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Encyclopedia > Louisiana Purchase

The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory ("Louisiana") in 1803. The cost was 60 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000). Including interest, the U.S. finally paid $23,213,568 for the Louisiana territory.[1] USD redirects here. ...

The Louisiana Purchase area in bold outline.

The Louisiana Purchase encompassed portions of 15 current U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. The land purchased contained all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, parts of Minnesota that were south of the Mississippi River, most of North Dakota, nearly all of South Dakota, northeastern New Mexico, northern Texas, the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide, and Louisiana on both sides of the Mississippi River, including the city of New Orleans. (The Oklahoma Panhandle, and southwestern portions of Kansas and Louisiana were still claimed by Spain at the time of the Purchase.) In addition, the Purchase contained small portions of land that would eventually become part of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The land included in the purchase comprises around 23% of the territory of the United States today.[1] This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The purchase was an important moment in the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. At the time, it faced domestic opposition as being possibly unconstitutional. Although he felt that the US Constitution did not contain any provisions for acquiring territory, Jefferson decided to purchase Louisiana because he felt uneasy about France and Spain having the power to block American trade access to the port of New Orleans. Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ...


Napoleon Bonaparte, upon completion of the agreement, stated, "This accession of territory affirms forever the power of the United States, and I have given England a maritime rival who sooner or later will humble her pride."[2] Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...

Contents

Background

A contemporary mapmaker's vision of "Louisiana", edged on the west by the Rocky Mountains.
A contemporary mapmaker's vision of "Louisiana", edged on the west by the Rocky Mountains.

The city of New Orleans controlled the Mississippi River through its location; other locations for ports had been tried and had not succeeded. New Orleans was already important for shipping agricultural goods to and from the parts of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Through Pinckney's Treaty signed with Spain on October 27, 1795, American merchants had "right of deposit" in New Orleans, meaning they could use the port to store goods for export. Americans also used this right to transport products such as flour, tobacco, pork, bacon, lard, feathers, cider, butter, and cheese. The treaty also recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi River which had become increasingly vital to the growing trade of their western territories.[3] In 1798 Spain revoked this treaty, which greatly upset Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel De Salcedo took over for Governor Marquess of Casa Calvo, and the right to deposit goods from the United States was fully restored. Napoleon Bonaparte returned Louisiana to French control from Spain in 1800, under the Treaty of San Ildefonso (Louisiana had been a Spanish colony since 1762.) However, the treaty was kept secret, and Louisiana remained under Spanish control until a transfer of power to France. The transfer finally took place on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to the United States. Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Pinckneys Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Treaty of San Ildefonso (formally titled the Preliminary and Secret Treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana) was a secretly negotiated treaty between France... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston traveled to Paris to negotiate the purchase in 1804. Their interest was only in the port and its environs; they did not anticipate the much larger transfer of territory that would follow. James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Negotiation

The original treaty of the Louisiana Purchase.
The original treaty of the Louisiana Purchase.

Jefferson laid the groundwork for the purchase by sending Livingston to Paris in 1801, after discovering the transfer of Louisiana from Spain to France. Livingston was to pursue a purchase of New Orleans, but he was rebuffed by the French. Download high resolution version (586x877, 114 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (586x877, 114 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


In 1802, Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours was enlisted to help negotiate. Du Pont was living in the United States at the time and had close ties to Jefferson, as well as to the political powers in France. He engaged in back-channel diplomacy with Napoleon, on Jefferson's behalf, during a personal visit to France. He originated the idea of the much larger Louisiana Purchase as a way to defuse potential conflict between the United States and Napoleon over North America.[4] Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739 - 1817 August 7), born in Paris, France, was the founder of a dynamic and innovative family of entrepreneurs. ...


Jefferson disliked the idea of purchasing Louisiana from France as that could imply that France had a right to be in Louisiana. A strict constructionalist, Jefferson also believed that a U.S. president did not have the authority to engage in such a deal because it was not specified in the constitution, and that to do so would moreover erode states' rights by increasing federal executive power. On the other hand, he was aware of the potential threat that a neighbor like France would be for the young nation, and was prepared to go to war to prevent a strong French presence in the region. Meanwhile, Napoleon's foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, was vehemently opposed to selling Louisiana since it would mean an end to France's secret plans for a North American empire. Strict constructionism is a philosophy of judicial interpretation and legal philosophy that limits judicial interpretation to the meanings of the actual words and phrases used in law, and not on other sources or inferences. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was a French diplomat. ...


