FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
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Encyclopedia > Louisiana
State of Louisiana
État de Louisiane
Flag of Louisiana State seal of Louisiana
Flag of Louisiana Seal of Louisiana
Nickname(s): Bayou State
Child of the Mississippi
Creole State
Pelican State
Sportsman's Paradise
Sugar State
Motto(s): Union, justice, and confidence
Union, justice et confiance
Lunyon, justis et confyans
Official language(s) de jure: none
de facto: English & French
Spoken language(s) English 91.2%, French 4.8%,
Creole, Cajun French
Demonym Louisianan
Capital Baton Rouge
Largest city New Orleans[1][2]
Largest county {{{LargestCounty}}}
Largest metro area New Orleans metro area
Area  Ranked 31st in the US
 - Total 51,885 sq mi
(134,382 km²)
 - Width 130 miles (210 km)
 - Length 379 miles (610 km)
 - % water 16
 - Latitude 28° 56′ N to 33° 01′ N
 - Longitude 88° 49′ W to 94° 03′ W
Population  Ranked 22nd in the US
 - Total 4,468,976
 - Density 102.59/sq mi 
39.61/km² (22nd in the US)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Driskill Mountain[3]
535 ft  (163 m)
 - Mean 98 ft  (30 m)
 - Lowest point New Orleans[3]
-8 ft  (-2 m)
Admission to Union  April 30, 1812 (18th)
Governor Bobby Jindal (R)
Lieutenant Governor Mitch Landrieu (D)
U.S. Senators Mary Landrieu (D)
David Vitter (R)
Congressional Delegation List
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations LA US-LA
Website www.louisiana.gov
Louisiana Portal

The State of Louisiana (IPA: /luːˌiːziːˈænə/ or /ˌluːziːˈænə/, French: État de Louisiane, pronounced [lwizjan] ) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. The capital of Louisiana is Baton Rouge. The largest city and metropolitan area is New Orleans. The largest parish by population is Jefferson Parish and largest by area is Terrebonne Parish (Louisiana is the only state divided into parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties) Louisiana cities' have multicultural and multilingual heritage, more strongly influenced by 18th century French, Spanish, and African cultures than most cities in the US. Originally part of New France, South Louisiana is home to many speakers of Cajun French and Louisiana Creole French. African American / Franco-African, and French / French Canadian form the two largest groups of ancestry in Louisiana's population. Louisiana can mean several things: U.S. state of Louisiana The historical region of New France called Louisiana City of Louisiana, Missouri Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, museum of modern art close to Copenhagen, Denmark USS Louisiana 1984 French-Canadian TV Movie Louisiana This is a disambiguation page, a list... Image File history File links Flag_of_Louisiana. ... Louisiana state seal Source U.S. Mission to Germany Rights and restrictions Unless a copyright is indicated, information on the U.S. Mission to Germany web site is in the public domain and may be copied and distributed without permission. ... Categories: Stub | U.S. state flags | Louisiana ... The Louisiana State Seal was adopted as the official state seal of Louisiana in 1902. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... Image File history File links Map_of_USA_LA.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louisiana ... The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... For the Canadian restaurant, see Baton Rouge (restaurant). ... NOLA redirects here. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... The New Orleans Metropolitan Area, consisting of the Greater New Orleans region and three addtional parishes which share the perimeter of Lake Ponchartrain, is the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Louisiana, centered around the city of New Orleans. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “km” redirects here. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Driskill Mountain is the highest natural summit in Louisiana with an elevation of 535 feet (163 meters) above sea level. ... NOLA redirects here. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Bobby Jindal (born Piyush Jindal June 10, 1971, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is a Louisiana politician. ... This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. ... Mitchell Joseph Landrieu (born August 16, 1960) is the Democratic Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Mary Loretta Landrieu (born November 23, 1955) is the Senior Democratic United States senator from the state of Louisiana, as well as the first, and as of 2008, only woman from that state to be elected to the Senate. ... David Bruce Vitter (born May 3, 1961) is an American Republican politician, currently serving as the junior U.S. Senator from Louisiana. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... These are tables of congressional delegations from Louisiana to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Standard Time Zone (CST) is a geographic region in the Americas that keeps time by subtracting six hours from UTC (UTC-6). ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... The following is a list of abbreviations used by the United States Postal Service. ... U.S. states This is a list of traditional abbreviations for U.S. states and territorries, which were in wide use prior to the U.S. postal abbreviations. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Image File history File links Portal. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For the Canadian restaurant, see Baton Rouge (restaurant). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Jefferson Parish is a parish in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... Terrebonne Parish is a parish located in the state of Louisiana. ... Map of Louisianas parishes The U.S. state of Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes in the same way that 48 of the other states of the United States are divided into counties (Alaska is divided into boroughs and census areas). ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...

Contents

Namesake

Louisiana (New France) was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643-1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane, meaning "Land of Louis". Louisiana was once part of the Louisiana Territory which once stretched from present-day New Orleans to across the present day Canadian border. The territory was acquired in 1803 by the United States by way of the Louisiana Purchase. Part or all of 15 states were formed from the territory. Image File history File links Blason_France_moderne. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Engraving of Cavelier de La Salle A later engraving of Robert de LaSalle Memorial Plaque to de La Salle in Rouen René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The United States in 1810, following the Louisiana Purchase. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ...


An alternative explanation of the name is that Louisiana is a combination of Louis XIV and his wife Anna of Austria. This, however, is false. While his mother was Anne of Austria, Louis XIV was married to Marie-Thérèse.


Geography

Map of Louisiana

File links The following pages link to this file: Louisiana Categories: National Atlas images | Louisiana maps ... File links The following pages link to this file: Louisiana Categories: National Atlas images | Louisiana maps ...

Topography

Louisiana is bordered to the west by the state of Texas; to the north by Arkansas; to the east by the state of Mississippi; and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico. For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


The surface of the state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands and the alluvial, including coast and swamp regions. The alluvial regions, including the low swamps and coast lands, cover an area of about 20,000 square miles (52,000 km²); they lie principally along the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 miles (1,000 km) and ultimately empties into the Gulf of Mexico; the Red River; the Ouachita River and its branches; and other minor streams. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles (15 to 100 km), and along the other rivers it averages about 10 miles (15 km). The Mississippi flows upon a ridge formed by its own deposits, from which the lands incline toward the low swamps beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile (3 m/km). The alluvial lands along other streams present very similar features. An alluvial deposit is an accumulation of alluvium (sediment), sometimes containing valuable ore and gemstones, or simply consisting of gravel, sand, or clay, in the bed or former bed of a river. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Red River is one of several rivers with that name, and of two rivers with that name in the United States. ...


The higher lands and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles (65,000 km²). They consist of prairie and woodlands. The elevations above sea-level range from 10 feet (3 m) at the coast and swamp lands to 50 and 60 feet (15–18 m) at the prairie and alluvial lands. In the uplands and hills the elevations rise to Driskill Mountain the highest point in the state at only 535 feet (163 m) above sea level. Only two other states in the union, Florida and Delaware, are geographically lower than Louisiana, though several other states, such as Kansas and Nebraska, are geographically flatter. A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Driskill Mountain is the highest natural summit in Louisiana with an elevation of 535 feet (163 meters) above sea level. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ...


