-Gazost
Canton Chief town of 2 cantons
Intercommunality Communauté de communes du Pays de Lourdes
Mayor Jean-Pierre Artiganave
(2001-2008)
Statistics
Elevation 343 m–960 m
Land area¹ 37 km²
Population²
(1999)
15,203
 - Density 411/km² (1999)
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 65286/ 65100
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).
France
The Fort in Lourdes
The Fort in Lourdes
Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in the Grotto
Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in the Grotto
Mosaic in the Rosary Basilica
Mosaic in the Rosary Basilica
The majority of visitors are pilgrims who fill the public spaces of the Domain
The majority of visitors are pilgrims who fill the public spaces of the Domain

Lourdes (Occitan: Lorda) is a town and commune situated in the southwest of the Hautes-Pyrénées department, lying in the first Pyrenean foothills, in southwestern France. Image File history File links Paris_plan_pointer_b_jms. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (Region flag) (Occitan cross) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Ariège Aveyron Gers Haute-Garonne Hautes-Pyrénées Lot Tarn Tarn-et-Garonne Arrondissements 22 Cantons 293 Communes 3,020 Statistics Land area1 45,348 km² Population (Ranked 8th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Hautes-Pyrénées is a département in southwestern France. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This page lists English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations, such as and . ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2459 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2459 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... Hautes-Pyrénées is a département in southwestern France. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ...


Lourdes was originally a big market town lying in the foothills of the Pyrenees. At that time the most prominent feature was the fortified castle which rises up from the centre of the town on a rocky escarpment. Following the claims that there were apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes to Bernadette Soubirous in 1858, Lourdes has developed into a major place of Christian pilgrimage. 2008 is the 150th Jubilee of the apparitions, and larger crowds than usual are expected to visit. The market town is a medieval phenomenon. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes began when Bernadette Soubirous, a 14-year old peasant girl from Lourdes, when questioned by her mother, admitted that she had seen a lady in the cave of Massabielle, about a mile from the town, on 11 February 1858, while she was gathering... // Bernadette Soubirous Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in Lourdes, France. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ...


Today Lourdes has a population of around 15,000 inhabitants but is able to take in some 5,000,000 pilgrims and tourists every season. Lourdes has the second greatest number of hotels in France after Paris with about 270 establishments. A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ...


It is the joint seat of the diocese of Tarbes-et-Lourdes. The Diocese of Tarbes-et-Lourdes is a Roman Catholic diocese in France. ...

Contents

Geography

Lourdes is located in the area of the prime meridian in France. It is overlooked from the south by the Pyrenean peaks of Aneto, Montaigu, and Vignemale (3,298m), while around the town there are three summits reaching up to 1,000 m which are known as the Béout, the Petit Jer (with its three crosses) and the Grand Jer (with its single cross) which overlook the town. The Grand Jerk is accessible via the funicular railway of the Pic du Jer. The Béout was once accessible by a motor car, although this has fallen into disrepair. A pavilion is still visible on the summit. Location of the Prime Meridian Image:Prime Meridian. ... North face of Aneto. ... Montaigu or Montaigut is the name or part of the name of several places: In France Montaigu, in the Aisne département Montaigu, in the Jura département Montaigu, in the Vendée département Montaigu-de-Quercy, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département Montaigu-la-Brisette, in the... The Vignemale, at 3298m, is the highest of the French Pyrenean summits; the highest in the whole of the range be Pic Aneto. ... The funiculaire du Pic du Jer The Funiculaire du Pic du Jer, or Pic du Jer Funicular, is a funicular railway in the French département of Hautes-Pyrénées. ...


Lourdes lies at an altitude of 1,375 ft (420 m) and in a central position through which runs the fast-flowing river the Gave de Pau from the south coming from its source at Gavarnie, into which flow several smaller rivers from Barèges and Cauterets. The Gave then branches off to the west towards the Béarn, running past the banks of the Grotto and on downstream to Pau and then Biarritz. The Gave de Pau is a river of south-western France, tributary of the Adour. ... Gavarnie is a commune of the Hautes-Pyrénées département in southwestern France. ... Barèges is a commune of the Hautes-Pyrénées département, in southwestern France, known for its mineral waters. ... Cauterets is a spa town and a commune of the Hautes-Pyrénées département, in southwestern France. ... Coat of arms of the viscounts of Béarn. ... Aquitaine Region flag Coat of arms The location of Pau is shown on this map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Biarritz (French: Biarritz, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan: Biàrritz; Basque: Miarritze) is a town and commune which lies on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast, in southwestern France. ...