Throughout this time, Jefferson had up-to-date intelligence on Napoleon's military activities and intentions in North America. Part of his evolving strategy involved giving du Pont some information that was withheld from Livingston. He also gave intentionally conflicting instructions to the two. He next sent Monroe to Paris in 1803. Monroe had been formally expelled from France on his last diplomatic mission, and the choice to send him again conveyed a sense of seriousness.


Napoleon was faced with the defeat of his armies in Saint-Domingue (present-day Republic of Haiti) where an expeditionary force under his brother-in-law Charles Leclerc was attempting to reassert control over a slave rebellion that threatened France's most profitable colony. Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc (Pontoise Val-dOise, France, March 17, 1772 - Saint Domingue, November 2, 1802) was a French general and a companion of Napoleon I of France. ...


Political conflicts in Guadeloupe and in Saint-Domingue grew with the restoration of slavery on May 20, 1802, and the defection of leading French officers, like the black general Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the mulatto officer Alexandre Pétion in October 1802, within the context of an ongoing guerrilla war. The French had successfully deported Toussaint L'Ouverture to France in June 1802, but yellow fever was destroying European soldiers and claimed Leclerc in November. Slave redirects here. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... Alexandre Sabès Pétion (April 2, 1770 – March 29, 1818) was President of the southern Republic of Haiti from 1806 until his death. ... François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture, also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (c. ...


Lacking sufficient military forces in America, Napoleon needed peace with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to implement the Treaty of San Ildefonso and take possession of Louisiana. Otherwise, Louisiana would be an easy prey for the British or even for the Americans. Britain had breached her promise to evacuate Malta by September 1802 as stipulated in the peace of Amiens, and in the beginning of the year 1803, war between France and Britain seemed increasingly unavoidable. On March 11, 1803, Napoleon decided to start building a flotilla of barges to invade Britain. This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... The Treaty of San Ildefonso (formally titled the Preliminary and Secret Treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana) was a secretly negotiated treaty between France... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and Britain. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ...


These circumstances led Bonaparte to abandon his plans to rebuild France's New World empire. Napoleon gave notice to his minister of the treasury, François de Barbé-Marbois, on April 10, 1803, that he was considering surrendering the Louisiana Territory to the United States. On 11 April 1803, just days before Monroe's arrival, Marquess de Barbé-Marbois offered Livingston all of Louisiana instead of just New Orleans. President Jefferson had instructed Livingston to only purchase New Orleans. However, he was certain that the United States would accept such a large offer. U.S. postage stamp (c. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about a title of nobility. ... U.S. postage stamp (c. ... Robert R. Livingston (November 27, 1746 - February 26, 1813), of New York, was a delegate to the New York state constitutional convention and a member of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence, although he was recalled by his state before he could sign it. ...


The American negotiators were prepared to spend $10 million for New Orleans but were dumbfounded when the entire region was offered for $15 million. The treaty was dated April 30, 1803, and was signed on May 2. On July 14, 1803, the treaty reached Washington D.C. The Louisiana territory was vast, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to Rupert's Land in the north, and from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west. Acquiring the territory would double the size of the United States at a cost in the currency of the day of less than 3 cents per acre. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... This article is about the trading territory. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ...


Almost all of the land was occupied by American Indians, from whom the land was acquired a second time, piece by piece. The actual price paid for the land of the Louisiana Purchase was thus much higher than the sum paid to France. It was not the ownership of the land that was acquired so much as the right to acquire the land from the Indians who already occupied the land. Neither seller nor purchaser consulted with any Native Americans before the sale, and most Native Americans never even knew it had taken place. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


Domestic opposition

The American purchase of the Louisiana territory was not accomplished without domestic opposition. Jefferson's philosophical consistency was in question because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. Many people believed he was being hypocritical by doing something he surely would have argued against with Alexander Hamilton. The Federalists strongly opposed the purchase, favoring close relations with Britain over closer ties to Napoleon, believing the purchase to be unconstitutional, and concerned that the U.S. had paid a large sum of money just to declare war on Spain. The Federalists also feared that the political power of the Atlantic seaboard states would be threatened by the new citizens of the west, bringing about a clash of western farmers with the merchants and bankers of New England. There was concern that an increase in slave holding states created out of the new territory would exacerbate divisions between north and south, as well. A group of Federalists led by Massachusetts Senator Timothy Pickering went so far as to plan a separate northern confederacy, offering Vice President Aaron Burr the presidency of the proposed new country if he persuaded New York to join. Burr's relationship with Alexander Hamilton, who helped bring an end to the nascent northern secession movement, soured during this period. The animosity between the two men ended with Hamilton's death in a duel with Burr in 1804. Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ... Categories: US geography stubs ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... This article is about the state. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... A contemporary artistic rendering of the July 11, 1804 duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton by J. Mund. ...