Besides the navigable rivers already named (some of which are called bayous), there are the Sabine (Sah-BEAN), forming the western boundary, and the Pearl, the eastern boundary, the Calcasieu (KAL-cah-shoe), the Mermentau, the Vermilion, the Teche, the Atchafalaya, the Boeuf (buff), the Lafourche (Luff-OOSH), the Courtableau, the D'Arbonne, the Macon, the Tensas (TEN-saw), the Amite, the Tchefuncte, the Tickfaw, the Natalbany, and a number of other streams of lesser note, constituting a natural system of navigable waterways, aggregating over 4,000 miles (6,400 km) in length, which is unequaled in the United States. The state also has 1,060 square miles (2,745 km²) of land-locked bays, 1,700 square miles (4,400 km²) of inland lakes, and a river surface of over 500 square miles (1,300 km²). The Sabine River is shown highlighted, along with the Neches River The Sabine River is a river, 555 miles (893 km) long, in the U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana. ... The Pearl River is a river in the southern United States. ... The Calcasieu River (KAL-kuh-shoo) is a river on the Gulf Coast of southwestern Louisiana in the United States. ... Map of the Mermentau River watershed showing the Mermantau River and its 4 largest tributaries (from left to right) Bayou Nezpique, Bayou des Cannes, Bayou Plaquemine Brule, and Bayou Queue de Tortue. ... The Vermilion River is a river, 72 mi (116 km) long, in southern Louisiana in the United States. ... The Bayou Teche is a 125-mile long waterway of great cultural significance in south central Louisiana. ... The Atchafalaya River is a distributary of the Mississippi and Red rivers, approximately 170 mi (270 km) long, in south central Louisiana in the United States. ... The Boeuf River is a river in the United States. ... Bayou Lafourche is a bayou in southeastern Louisiana, United States, that flows into the Gulf of Mexico. ... The Tensas River is a river in Louisiana in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tchefuncte River (chuh-FUNK-tuh) is a tributary of Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana in the United States. ...


Climate

Louisiana has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen climate classification Cfa), perhaps the most "classic" example of a humid subtropical climate of all the Southeastern states, with long, hot, humid summers and short, mild winters. The subtropical characteristics of the state are due in large part to the influence of the Gulf of Mexico, which even at its farthest point is no more than 200 miles (320 km) away. Precipitation is frequent throughout the year, although the summer is slightly wetter than the rest of the year. There is a dip in precipitation in October. Southern Louisiana receives far more copious rainfall, especially during the winter months. Summers in Louisiana are hot and humid, with high temperatures from mid-June to mid-September averaging 90 °F (32 °C) or more and overnight lows averaging above 70 °F (22 °C). In the summer, the extreme maximum temperature is much warmer in the north than in the south, with temperatures near the Gulf of Mexico occasionally reaching 100 °F (38 °C), although temperatures above 95 °F (35 °C) are commonplace. In northern Louisiana, the temperatures reach above 105 °F (41 °C) in the summer. The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


Temperatures are generally mildly warm in the winter in the southern part of the state, with highs around New Orleans, Baton Rouge, the rest of south Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico averaging 66 °F (19 °C), while the northern part of the state is mildly cool in the winter with highs averaging 59 °F (15 °C). The overnight lows in the winter average well above freezing throughout the state, with 46 °F (8 °C) the average near the Gulf and an average low of 37 °F (3 °C) in the winter in the northern part of the state. Louisiana does have its share of cold fronts, which frequently drop the temperatures below 20 °F (-8 °C) in the northern part of the state, but almost never do so in the southern part of the state. Snow is not very common near the Gulf of Mexico, although those in the northern parts of the state can expect one to three snowfalls per year, with the frequency increasing northwards.


Louisiana is often affected by tropical cyclones and is very vulnerable to strikes by major hurricanes, particularly the lowlands around and in the New Orleans area. The unique geography of the region with the many bayous, marshes and inlets can make major hurricanes especially destructive. The area is also prone to frequent thunderstorms, especially in the summer. The entire state averages over 60 days of thunderstorms a year averaging more thunderstorms than any other state except Florida. Louisiana averages 27 tornadoes annually. The entire state is vulnerable to a tornado strike, with the extreme southern portion of the state slightly less than the rest of the state. Tornadoes are much more common from January to March in the southern part of the state, and from February through March in the northern part of the state.[4] This article is about weather phenomena. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses of Tornado, see Tornado (disambiguation). ...

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Louisiana Cities °F/°C
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Baton Rouge 62/42 17/6 65/44 18/7 72/51 22/11 78/57 26/14 84/64 29/18 89/70 32/21 91/73 33/23 91/72 33/22 88/68 31/20 81/57 27/14 71/48 22/9 64/43 18/6
Lake Charles 62/43 17/6 65/47 18/8 70/51 21/11 78/59 26/15 85/66 29/19 90/72 32/22 92/74 33/23 92/74 33/23 88/70 31/21 81/59 27/15 69/49 21/9 64/45 18/7
New Orleans 64/44 18/7 66/47 19/8 73/53 23/12 79/59 26/15 85/66 29/19 90/72 32/22 91/74 33/23 91/74 33/23 88/70 31/21 80/61 27/16 72/52 22/11 65/46 18/8
Shreveport 56/36 13/2 61/39 16/4 69/46 21/8 77/54 25/12 84/62 29/17 90/69 32/18 93/73 34/23 93/71 34/22 87/66 31/19 78/55 26/13 67/44 19/7 59/38 15/3
[4]

Hurricanes

  • September 24, 2005, Rita (Category 3 at landfall) struck southwestern Louisiana, flooding many parishes and cities along the coast, including, Cameron Parish, Lake Charles, and other towns. The storm's winds further weakened the still damaged levees in New Orleans, re-flooding parts of the city.
  • August 29, 2005, Katrina (Category 4 at landfall[5]) struck and devastated southeastern Louisiana, while damaged levees in New Orleans allowed parts of the city to flood. The city was virtually closed until October. It is estimated that more than two million people in the Gulf region were displaced by the hurricane, with more than 1,500 fatalities in Louisiana alone. Public outcry criticized the government at the local, state, and federal levels, citing that the response was neither fast nor adequate.
Further information: Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Louisiana and Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans
  • August 1992, Andrew (Category 3 at landfall) struck south-central Louisiana, killing four people, knocking out power to nearly 150,000 citizens and destroying hundreds of millions of dollars of crops in the state.
  • August 1969, Camille (Category 5) had a 23.4 ft (7.1 m). storm surge and killed 250 people. Although Camille officially made landfall in Mississippi and the worst impacts were felt there, its effects were still felt in Louisiana. However, New Orleans was spared from the brunt of the storm and remained dry with the exception of some mild rain-generated flooding in only the extremely low-lying areas.
  • September 9, 1965, Betsy (Category 3 at landfall) came ashore in Louisiana causing massive destruction, being the first hurricane in history to cause one billion dollars in damage (over ten billion in inflation-adjusted USD). The storm hit New Orleans particularly hard by flooding approximately 35% of the city (including the Lower 9th Ward, Gentilly, and parts of Mid-City), pushing the death toll in the state to 76.
  • June 1957, Audrey (Category 4) devastated southwest Louisiana, destroying or severely damaging 60–80 percent of the homes and businesses from Cameron to Grand Chenier. 40,000 people were left homeless and over 300 people were killed in the state.

is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lowest pressure 895 mbar (hPa)[1] Damages $10 billion (2005 USD)[1] Fatalities 7 direct, 113 indirect Areas affected Bahamas, Florida, Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane Rita is the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most... Cameron Parish is a parish located in the state of Louisiana. ... This article is about the City of Lake Charles. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... To whom it may concern I know things over there are not going well, but they will get better . ... The effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, Louisiana was catastrophic and long-lasting. ... Lowest pressure 922 mbar (hPa; 27. ... Lowest pressure 905 mbar (hPa; 26. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Hurricane Betsy was a powerful hurricane of the 1965 Atlantic hurricane season which caused enormous damage in the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana. ... The 9th ward is a distinctive region of New Orleans, Louisiana that is located in the eastern downriver portion of the city. ... Gentilly Township is a township located in Polk County, Minnesota. ... Mid-Wilshire is a region in west-central Los Angeles, California. ... Hurricane Audrey was a powerful hurricane that devastated coastal Louisiana in the USA during the 1957 Atlantic hurricane season. ... Cameron is a census-designated place located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. ...