On land bordered by a loop of the Gave de Pau is an outcrop of rock called Massabielle, (from masse vieille: "old mass"). On the northern aspect of this rock, near the riverbank, is a naturally occurring, irregularly shaped shallow cave or grotto, in which the apparitions of 1858 took place.[1]


History

During the 8th century, Lourdes and its fortress became the focus of skirmishes between Mirat, the local Mohave or leader and Charlemagne, King of the Franks. Charlemagne had been laying siege to Mirat in the fortress for some time, but the Moor had so far refused to surrender. According to legend, an eagle unexpectedly appeared and dropped an enormous trout at the feet of Mirat. It was seen as such a bad omen that Mirat was persuaded to surrender to the Queen of the sky by the local bishop. He visited the Black Virgin of Puy to offer gifts, so he could make sure this was the best course of action and, astounded by its exceptional beauty, he decided to surrender the fort and convert to Christianity. On the day of his baptism, Mirat took on the name of Lorus, which was given to the town, now known as Lourdes. For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


After being the residency of the [Bigorre] counts, Lourdes was given to England by the Brétigny Treaty which bought a temporary piece to France during the course of the Hundred Years War with the result that the French lost the town to the English, from 1360. In 1405, Charles VI laid siege to the castle during the course of the Hundred Years War and eventually captured the town from the English following the 18-month siege. Later, during the late 16th century, France was ravaged with the Wars of Religion between the Roman Catholics and the Huguenots. In 1569, Count Gabriel de Montgomery attacked the nearby town of Tarbes when Queen Jeanne d’Albret of Navarre established Protestantism there. The town was overrun, in 1592, by forces of the Catholic League and the Catholic faith was re-established in the area. In 1607, Lourdes finally became part of the Kingdom of France. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... Location within France Tarbes is a French town and commune, in the département of Hautes-Pyrénées, of which it is the préfecture. ...


The castle became a jail under Louis XV but, in 1789, the General Estates Assembly ordered the liberation of prisoners. Following the rise of Napoleon in 1803, he again made the Castle an Estate jail. Towards the end of the Peninsular War between France, Spain, Portugal, and Britain in 1814, British and Allied forces, under the Duke of Wellington, entered France and took control of the region and followed Marshall Soult’s army, defeating the French near the adjoining town of Tarbes before the final battle took place outside Toulouse on 10 April 1814 which brought the war to an end. Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... Italic text His Grace Field Marshal the Most Noble Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Up until 1858, Lourdes was a quiet, modest, county-town with a population of only some 4,000 inhabitants. The castle was occupied by an infantry garrison. The town was a place people passed through on their way to the waters at Barèges, Cauterets, Luz-Saint-Sauveur and Bagnères-de-Bigorre, and for the first mountaineers on their way to Gavarnie, when the events which were to change its history took place. Barèges is a commune of the Hautes-Pyrénées département, in southwestern France, known for its mineral waters. ... Cauterets is a spa town and a commune of the Hautes-Pyrénées département, in southwestern France. ... Luz-Saint-Sauveur is a commune of the Hautes-Pyrénées département, in France. ... Bagnères-de-Bigorre is a commune of southwestern France, in the Hautes-Pyrénées département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


On 11 February 1858, a 14-year-old local girl, Bernadette Soubirous, claimed a beautiful lady appeared to her in the remote Grotto of Massabielle. The lady later identified herself as "the Immaculate Conception" and the faithful believe her to be the Blessed Virgin Mary. The lady appeared 18 times, and by 1859 thousands of pilgrims were visiting Lourdes. A statue of Our Lady of Lourdes was erected at the site in 1864. See Our Lady of Lourdes for more details on the apparitions. is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Bernadette Soubirous Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in Lourdes, France. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... The apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes began when Bernadette Soubirous, a 14-year old peasant girl from Lourdes, when questioned by her mother, admitted that she had seen a lady in the cave of Massabielle, about a mile from the town, on 11 February 1858, while she was gathering...