Treaty signing

At the Purchase's centennial fair, one illustrator imagined the treaty signing as above.
At the Purchase's centennial fair, one illustrator imagined the treaty signing as above.

On April 30, 1803, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed by Robert Livingston, James Monroe, and Barbé Marbois in Paris. Jefferson announced the treaty to the American people on July 4. After the signing of the Louisiana Purchase agreement in 1803, Livingston made this famous statement, "We have lived long but this is the noblest work of our whole lives...The United States take rank this day among the first powers of the earth"[5]. The United States Senate ratified the treaty with a vote of twenty-four to seven on October 20; on the following day, it authorized President Jefferson to take possession of the territory and establish a temporary military government. In legislation enacted on October 31, Congress made temporary provisions for local civil government to continue as it had under French and Spanish rule and authorized the President to use military forces to maintain order. Plans were also set forth for a mission to explore and chart the territory, which would become known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Image File history File links Louisianatransfer_exposition1904_vc180. ... Image File history File links Louisianatransfer_exposition1904_vc180. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... U.S. postage stamp (c. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lewis and Clark redirects here. ...


France then turned New Orleans over on December 20, 1803 at The Cabildo. On March 10, 1804, a formal ceremony was conducted in St. Louis to transfer ownership of the territory from France to the United States. is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Cabildo is an important historical building in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ...


Effective on October 1, 1804, the purchased territory was organized into the Orleans Territory (most of which became the state of Louisiana) and the District of Louisiana, which was temporarily under the control of the governor and judges of the Indiana Territory. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In the history of the United States, an organized territory is a territory for which the United States Congress has enacted an Organic Act. ... Orleans Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States formed out of the first subdivision of the Louisiana Purchase. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The District of Louisiana or Louisiana District was an official United States government designation for the portion of the Louisiana Purchase which was not organized into Orleans Territory. ... Map of the Indiana Territory Indiana Territory was an organized territory of the United States from 1800 to 1816, created by Act of Congress and signed into law by President John Adams on May 7, 1800, effective on July 4. ...


Boundaries

The tributaries of the Mississippi were held as the boundaries. Estimates that did exist as to the extent and composition of the purchase were initially based on the explorations of Robert LaSalle. René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (November 22, 1643 - March 19, 1687) was a French cleric and explorer. ...


If the territory included all the tributaries of the Mississippi on its western bank, the northern reaches of the Purchase extended into the equally ill-defined British possession—Rupert's Land of British North America, now part of Canada. The Purchase originally extended just beyond the 50th parallel. However, the territory north of the 49th parallel such as the Red River Basin, Milk River, and Poplar River watershed was ceded to the UK in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. This article is about the trading territory. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... “49th parallel” redirects here. ... See also Pembina Territory Red River Settlement External link RiverWatchOnline: Red River History Categories: Stub | U.S. historical regions and territories ... The Milk River shown highlighted The Milk River is a tributary of the Missouri River, 729 mi (1,173 km) long in the U.S. state of Montana and the Canadian province of Alberta. ... The Poplar River The Poplar River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 167 mi (269 km) long in Saskatchewan in Canada and Montana in the United States. ... The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between...


The eastern boundary of the Louisiana purchase was the Mississippi River, from its source to the 31st parallel, although the source of the Mississippi was then unknown. The eastern boundary below the 31st parallel was unclear; the U.S. claimed the land as far as the Perdido River, and Spain claimed the border of its Florida Colony remained the Mississippi river. In early 1804, Congress passed the Mobile Act which recognized West Florida as being part of the United States. The Treaty with Spain of 1819 resolved the issue. Today, the 31st parallel is the northern boundary of the western half of the Florida Panhandle, and the Perdido is the boundary between Florida and Alabama. For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Lake Itasca is a small glacial lake, approximately 1. ... The Perdido River is a river in the U.S. states of Alabama and Florida, approximately 60 miles (97km) long. ... This article is about the region. ... Map showing results of the Adams-Onís Treaty. ... The Florida Panhandle is the region of the state of Florida which includes the westernmost 16 counties in the state. ...