Geology

The underlying strata of the state are of Cretaceous age and are covered by alluvial deposits of Tertiary and post-Tertiary origin. A large part of Louisiana is the creation and product of the Mississippi River. It was originally covered by an arm of the sea, and has been built up by the silt carried down the valley by the great river. For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... The wetlands of Louisiana are water-saturated coastal and swamp regions of southern Louisiana. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ...


Near the coast, there are many salt domes, where salt is mined and oil is often found. salt domes also exist in North Louisiana. A salt dome is formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A salt dome is formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir. ...


Owing to the extensive flood control measures along the Mississippi river and to natural subsidence, Louisiana is now suffering the loss of coastal land area. State and federal government efforts to halt or reverse this phenomenon are under way; others are being sought. There is one bright spot, however, the Atchafalaya River is creating new delta land in the South-Central portion of the state. The Atchafalaya River is a distributary of the Mississippi and Red rivers, approximately 170 mi (270 km) long, in south central Louisiana in the United States. ...


Geographic and statistical areas

Louisiana is the only state in the US that has parishes instead of counties. Map of Louisianas parishes The U.S. state of Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes in the same way that 48 of the other states of the United States are divided into counties (Alaska is divided into boroughs and census areas). ... The United States Census Bureau has defined 7 Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs),[1] 8 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),[2] and 17 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs)[3] in the State of Louisiana. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Metropolitan areas and urbanized areas of Louisiana by population. ... Louisiana has the forty-seventh highest per capita income in the United States of America, at $16,912 (2000). ...


Protected areas

See also: List of Louisiana state parks

Louisiana contains a number of areas which are, in varying degrees, protected from human intervention. In addition to several stations of the National Park Service, and a federally recognized national forest, Louisiana itself operates, among other programs, a system of state parks and recreation areas throughout the state. Administered by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, the Louisiana Natural and Scenic Rivers System provides a degree of protection for 48 rivers, streams and bayous in the state. Bayou Segnette State Park Caney Lake/Jimmie Davis State Park Chemin-A-Haut State Park Chicot State Park Cypremort Point State Park Fairview-Riverside State Park Fontainebleau State Park Grand Isle State Park Lake Bistineau State Park Lake Bruin State Park Lake Claiborne State Park Lake DArbonne State Park... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... U.S. National Forests are protected forests and woodland areas in the United States. ... State park is a term used in the United States and in Mexico for an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreation, or other reason, and under the administration of the government of a U.S. state or one of the states of Mexico. ...


National Park Service

Historic or scenic areas managed, protected, or otherwise recognized by the National Park Service include:

The Cane River National Heritage Area is a United States National Heritage Area in the state of Louisiana. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve is a unit of the National Park Service in southeastern Louisiana. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Poverty Point is an archaeological site in northwestern Louisiana (near the town of Epps), overlooking the Mississippi River flood plain. ...

US Forest Service

  • Kisatchie National Forest is Louisiana's only national forest. It spans several hundred thousand acres in central and north Louisiana.

Kisatchie National Forest is located in the piney hills and hardwood bottoms of seven central and northern Louisiana parishes. ...

State parks and recreational areas

Louisiana operates a system of 19 state parks, 16 state historic sites and one state preservation area.


Transportation

See also: List of numbered highways in Louisiana

Interstate Highways

United States highways

The Intracoastal Waterway is an important means of transporting commercial goods such as petroleum and petroleum products, agricultural produce, building materials and manufactured goods. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1000, 507 KB) This image is a work of a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1000, 507 KB) This image is a work of a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Tug and barge on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Navigation on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW), where it intersects with Bayou Perot, in the vicinity of New Orleans The Intracoastal Waterway is a 4,800-km (3,000-mile) recreational and commercial waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... // List of Louisiana Highways List of Interstate Highways Interstate 10 Interstate 12 Interstate 20 Interstate 49 Interstate 55 Interstate 59 Interstate 110 Interstate 210 Interstate 220 Interstate 310 Interstate 410 (cancelled) Interstate 420 (cancelled) Interstate 510 Interstate 610 Interstate 910 (only designated by the Federal Highway Administration) List of U... Interstate 10, a major transcontinental Interstate Highway in the Southern U.S., runs across the south part of the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... Image File history File links I-10. ... Interstate 12 (abbreviated I-12) is an intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of Louisiana, United States. ... Image File history File links I-12. ... In Louisiana, Interstate 20 roughly parallels U.S. 80 through the northern part of the state. ... Image File history File links I-20. ... Interstate 49 (abbreviated I-49) is an intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of Louisiana, United States. ... Image File history File links I-49. ... Interstate 55 (abbreviated I-55) is an interstate highway in the central United States. ... Image File history File links I-55. ... Interstate 59 (abbreviated I-59) is an interstate highway in the southern United States. ... Image File history File links I-59. ... Interstate 110 (abbreviated I-110) is an 8. ... Image File history File links I-110. ... Interstate 210 (abbreviated I-210) in Louisiana is a 12. ... Image File history File links I-210. ... Interstate 220 (abbreviated I-220) in Louisiana is a east-west loop around Shreveport, Louisiana, in the northwest corner of the state. ... Image File history File links I-220. ... Interstate 310 is a short spur route of Interstate 10 near New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Image File history File links I-310. ... Interstate 510 is a short spur route of Interstate 10 in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Image File history File links I-510. ... Interstate 610 (abbreviated I-610) is an alternate route of I-10 that lies entirely within the boundaries of Orleans Parish, Louisiana. ... Image File history File links I-610. ... Interstate 910 is the secret designation given to the east-west West Bank Expressway in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Image File history File links I-910. ... Image File history File links US_11. ... U.S. Route 11 is a north-south United States highway extending 1,645 miles[1] (2,647 km) across the eastern United States. ... Image File history File links US_51. ... U.S. Highway 51 is a north-south United States highway that runs for 1,286 miles (2,070 km) from northern Wisconsin to the western suburbs of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Image File history File links US_61. ... U.S. Route 61 is the official designation for a United States highway that runs 1,400 miles from New Orleans, Louisiana, to the city of Wyoming, Minnesota. ... Image File history File links US_63. ... U.S. Route 63 is a 1,286 mile (2,070 km) long north-south United States highway in the Midwestern United States. ... Image File history File links US_65. ... U.S. Highway 65 is a north-south United States highway stretching from Albert Lea, Minnesota to Natchez, Mississippi. ... Image File history File links US_71. ... U.S. Highway 71 is a north-south United States highway. ... Image File history File links US_79. ... U.S. Highway 79 is a north-south United States highway. ... Image File history File links US_80. ... A section of old U.S. Route 80 west of Descanso Junction, California that is now closed to vehicular traffic. ... Image File history File links US_84. ... U.S. Highway 84 is an east-west United States highway. ... Image File history File links US_90. ... U.S. Route 90 is an east-west United States highway. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... U.S. Highway 165 is a spur of U.S. Highway 65. ... Image File history File links US_167. ... U.S. Highway 167 runs for 499 miles (803 km) from Ash Flat, Arkansas at U.S. Highway 62 to Abbeville, Louisiana at Louisiana State Highway 14. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... U.S. Highway 171 is a north-south United States highway. ... Image File history File links US_190. ... U.S. Route 190 is an east-west United States highway. ... Image File history File links US_371. ... U.S. Highway 371 is a north-south United States highway. ... Image File history File links US_425. ... US 425 is a north-south United States highway. ... Tug and barge on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Navigation on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW), where it intersects with Bayou Perot, in the vicinity of New Orleans The Intracoastal Waterway is a 4,800-km (3,000-mile) recreational and commercial waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the...