Since the apparitions, Lourdes has become one of the world's leading Catholic Marian shrines and the number of visitors grows each year. It has such an important place within the Roman Catholic church, that Pope John Paul II visited the shrine twice on 15th August 1983 and 14th-15th August 2004. In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI authorized special indulgences to mark the 150th anniversary of Our Lady of Lourdes.[2] A Virgin Mary shrine is a shrine marking an apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ...


Sanctuary of Lourdes

Yearly from March to October the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes or the Domain (as it is most commonly known) is a place of mass pilgrimage from Europe and other parts of the world. The spring water from the grotto is believed by some to possess healing properties, however there have been from the beginning sceptics of the miracles reported to have taken place in Lourdes. A common misconception is that miracles are the core of the Sanctuary of Lourdes, and the reasons for visits. Although this is probably the case for some visitors, the majority of pilgrims come as part of their Christian faith, and to help those in need. There is another Lourdes with a different pronunciation, see Lourdes, Brazil Our Lady of Lourdes Basilica Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département in France. ... Bernadette Soubirous was canonized by Pius XI as a Saint of the Catholic Church in 1933. ...


An estimated 200 million people have visited the shrine since 1860 [3], and the Roman Catholic Church has officially recognized 67 miracle healings[3]. Especially impressive are candlelight and sacrament processions. Tours from all over the world are organized to visit the Sanctuary. Connected with this pilgrimage is often the consumption of or bathing in the Lourdes water which wells out of the Grotto. Catholic Church redirects here. ...


At the time of the apparitions the grotto was on common land which was used by the villagers variously for pasturing animals, collecting firewood and as a garbage dump, and it possessed a reputation for being an unpleasant place.[4]


Hospitalité Notre-Dame de Lourdes

Main article: Hospitalité Notre Dame de Lourdes

During one of the Virgin Mary’s apparitions to St Bernadette in 1858, she asked that people come in procession to the Grotto. In the early days care for sick pilgrims was provided by local nuns and charitable workers. As numbers of visitors grew, especially those from the rest of France, local facilities rapidly became swamped, and large groups such as the Hospitalité de Notre-Dame de Salut were set up, consisting of lay men and women whose objective was charitable aid to the sick pilgrims of Lourdes. The Hospitalité Notre-Dame de Lourdes splintered from the former group in 1885.[5]. Ever since there has been a "ministry of welcome" in Lourdes, receiving and caring for all the pilgrims who come to the apparition site, especially the sick and infirm. During one of the Virgin Mary’s apparitions to Saint Bernadette in 1858, she asked that people come in procession to the Grotto. ... Bernadette Soubirous (January 7, 1844–April 16, 1879) was a visionary from the town of Lourdes in southern France. ...


The HNDL is active in Lourdes during the main pilgrimage season (which normally lasts from Easter until November), and it also provides people to welcome pilgrims at the Piscines (Baths) during the winter.


Pilgrimage groups are associated with many different organisations and charities. Many are from a specific region (for example British pilgrims generally travel with their own diocese or archdiocese), while others are based around a specific type of pilgrim. An example of this is the UK's Handicapped Children's Pilgrimage Trust (HCPT). HCPT takes disabled children and their carers on pilgrimage to Lourdes. HCPT groups are numbered, e.g. group 83 which leaves from Coventry. Another example is the Catholic Association Pilgrimage, which includes various dioceses, the Carmelites and groups under one umbrella. Formerly known as The Handicapped Childrens Pilgrimage Trust, HCPT is a United Kingdom based charity which takes children with special needs on a Pilgrimage to the shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, in Lourdes, France. ... // The Catholic Association, abbreviated to the CA, has been around in one form or another since 1881 and ran its first pilgrimage to Lourdes in 1901. ...


Ukrainian Church

The five-domed St. Mary's Ukrainian Catholic Church in Lourdes was designed by Myroslav Nimciv, while its interior polychrome decorations were by famed artist Jerzy Nowosielski. The church is about a 10-minute walk from the basilica and the grotto, on a street named in honor of Ukraine, situated on a narrow piece of property close to the railroad station. Visible from the basilica, the height of the building makes up for its breadth[6]. The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is a successor church to the acceptance of Christianity by Prince Volodymyr (also Vladimir) in Kyiv (Kiev), in 988. ... Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. ... Jerzy Nowosielski (b. ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Ukrainian Catholic church is located on 8 Rue de l'Ukraine, 65100 Lourdes, France


Scepticism and criticism

The streets near the Grotto are lined with shops selling objects of popular piety.
The streets near the Grotto are lined with shops selling objects of popular piety.