The purchase extended westward to the Rocky Mountains, specifically the Continental Divide, but southerly only so far as the territory remaining in New Spain after the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, in 1800. For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... The Treaty of San Ildefonso (formally titled the Preliminary and Secret Treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana) was a secretly negotiated treaty between France...


The southern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase (versus New Spain) was initially unclear at the time of purchase; the Neutral Ground Treaty of 1806 created the Sabine Free State during the interim and the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 began to lay down official dividing lines. The Sabine Free State, also known as the Neutral Strip, Neutral Territory, Neutral Ground or No Mans Land of Louisiana, was a strip of land between Americas Louisiana Purchase and Spanish Texas. ... Map showing results of the Adams-Onís Treaty. ...

Financing

The American government used $3 million in gold as a down payment, and bonds for the balance to pay France for the purchase. Because of the impending war with Britain, French banks would not buy or market the American bonds. The American diplomats Livingston and Monroe therefore recommended the firms of Baring and Company of London and Hope and Company of Amsterdam for the transaction which France agreed upon. Because of their reputation as the two most stable financial houses in Europe and because Napoleon wanted to receive his money as quickly as possible, the French treasury minister Barbé-Marbois made arrangements with the two firms to convert the bonds France would receive into cash. After the American bonds had been delivered, the French government then sold them to Baring and Hope at a discount. Also, part of the 80 million Francs (approximately $15 million) sale price was used to forgive debts owed by France to the United States. In the end, France received $8,831,250 in cash for the sale. Barings Bank (1762 to 1995) was the oldest merchant banking company in London, England [1] until its collapse in 1995 after one of the banks employees, Nick Leeson, lost $1. ... Picture of Rotterdam banker Archibald Hope in 1720 Hope & Co. ... U.S. postage stamp (c. ...


The original sales document of the Louisiana purchase was exhibited in the entrance hall of Baring's London offices until the bank's collapse in 1995.


See also

American history redirects here. ... These are historic regions of the United States, meaning regions that were legal entities in the past, or which the average modern American would no longer immediately recognize as a regional description. ... Fulwar Skipwith (February 21, 1765 - January 7, 1839) was an American diplomat, who served as a U.S. Consul in Martinique, and later as the U.S. Consul-General in France. ... Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Table 1.1 Acquisition of the Public Domain 1781-1867
  2. ^ Godlewski, Guy; Napoléon et Les-États-Amis, P.320, La Nouvelle Revue Des Deux Mondes, July-September, 1977.
  3. ^ Meinig, D.W. The Shaping of America: Volume 2, Yale University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-300-06290-7
  4. ^ Duke, Marc; The du Ponts: Portrait of a Dynasty, P.77-83, Saturday Review Press, 1976
  5. ^ The Louisiana State Capitol Building