History

See main article: History of Louisiana

The history of Louisiana is long and rich. ...

Early settlement

Louisiana was inhabited by Native Americans when European explorers arrived in the 17th century. Many place names in the state are transliterations of those used in Native American dialects. Among the tribes that inhabited what is now Louisiana included the Atakapa, the Opelousa, the Acolapissa, the Tangipahoa, the Chitimacha in the southeast of the state, the Washa, the Chawasha, the Yagenechito, the Bayougoula and the Houma (part of the Choctaw nation), the Quinipissa, the Okelousa, the Avoyel and the Taensa (part of the Natchez nation), the Tunica, and the Koroa. Central and northwest Louisiana was home to a substantial portion of the Caddo nation and the Natchitoches confederacy consisting of the Natchitoches, the Yatasi, the Nakasa, the Doustioni, the Quachita, and the Adai.[6] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Pre-contact distribution of Atakapa The Atakapa (pronounced uh-TAK-uh-paw, also spelled Attakapa, Attakapas, Attacapa, formally known as the Ishaks, pronounced ee-SHAKS, translated as The People [1] ) were a Southeastern culture of Native American tribes and with a common language that lived along the Gulf of Mexico. ... The Acolapissa were a small tribe of native Americans, said to originate from the shores of the Pearl River, between Louisiana and Mississippi before 1702. ... For the village in Louisiana, see Tangipahoa, Louisiana. ... Chitimacha The Chitimacha (also Chitimachan, Chetimacha) are a Native American group that lives in the U.S. state of Louisiana, mainly in St. ... Houma can refer to: Houma, Louisiana, in the United States Houma, Shanxi, in China Houma Tribe - A Native American group This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Quinipissa were an indigenous group living on the lower Mississippi River as reported by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1682. ... Avoyel or Avoyelles was a small Natchesan tribe in the neighborhood of the present Marksville, Louisiana. ... The Taensa were a Muskogean native American tribe, who lived in present day Tensas Perish in Louisiana, as reported by Nicolas de la Salle in 1682. ... Natchez is a city located in Adams County, Mississippi. ... tunica may refer to: Tunica, Mississippi Tunica County, Mississippi This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Karoa were one of the groups of indigenous people who lived in Mississippi prior to the European settlement of the region. ... |- Link title |}]]]]</nowiki> and Caddo, Oklahoma. ... The Natchitoches or Natchitoch were an indigenous tribe in Louisiana. ... The Yatasi were a Native American people of Louisiana who lived in the area to the south of modern Shreveport prior to the European incursion into the area. ... Adai (also Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos) is the name of a people and language that was spoken in eastern Louisiana. ...


Exploration and colonization by Europeans

Louisiana regions
Louisiana regions

The first European explorers to visit Louisiana came in 1528. The Spanish expedition (led by Panfilo de Narváez) located the mouth of the Mississippi River. In 1541, Hernando de Soto's expedition crossed the region. Then Spanish interest in Louisiana lay dormant. In the late 17th century, French expeditions, which included sovereign, religious and commercial aims, established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. With its first settlements, France lay claim to a vast region of North America and set out to establish a commercial empire and French nation stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. Image File history File links Louisiana_regions_map. ... Image File history File links Louisiana_regions_map. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Pánfilo de Narváez (1480? – 1528) was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ...


The French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle named the region Louisiana to honor France's King Louis XIV in 1682. The first permanent settlement, Fort Maurepas (at what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi, near Biloxi), was founded by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, a French military officer from Canada, in 1699. René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (November 22, 1643 - March 19, 1687) was a French cleric and explorer. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Location of city of Ocean Springs, Mississippi (right) on the Gulf of Mexico Ocean Springs is a city in Jackson County, Mississippi, about 2 miles east of Biloxi. ... Biloxi redirects here. ... Pierre Le Moyne dIberville. ...


The French colony of Louisiana originally claimed all the land on both sides of the Mississippi River and north to French territory in Canada. The following States were part of Louisiana: Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota. Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


The settlement of Natchitoches (along the Red River in present-day northwest Louisiana) was established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, making it the oldest permanent European settlement in the Louisiana Purchase territory. The French settlement had two purposes: to establish trade with the Spanish in Texas, and to deter Spanish advances into Louisiana. Also, the northern terminus of the Old San Antonio Road (sometimes called El Camino Real, or Kings Highway) was at Nachitoches. The settlement soon became a flourishing river port and crossroads, giving rise to vast cotton kingdoms along the river. Over time, planters developed large plantations and built fine homes in a growing town, a pattern repeated in New Orleans and other places. The Natchitoches are a Native American people. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Louisiana's French settlements contributed to further exploration and outposts, concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi and its major tributaries, from Louisiana to as far north as the region called the Illinois Country, around Peoria, Illinois and present-day St. Louis, Missouri. See also: French colonization of the Americas French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ... : See how it plays in Peoria United States Illinois Peoria 46. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Initially Mobile, Alabama and Biloxi, Mississippi functioned as the capital of the colony; recognizing the importance of the Mississippi River to trade and military interests, France made New Orleans the seat of civilian and military authority in 1722. From then until the Louisiana Purchase made the region part of the United States on December 20, 1803, France and Spain would trade control of the region's colonial empire. Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Biloxi redirects here. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In the 1720s, German immigrants settled along the Mississippi River in a region referred to as the German Coast. River Parishes Main building at Laura Creole planation, 2002 photograph The River Parishes are those parishes in Louisiana between New Orleans and Baton Rouge that span both banks of the Mississippi River, and are officially part of the Acadiana region. ...


Most of the territory to the east of the Mississippi was lost to the Kingdom of Great Britain in the French and Indian War, except for the area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain. The rest of Louisiana became a colony of Spain after the Seven Years' War by the Treaty of Paris of 1763. For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ...


During the period of Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia (now Nova Scotia, Canada) made their way to Louisiana following British expulsion; settling largely in the southwestern Louisiana region now called Acadiana. The Acadian refugees were welcomed by the Spanish, and descendants came to be called Cajuns. Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ...


Spanish Canary Islanders, called Isleños, emigrated from the Canary Islands of Spain to Louisiana under the Spanish crown between 1778 and 1783. Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ...


In 1800, France's Napoleon Bonaparte acquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an arrangement kept secret for some two years. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Treaty of San Ildefonso (formally titled the Preliminary and Secret Treaty between the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain, Concerning the Aggrandizement of His Royal Highness the Infant Duke of Parma in Italy and the Retrocession of Louisiana) was a secretly negotiated treaty between France...