Since the earliest of the apparitions, Lourdes has been the subject of intense debate regarding their nature. The earliest investigators, including the priest Abbey Dominique Peyramale, and the Police Commissioner M. Dominique Jacomet, were both initially convinced they were dealing with a hoax (each later changed his mind), and several researchers have since called several aspects of the Lourdes phenomenon into question. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Boulevard de la grotte (the Massabelle Cave Boulevard) Place: Lourdes Country: France Photographer: Jean-noël Lafargue Shot date : August, 9th, 2005 JNL 2005 File... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Boulevard de la grotte (the Massabelle Cave Boulevard) Place: Lourdes Country: France Photographer: Jean-noël Lafargue Shot date : August, 9th, 2005 JNL 2005 File... Abbé Dominique Peyramale, (1811-1877) was a Catholic priest in the town of Lourdes in France during the apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes to the peasant girl Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. ...


The apparitions at Lourdes took place against the backdrop of a rich network of popular piety, which was common throughout the Pyrenean region in the 19th century. In the decades leading up to 1858, some children in small Pyrenean villages (on both sides of the border) claimed to see apparitions of the Virgin Mary in remote locations. Critics[citation needed] argue that Bernadette was simply repeating a well-tried trick to gain attention and notoriety


Modern Lourdes has no shortage of glitz on display. Some visitors may dislike the commercialism practised in parts of Lourdes, with neon-emblazoned gift shops overflowing with what Malcolm Muggeridge, although a supporter of the shrine, called "tawdry relics, the bric-a-brac of piety".[7] Critics argue that the Lourdes phenomenon is nothing more than a significant money spinner for the town and the region, which therefore has a strong vested interest in keeping the pilgrims coming.[8] However, the trinket shops are privately owned and hawkers and souvenir stalls are strictly forbidden inside the sanctuary itself. There is another Lourdes with a different pronunciation, see Lourdes, Brazil Our Lady of Lourdes Basilica Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département in France. ...


Sport

Although the town is most famous for its shrines it is also notable for its Rugby union team, FC Lourdes which during the mid-twentieth century was one of the most successful teams in France, winning the national championship 8 times from 1948 to 1968. Their most famous player is Jean Prat who represented his country 51 times. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... FC Lourdais is a French rugby union club currently competing in the French league system. ... Jean Prat (born 1 August 1923 in Lourdes) is a former French rugby union footballer. ...


There is also an amateur football team called Football Club Lourdais XI. And NO one has ever heard of them because they are really bad and suck lots of balls Soccer redirects here. ...


In popular culture

DVD cover for the film The Song of Bernadette is a 1943 film which tells the story of Saint Bernadette Soubirous, who, from February to July 1858 in Lourdes, France, reported eighteen visions of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... This article is about the novel. ... Franz Werfel, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Werfels grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna Franz Werfel (September 10, 1890 – August 26, 1945) was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet who wrote in German. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...

See also

  • Château fort de Lourdes

Notes

  1. ^ Ruth Harris, Lourdes: Body and Spirit in the Secular Age, Penguin Books, 1999, p. 52.
  2. ^ "Pope approves Lourdes indulgences", BBC News, 2007-12-06. Retrieved on 2007-12-06. 
  3. ^ Lourdes france, le site officiel des Sanctuaires vous accueille
  4. ^ Ruth Harris, Lourdes: Body and Spirit in the Secular Age, Penguin Books, 1999, p. 53.
  5. ^ Ruth Harris, Lourdes: Body and Spirit in the Secular Age, Penguin Books, 1999, p. 335.
  6. ^ http://www.ukrweekly.com/Archive/2006/190643.shtml
  7. ^ Malcolm Muggeridge contrasts the "tawdry relics, the bric-a-brac of piety" with the spiritual phenomena he describes experiencing in Lourdes.("Jesus Rediscovered", A Visit To Lourdes, Fontana 1969.[1]
  8. ^ "Consuming Visions -Mass Culture and the Lourdes Shrine, Suzanne Kaufman", Book reviewed by Lawrence S. Cunningham University of Notre Dame, Commonweal 23 September 2005.[2]

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (March 24, 1903–November 14, 1990) was a British journalist, author, satirist, media personality, soldier-spy and Christian scholar. ...

External links

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