External links

A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between... Map showing results of the Adams-Onís Treaty. ... Republic of Texas The Texas Annexation of 1845 was the voluntary annexation of the Republic of Texas by the United States of America as Texas, the 28th state. ... Map of the lands in dispute The Oregon Treaty, officially known as the Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, and also known as the Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ... The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase (known as Venta de La Mesilla in Mexico) is a 45,535 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in... Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ... This article is about the History of Oklahoma. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Oklahoma Territory was an organized territory of the United States from May 2, 1890 until November 16, 1907, when Oklahoma became the 46th state. ... The State of Sequoyah was the proposed name for what proved to be an abortive attempt by Native Americans in the early years of the 20th century to establish a U.S. state in the eastern part of what is now Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oklahoma. ... Image File history File links Blason_France_moderne. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... French Sudan (Fr. ... French Togoland was a France Mandate territory in West Africa, which later became the Togolese Republic. ... James Island is an island in the Gambia River, 30 km from the river mouth and near Juffure, The Gambia. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... // First settled by Mbuti, Congo was later settled by Bantu groups that also occupied parts of present-day Angola, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of the Congo, forming the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those states. ... Oubangui-Chari, or Ubangi-Shari, was a French territory in central Africa which later became the independent country of the Central African Republic on August 13, 1960. ... Capital (and largest city) Mutsamudu Official languages Comorian (Shindzuani dialect), Arabic, French Government Autonomous Island  -  President Dhoihirou Halidi Area  -  Total 424 km²  163 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible Population  -  2006 estimate 277,500   -  2003 census 259,100  Currency Comorian franc or Comoran franc (KMF) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed... Map of Grand Comore Grand Comore (off-white) in relation to Comoros (light brown) Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja and Ngasidja, and erroneously as Njazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Map of Mohéli Mohéli, also known as Mwali, is one of the three islands which make up the nation of Comoros. ... The Republic of Djibouti gained its independence on June 27, 1977. ... Motto: Stella Clavisque Maris Indici(Latin) Star and Key of the Indian Ocean Anthem: Motherland Capital (and largest city) Port Louis Official languages English1 Recognised regional languages Mauritian Creole, Tamil, Bhojpuri, French, Chinese Demonym Mauritian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Anerood Jugnauth  -  Prime Minister Navinchandra Ramgoolam Independence from the United Kingdom... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Inini (1941 pop. ... Berbice is the Second largest of the three counties in Guyana and is known as the ancient county. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Islands were first settled by Arawak Indians from South America in around 100 BC. They settled the Islands until the 15th century when they were removed by the more aggressive Caribs, a tribe from the Lesser Antilles islands, after whom the Caribbean Sea is named. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ... In the history of French trade, the French West India Company was a chartered company established in 1664. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Chandannagore Strand: A unique place along the bank of Ganga Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar (French: Chandernagor), is a small city located 30 kilometers north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India. ... Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... The Kapaleeshwarar temple in Mylapore was built by the Pallava kings in the 7th century Chennai (ெசன்னை in Tamil), formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is Indias fourth largest city. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... History related to Union Territory of Puducherry means, Colonial History of Pondicherry, History. ... Karaikal, also Karikal, is one of the four regions of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the South over 900 years Annam (Vietnamese: An Nam) was a French colony in what is now the central area of Vietnam. ... Cochinchina, from Cochin-China (see note below) (known locally as Nam Kỳ, meaning southern region), in French: Cochinchine) is a name used for various southern regions of Vietnam. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... French colonial flag of the Alawite State The Alawite State (Arabic: ‎), also known in French as Alaouites, after the locally dominant Alawite sect of Shia Islam, was a French mandate territory in the coastal area of present-day Syria after World War I.[1] // The collapse of the Ottoman... Flag of the Republic of Hatay. ... Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (French: départements doutre-mer and collectivités doutre-mer or DOM-COM) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A collectivité doutre-mer (in English Overseas Community) or COM, is an administrative division of France. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... ÃŽle Amsterdam IPA: (meaning Amsterdam island, after the Dutch capital) is a French island in the Indian Ocean located at . ... Map of St. ... Orthographic projection centred over the Iles Crozet The Crozet Islands (French: ÃŽles Crozet or officially Archipel Crozet) are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean, part of the French Southern Territories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adélie Land is the portion of the Antarctic coast between Pourquoi Pas Point at 66°12S, 136°11E and Point Alden at 66°48S, 142°02E, with a shore length of 350 km and with its hinterland extending as a sector about 2600 km toward... Location of the Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean: • 1 : Bassas da India • 2 : Europa Island • 3 : Glorioso Islands • 4 : Juan de Nova Island • 5 : Tromelin Island (KM : Comoros, MG : Madagascar, MU : Mauritius, MZ : Mozambique, RE : Réunion, YT : Mayotte) The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (French: ÃŽles Éparses... Overseas region (French: Région doutre-mer), is a recent designation given to the overseas departments which have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. ...

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Louisiana Purchase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2238 words)
The purchase was an important moment in the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.
On July 14, 1803 the treaty reached Washington D.C. The Louisiana territory was vast, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to Rupert's Land in the north, and from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west.
Effective on October 1, 1804, the purchased territory was organized into the Orleans Territory (most of which became the state of Louisiana) and the District of Louisiana, which was temporarily under the control of the Governor and Judges of the Indiana Territory.
Louisiana Purchase - LoveToKnow 1911 (1216 words)
LOUISIANA PURCHASE, a large portion of the area of the United States of America, purchased from the French Republic in 1803.
Such is the accepted description of the W. boundary of the Louisiana Purchase - waiving Texas - thus retrospectively determined, except that that boundary ran with the crest of the Rocky Mountains N. of its intersection with the parallel of 42°.
Thus were carved from the great domain of the Purchase Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Nebraska and Oklahoma in their entirety, and much the greatest part of Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana.
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