Purchase by the United States

See main article: Louisiana Purchase

When the United States won its independence from Great Britain in 1783, one of its major concerns was having a European power on its western boundary, and the need for unrestricted access to the Mississippi River. As American settlers pushed west, they found that the Appalachian Mountains provided a barrier to shipping goods eastward. The easiest way to ship produce was to use a flatboat to float it down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to the port of New Orleans, from where goods could be put on ocean-going vessels. The problem with this route was that the Spanish owned both sides of the Mississippi below Natchez. Napoleon's ambitions in Louisiana involved the creation of a new empire centered on the Caribbean sugar trade. By terms of the Treaty of Amiens of 1800, Great Britain returned ownership of the islands of Martinique and Guadaloupe to the French. Napoleon looked upon Louisiana as a depot for these sugar islands, and as a buffer to U.S. settlement. In October of 1801 he sent a large military force to retake the important island of Santo Domingo, lost in a slave revolt in the 1790s. Defeated by Haitian revolutionaries, Napoleon decided to sell Louisiana. The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... A Flatboat is a boat with a flat bottom and has square ends. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Melrose, an antebellum home in Natchez, Mississippi. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Guadeloupe, in the Caribbean Sea, is an archipelago with a total area of 1,704 km² located in the Eastern Caribbean. ... For other uses, see Santo Domingo (disambiguation). ...

Louisiana state welcome sign
Louisiana state welcome sign

Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, was disturbed by Napoleon's plans to re-establish French colonies in America. With the possession of New Orleans, Napoleon could close the Mississippi to U.S. commerce at any time. Jefferson authorized Robert R. Livingston, U.S. Minister to France, to negotiate for the purchase of the City of New Orleans, portions of the east bank of the Mississippi, and free navigation of the river for U.S. commerce. Livingston was authorized to pay up to $2 million. Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


An official transfer of Louisiana to French ownership had not yet taken place, and Napoleon's deal with the Spanish was a poorly kept secret on the frontier. On October 18, 1802, however, Juan Ventura Morales, Acting Intendant of Louisiana, made public the intention of Spain to revoke the right of deposit at New Orleans for all cargo from the United States. The closure of this vital port to the United States caused anger and consternation. Commerce in the west was virtually blockaded. Historians believe that the revocation of the right of deposit was prompted by abuses of the Americans, particularly smuggling, and not by French intrigues as was believed at the time. President Jefferson ignored public pressure for war with France, and appointed James Monroe special envoy to Napoleon, to assist in obtaining New Orleans for the United States. Jefferson also raised the authorized expenditure to $10 million. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ...


On April 11, 1803, Talleyrand, the French Foreign Minister, asked Robert Livingston how much the United States was prepared to pay for the entirety of Louisiana. Livingston was confused, as his instructions only covered the purchase of New Orleans and the immediate area, not the entire territory. James Monroe agreed with Livingston that Napoleon might withdraw this offer at any time. To wait for approval from President Jefferson might take months, so Livingston and Monroe decided to open negotiations immediately. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was a French diplomat. ...


By April 30, they closed a deal for the purchase of the entire 828,000 square miles (2,145,000 km²) Louisiana territory for 60 million Francs (approximately $15 million). Part of this sum was used to forgive debts owed by France to the United States. The payment was made in United States bonds, which Napoleon sold at face value to the Dutch firm of Hope and Company, and the British banking house of Baring, at a discount of 87 1/2 per each $100 unit. As a result, France received only $8,831,250 in cash for Louisiana. Dutiful banker Alexander Baring conferred with Marbois in Paris, shuttled to the United States to pick up the bonds, took them to Britain, and returned to France with the money - and Napoleon used these funds to wage war against Baring's own country. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A government bond is a bond issued by a national government denominated in the countrys own currency. ... Picture of Rotterdam banker Archibald Hope in 1720 Hope & Co. ... Barings Bank (1762 to 1995) was the oldest merchant banking company in London, England [1] until its collapse in 1995 after one of the banks employees, Nick Leeson, lost $1. ...


When news of the purchase reached the United States, Jefferson was surprised. He had authorized the expenditure of $10 million for a port city, and instead received treaties committing the government to spend $15 million on a land package which would double the size of the country. Jefferson's political opponents in the Federalist Party argued that the Louisiana purchase was a worthless desert, and that the Constitution did not provide for the acquisition of new land or negotiating treaties without the consent of the Senate. What really worried the opposition was the new states which would inevitably be carved from the Louisiana territory, strengthening Western and Southern interests in Congress, and further reducing the influence of New England Federalists in national affairs. President Jefferson was an enthusiastic supporter of westward expansion, and held firm in his support for the treaty. Despite Federalist objections, the U.S. Senate ratified the Louisiana treaty in the autumn of 1803. The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ...


A transfer ceremony was held in New Orleans on November 29, 1803. Since the Louisiana territory had never officially been turned over to the French, the Spanish took down their flag, and the French raised theirs. The following day, General James Wilkinson accepted possession of New Orleans for the United States. A similar ceremony was held in St. Louis on March 9, 1804, when a French tricolor was raised near the river, replacing the Spanish national flag. The following day, Captain Amos Stoddard of the First U.S. Artillery marched his troops into town and had the American flag run up the fort's flagpole. The Louisiana territory was officially transferred to the United States government, represented by Meriwether Lewis. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... General James Wilkinson James Wilkinson (1757 - December 28, 1825) was a U.S. soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Amos Stoddard (October 26, 1762 - May 11, 1813) was the only commandant of Upper Louisiana for the French Republic and the only commandant for the District of Louisiana for the United States in 1804 during the handover of the Louisiana Purchase. ... Meriwether Lewis (August 18, 1774–October 11, 1809) was an American explorer, soldier, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark, whose mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana...


The Louisiana Territory, purchased for less than 3 cents an acre, doubled the size of the United States overnight, without a war or the loss of a single American life, and set a precedent for the purchase of territory. It opened the way for the eventual expansion of the United States across the continent to the Pacific, and its consequent rise to the status of world power.


Demographics

Louisiana Population Density Map
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1810 76,556
1820 153,407 100.4%
1830 215,739 40.6%
1840 352,411 63.4%
1850 517,762 46.9%
1860 708,002 36.7%
1870 726,915 2.7%
1880 939,946 29.3%
1890 1,118,588 19.0%
1900 1,381,625 23.5%
1910 1,656,388 19.9%
1920 1,798,509 8.6%
1930 2,101,593 16.9%
1940 2,363,516 12.5%
1950 2,683,516 13.5%
1960 3,257,022 21.4%
1970 3,641,306 11.8%
1980 4,205,900 15.5%
1990 4,219,973 0.3%
2000 4,468,976 5.9%
Est. 2006 4,287,768 -4.1%

As of July 2005 (prior to the landfall of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita), Louisiana has an estimated population of 4,523,628, which is an increase of 16,943, or 0.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 54,670, or 1.2%, since 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 129,889 people (that is 350,818 births minus 220,929 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 69,373 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 20,174 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 89,547 people. Image File history File links Louisiana_population_map. ... Image File history File links Louisiana_population_map. ... The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


The center of population of Louisiana is located in Pointe Coupee Parish, in the city of New Roads [5]. Center of population is a subject of study in the field of demographics. ... Pointe Coupee Parish, pronounced Point Coo-Pea in English (French: Paroisse de la Pointe Coupée), is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... The city of New Roads is the parish seat of Pointe Coupee Parish, in the US state of Louisiana. ...


The oldest Louisianan ever was Addie Cook. Cook, a lifetime New Orleanian, was born on August 27, 1867 and died on December 3, 1978, at the age of 111 in a New Orleans nursing home. is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 4.66% of the population aged 5 and over speak French or Cajun French at home, while 2.53% speak Spanish [6]. The 22nd United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ...

Demographics of Louisiana (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native — NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 65.39% 32.94% 0.96% 1.45% 0.07%
2000 (Hispanic only) 2.09% 0.28% 0.06% 0.03% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 64.77% 33.47% 0.97% 1.60% 0.07%
2005 (Hispanic only) 2.52% 0.27% 0.06% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–2005 (total population) 0.26% 2.86% 2.26% 11.98% 2.25%
Growth 2000–2005 (non-Hispanic only) -0.47% 2.89% 2.47% 12.11% 3.93%
Growth 2000–2005 (Hispanic only) 22.23% -1.03% -0.78% 6.41% -5.82%
Seven Main Ancestries in Louisiana:
Flag of France French
Flag of Spain Spanish
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Cajun and Creole Population

Cajuns and Creoles of French ancestry are dominant in much of the southern part of the state. Louisiana Cajuns are the descendants of French-speaking Acadians from colonial French Acadia, which is now present day Nova Scotia. The Acadians themselves were originally from west central France. The Creole people of Louisiana are split into two racial divisions. White French Creoles and Black Creoles, also known as Creoles of Color. White French Creoles generally are of French and Spanish descent, but may be part Italian, Irish, or German. Black Creoles, or Creoles of Color, are generally a mix of African, French, Spanish and Native American heritage. Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana, USA. For uses of the term Creole in other countries and cultures, see Creole (disambiguation). ... Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Look up Creole, creole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


African American and Franco-African Population

Louisiana's population has the second largest proportion of black Americans (32.5%) in the United States, behind neighboring Mississippi (36.3%).


Official Census statistics do not distinguish among people of African ancestry. Consequently, no distinction is made between those in Louisiana of English-speaking heritage and those of French-speaking heritage.


Creoles of color, Black Americans in Louisiana with French, African, and Native American ancestry, predominate in the southeast, central, and northern parts of the state, particularly those parishes along the Mississippi River valley.


Southern White Population

Whites of Southern U.S. background predominate in northern Louisiana. These people are predominantly of English, Welsh, and Scots Irish backgrounds, and share a common, mostly Protestant culture with Americans of neighboring states. Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ...


Other Europeans

Before the Louisiana Purchase, some German families had settled in a rural area along the lower Mississippi valley, then known as the German Coast. They assimilated into Cajun and Creole communities. In 1840 New Orleans was the third largest and most wealthy city in the nation and the largest city in the South. Its bustling port and trade economy attracted numerous Irish, Italian, and German immigrants, of which the first two groups were totally Catholic, and some Germans were, adding to Catholic culture in southern Louisiana. River Parishes Main building at Laura Creole planation, 2002 photograph The River Parishes are those parishes in Louisiana between New Orleans and Baton Rouge that span both banks of the Mississippi River, and are officially part of the Acadiana region. ...


Asian Americans

Louisiana's Asian American population includes the descendants of Chinese workers who arrived in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, often from the Caribbean. In the 1970s and 1980s, numerous Vietnamese and other southeast Asian refugees came to the Gulf Coast to work in the fishing and shrimping industries. About 95% of Louisiana's Asian population resides in New Orleans. An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


In 2006 it was estimated that 50,209 people of Asian descent live in Louisiana.


Economy

Louisiana was the first site of oil drilling over water in the world, on Caddo Lake in the northwest corner of the state. The oil and gas industry as well as its subsidiary industries such as transport and refining, have dominated Louisiana's economy since the 1940s. Beginning in 1950, Louisiana was sued several times by the U.S. Interior Department, in efforts by the Federal Government to strip Louisiana of its submerged land property rights. These control vast stores of reservoirs of oil and natural gas.


When oil and gas boomed in the 1970s, so did Louisiana's economy. Likewise, when the oil and gas crash occurred in the 1980s, in large part due to monetary policy set by the Federal Reserve, Louisiana real estate, savings and loans, and local banks fell rapidly in value.[citation needed] The Louisiana economy as well as its politics of the last half-century cannot be understood without thoroughly accounting for the influence of the oil and gas industries. Since the 1980s, these industries have consolidated in Houston.

The total gross state product in 2005 for Louisiana was US168 billion, placing it 24th in the nation. Its per capita personal income is US$30,952, ranking 41st in the United States.[7] Download high resolution version (942x936, 98 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Gross state product is a measurment of the economic output of a U.S. state or an Australian state. ...


The state's principal agricultural products include seafood (it is the biggest producer of crayfish in the world, supplying approximately 90%), cotton, soybeans, cattle, sugarcane, poultry and eggs, dairy products, and rice. Industry generates chemical products, petroleum and coal products, food processing and transportation equipment, and paper products. Tourism is an important element in the economy. Families Astacoidea   Astacidae   Cambaridae Parastacoidea   Parastacidae Crayfish, often referred to as crawfish, or crawdads, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are closely related. ... Petro redirects here. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


The Port of South Louisiana, located on the Mississippi between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, is the largest volume shipping port in the Western Hemisphere and 4th largest in the world. It is the largest bulk cargo port in the world.[8] The Port of South Louisiana is the largest volume shipping port in the United States and fifth largest in the world(2003 World Port Rankings). ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


New Orleans and Shreveport are also home to a thriving film industry. State financial incentives and aggressive promotion have put the local film industry on a fast track. In late 2007 and early 2008, a 300,000-square-foot film studio will open in Treme, with state-of-the-art production facilities, and a film training institute.[9] Shreveport has been given the moniker "Hollywood South" for the number of films being shot here. These have included Mr. Brooks, Premonition, and Factory Girl. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... : Port City , River City , Ratchet City : The Next Great City of the South United States Louisiana Caddo 117. ... Mr. ... For the 2004 Japanese film, see Premonition (2004 film). ... This article is about the film Factory Girl. ...


Tabasco sauce, which is marketed by one of the United States' biggest producers of hot sauce, the McIlhenny Company, originated on Avery Island.[10] The classic Tabasco red pepper sauce Tabasco sauce is a brand of hot sauce made from tabasco peppers (Capsicum frutescens var. ... The classic Tabasco red pepper sauce The McIlhenny Company is the producer of TABASCO® brand products. ... Avery Island (La Saline in french) is a salt dome located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana, United States, about three miles (5 km) inland from Vermillion Bay, which in turn opens onto the Gulf of Mexico. ...


Louisiana has three personal income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6%. The sales tax rate is 4%: a 3.97% Louisiana sales tax and a .03% Louisiana Tourism Promotion District sales tax. Political subdivisions also levy their own sales tax in addition to the state fees. The state also has a use tax, which includes 4% to be distributed by the Department of Revenue to local governments. Property taxes are assessed and collected at the local level. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        A use tax is a type of excise tax levied in the United States. ...


Law and government

Further information: List of Louisiana Governors and Louisiana law
Louisiana State Capitol
Louisiana State Capitol
Louisiana Governor's Mansion
Louisiana Governor's Mansion

In 1849, the state moved the capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge. Donaldsonville, Opelousas, and Shreveport have briefly served as the seat of Louisiana state government. The Louisiana State Capitol and the Louisiana Governor's Mansion are both located in Baton Rouge. List of Governors of Louisiana First French Era Sieur Sauvole de la Villantry 1699-1701 Jean Baptiste de la Moyne, Sieur de Bienville 1701-1713 Antonine de la Mothe Cadillac 1713-1716 Jean Baptiste de la Moyne 1716-1717 De lEpinay 1717-1718 Jean Baptiste de la Moyne 1718... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Capitol Building Baton Rouge is the capital of Louisiana, a state of the United States of America. ... The city of Donaldsonville is the parish seat of Ascension Parish in the US state of Louisiana, and is located on the west bank of the Mississippi River. ... The city of Opelousas is the parish seat of St. ... : Port City , River City , Ratchet City : The Next Great City of the South United States Louisiana Caddo 117. ... Louisiana State Capitol The Louisiana State Capitol building is the capitol building of the state of Louisiana, located in Baton Rouge. ... The Louisiana Governors Mansion is the official residence of the Governor of Louisiana and his or her family. ...


The current Louisiana governor is Bobby Jindal, the first Indian American to be elected governor. The current U.S. senators are Mary Landrieu (Democrat) and David Vitter (Republican). Louisiana has seven congressional districts and is represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by five Republicans and two Democrats. Louisiana has ten votes in the Electoral College. Bobby Jindal (born Piyush Jindal June 10, 1971, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is a Louisiana politician. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Mary Loretta Landrieu (born November 23, 1955) is the Senior Democratic United States senator from the state of Louisiana, as well as the first, and as of 2008, only woman from that state to be elected to the Senate. ... David Bruce Vitter (born May 3, 1961) is an American Republican politician, currently serving as the junior U.S. Senator from Louisiana. ... GOP redirects here. ... A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent...


Civil Law

The Louisiana political and legal structure has maintained several elements from the time of French governance. One is the use of the term "parish" in place of "county" for administrative subdivision. Another is the legal system of civil law based on French, German and Spanish legal codes and ultimately Roman law—as opposed to English common law. Common law is "judge-made" law based on precedent, and is the basis of statutes in all other U.S. states. Louisiana's type of civil law system is what the majority of nations in the world use, especially in Europe and its former colonies, excluding those that derive from the British Empire. A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the legal term. ...


It is incorrect to equate the Louisiana Civil Code with the Napoleonic Code. Although the Napoleonic Code strongly influenced Louisiana law, it was never in force in Louisiana, as it was enacted in 1804, after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. While the Louisiana Civil Code of 1870 has been continuously revised and updated since its enactment, it is still considered the controlling authority in the state. First page of the 1804 original edition. ... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ...


Differences still exist between Louisianan civil law and the common law found in the other U.S. states. While some of these differences have been bridged due to the strong influence of common law tradition, [7] it is important to note that the "civilian" tradition is still deeply rooted in most aspects of Louisiana private law. Thus property, contractual, business entities structure, much of civil procedure, and family law, as well as some aspects of criminal law, are still mostly based on traditional Roman legal thinking. Model Codes, such as the Uniform Commercial Code, which are adopted by most states within the union including Louisiana, are based on civilian thought, the essence being that it is deductive, as opposed to the common law which is inductive. In the civilian tradition the legislative body agrees a priori on the general principles to be followed. When a set of facts are brought before a judge, he deduces the court's ruling by comparing the facts of the individual case to the law. In contrast, common law, which really does not exist in its pure historical form due to the advent of statutory law, was created by a judge applying other judges' decisions to a new fact pattern brought before him in a case. The result is that historically English judges were not constrained by legislative authority. Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ...


Marriage

In 1997, Louisiana became the first state to offer the option of a traditional marriage or a covenant marriage [8]. In a covenant marriage, the couple waives their right to a "no-fault" divorce after six months of separation, which is available in a traditional marriage. To divorce under a covenant marriage, a couple must demonstrate cause. A covenant marriage is a modern concept of marriage considered to be a cultural and political response to no-fault divorce. ...


Marriages between ascendants and descendants and marriages between collaterals within the fourth degree (i.e., siblings, aunt and nephew, uncle and niece, first cousins) are prohibited.[11]


Same-sex marriages are prohibited.[12]


Elections

Main article: Elections in Louisiana

Louisiana is unique among U.S. states in using a system for state and local elections that is similar to that of modern France. All candidates, regardless of party affiliation, run in a nonpartisan blanket primary (or "jungle primary") on Election Day (which is usually on a Saturday). If no candidate has more than 50% of the vote, the two candidates with the highest vote total compete in a runoff election approximately one month later. This run-off does not take into account party identification; therefore, it is not uncommon for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican. All other states use single-party primaries followed by a general election between party candidates, each conducted by either a plurality voting system or runoff voting, to elect Senators, Representatives, and statewide officials. Congressional races have also been held under the jungle primary system. Beginning in 2008 they will be run under a closed primary system limited to registered party members. Elections in Louisiana traditionally use a jungle primary, where all the candidates for an office run together in one election. ... A nonpartisan blanket primary (also known as a Louisiana primary or jungle primary) is a primary election in which all candidates for elected office run in the same primary regardless of political party. ... An example of a plurality ballot. ... An example of runoff voting. ...


From 1898-1965, after Louisiana had effectively disfranchised African Americans and poor whites by provisions of a new constitution, it essentially was a one-party state dominated by elite white Democrats. The franchise for whites was expanded somewhat during the decades, but blacks remained essentially disfranchised until the Civil Rights Movement, culminating in passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In multiple acts of resistance, blacks left the segregation, violence and oppression of the state to seek better opportunities in northern and western industrial cities during the Great Migrations of 1910-1970, markedly reducing their proportion of population in Louisiana. The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1870 in response to the American Civil War, prevented any state from denying the right to vote to any citizen on account of his race. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... was when erikson martinez was rich ...


Since the 1960s, when civil rights legislation was passed under President Lyndon Johnson to protect voting and civil rights, most African Americans in the state have affiliated with the Democratic Party. In the same years, many white conservatives have moved to support Republican Party candidates in national and gubernatorial elections.


David Vitter is the first Republican in Louisiana to be popularly elected as a U.S. Senator. The previous Republican Senator, John S. Harris, who took office in 1868, was chosen by the state legislature. David Bruce Vitter (born May 3, 1961) is an American Republican politician, currently serving as the junior U.S. Senator from Louisiana. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Louisiana sends seven members to the US House of Representatives, of whom five are Republicans and two Democrats.


Louisiana is not classified as a "swing state" for future presidential elections. For the film of the same name, see Swing State (film). ...


Law Enforcement

Louisiana's statewide police force is the Louisiana State Police. It began in 1922 and its motto is "courtesy, loyalty, service." Its troopers have statewide jurisdiction with power to enforce all laws of the state, including city and parish ordinances. Each year, they patrol over 12 million miles (20 million km) of roadway and arrest about 10,000 impaired drivers. However, Orleans parish is the only parish in which troopers don't maintain primary patrol responsibility. New Orleans Police Dept. has immediate jurisdiction of Orleans Parish. Troopers are also responsible for investigating the casino and gaming industry, all hazardous material incidents, and general criminal, narcotics and insurance fraud; and conducting anti-terrorism training. Louisiana State Police is the state police department of Louisiana, which has jurisdiction anywhere in the state. ... The New Orleans Police Department or NOPD has primary responsibility for law enforcement in New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


Each parish in Louisiana has an elected sheriff, with the exception of Orleans Parish. It has two elected sheriffs - one criminal and one civil. The sheriffs are responsible for general law enforcement in their respective parishes. Orleans Parish is an exception, as here the general law enforcement duties fall to the New Orleans Police Department. The sheriff also controls and manages the parish jail and/or correctional facility. The sheriff is also the tax collector for each parish. In 2006 a bill was passed which will consolidate the two sheriffs' departments into one in 2010.


Most parishes are governed by a Police Jury. Eighteen of the sixty-four parishes are governed under an alternative form of government under a Home Rule Charter. They oversee the parish budget and operate the parish maintenance services. This includes parish road maintenance and other rural services.


See also List of law enforcement agencies in Louisiana


Education

Further information:

List of school districts in Louisiana // A Acadia Parish Public Schools Allen Parish Schools Ascension Parish School Board Assumption Parish School Board Avoyelles Parish School Board Avoyelles Public Charter School-Agency B Beauregard Parish School Board Belle Chasse Academy Inc. ... Louisiana has four public higher education systems managed by the Board of Regents. ... French immersion is a form of bilingual education in which a child who does not speak French as his or her first language receives instruction in school in French. ...

Sports teams

As of 2005 Louisiana is nominally the least populous state with more than one major professional sports league franchise: the National Basketball Association's New Orleans Hornets, the Arena Football League's New Orleans VooDoo, and the National Football League's New Orleans Saints. Louisiana also has a AAA Minor League baseball team, the New Orleans Zephyrs. The Zephyrs, currently affiliated with the New York Mets, became the only Louisiana professional team to win a Championship, when they won the AAA World Series in 1998. Louisiana also has a proportionally high number of collegiate NCAA Division I sports for its size; the state has no Division II teams and only one Division III team.[13] The term major professional sports league is used to describe the most important and well regarded leagues in the biggest professional sports in a country or region. ... NBA redirects here. ... Charlotte Hornets redirects here. ... The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ... Conference National Division Southern Year founded 2004 Home arena New Orleans Arena City, State New Orleans, Louisiana Head Coach Mike Neu ArenaBowl championships none Conference titles none Division titles 1: 2004 Wild Card berths none The New Orleans VooDoo is a team in the Arena Football League, and is owned... NFL redirects here. ... City New Orleans, Louisiana Team colors Gold and black Head Coach Sean Payton Owner Tom Benson and Rita Benson LeBlanc General manager Mickey Loomis Mascot Gumbo the dog League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1967–present) Eastern Conference (1967-1969) Capitol Division (1967; 1969) Century Division (1968) National Football Conference... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often said NC-Double-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ...


Further information

This is an incomplete list of Louisianas sports teams. ...

Culture

Dishes typical of Louisiana Creole cuisine.
Dishes typical of Louisiana Creole cuisine.

Louisiana is home to many, especially notable are the distinct culture of the Creoles and Cajuns. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1631x1321, 687 KB) Summary Dishes typical of w:Louisiana Creole cuisine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1631x1321, 687 KB) Summary Dishes typical of w:Louisiana Creole cuisine. ... Dishes typical of Creole food Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana (centered on the Greater New Orleans area) that blends French, Mediterranean, French Caribbean, African, and American influences. ...


Creole culture is a cultural amalgamation that takes a little from each of the French, Spanish, Italian, German, Irish, African, and Native American cultures. The Creole culture is part of White Creoles' and Black Creoles' culture. Originally Créoles referred to native-born whites of French-Spanish descent. Later the term also referred to descendants of the white men's relationships with African or African-American women, many of whom were educated free people of color. Many of the wealthy white men had quasi-permanent relationships with women of color outside their marriages, and supported them as "placées". If a woman was enslaved at the beginning of the relationship, the man usually arranged for her manumission, as well as that of any of her children. Look up Creole, creole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manumission is the act of freeing a slave, done at the will of the owner. ...


Creoles became associated with the New Orleans area, where the elaborated arrangements flourished. Most wealthy planters had houses in town as well as at their plantations. Popular belief that a Creole is a mixed Black/French person came from the "Haitian" connotation of an African French person. There were many immigrants from Haiti to New Orleans after the Revolution. Although a Black Creole is one type of Creole, it is not the only type, nor the original meaning of Creole. All of the respective cultures of the groups that settled in southern Louisiana have been combined to make one "New Orleans" culture. The creative combination of cultures from these groups, along with Native American culture, was called "Creole" Culture. It has continued as one of the dominant social, economic and political cultures of Louisiana, along with Cajun culture, well into the 20th century. Some believe it has finally been overtaken by the American mainstream.


Cajun Culture. The ancestors of Cajuns came from west central France to the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada, known as Acadia. When the British won the French and Indian War, the British forcibly separated families and evicted them because of their long-stated political neutrality. Most captured Acadians were placed in internment camps in England and the New England colonies for 10 to 30 years. Many of those who escaped the British remained in French Canada. Once freed by England, many scattered, some to France, Canada, Mexico, or the Falkland Islands. The majority found refuge in south Louisiana centered in the region around Lafayette and the LaFourche Bayou country. Until the 1970s, Cajuns were often considered lower-class citizens, with the term "Cajun" being derogatory. Once flush with oil and gas riches, Cajun culture, food, music and their infectious "joie de vivre" lifestyle quickly gained international acclaim. Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... : Hub City : The Heart of Cajun Country United States Louisiana Lafayette 47. ...


A third distinct culture in Louisiana is that of the Isleños, who are descendants of Spanish Canary Islanders who migrated from the Canary Islands of Spain to Louisiana under the Spanish crown beginning in the mid-1770s. They settled in four main settlements, but many relocated to what is modern-day St. Bernard Parish, where the majority of the Isleño population is still concentrated. An annual festival called Fiesta celebrates the heritage of the Isleños. St Bernard Parish has an Isleños museum, cemetery and church, as well as many street names with Spanish words and Spanish surnames from this heritage. Isleño identity is an active concern in the New Orleans suburbs of St. Bernard Parish, LA. Some members of the Isleño community still speak Spanish - with their own Canary Islander accent. Numerous Isleño identity clubs and organizations, and many members of Isleños society keep contact with the Canary Islands of Spain. Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... St. ...


Languages

As of 2000, 91.2% of Louisiana residents age 5 and older speak English at home and 4.8% speak French. Spanish is spoken by 2.5% of the population, Vietnamese is spoken by 0.6% and German by 0.2%. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Among the states, Louisiana has a unique culture, owing to its Spanish and French colonial heritage. While the state has no declared "official language," its law recognizes both English and French. // North America The French established colonies across the New World in the 17th century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


There are several unique dialects of French, Creole and English spoken in Louisiana. First, there are three unique dialects of the French language: Cajun French, Colonial French, and Napoleonic French. For the Creole language, there is Louisiana Creole French. There are also two unique dialects of the English language: Cajun English, a French-influenced variety of English, and what is informally known as Yat, which resembles the New York City dialect, particularly that of historical Brooklyn, as both accents were influenced by large communities of immigrant Irish and Italian, but the Yat dialect was also influenced by French and Spanish. The Yat dialect is the principal dialect of the Caucasians of the New Orleans Metropolitan Area. Blacks of the New Orleans Metropolitan Area speak with an accent that closely resembles other southern U.S. dialects of English. Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Acadiana, the tradtitional Cajun homeland and the stronghold of both the Cajun French and English dialects. ... Yat refers to a unique collection of dialects of English spoken in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... The New York dialect of the English language is spoken by most European Americans who were raised in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including the lower Hudson Valley, western Long Island, and in northeastern New Jersey. ... Yat refers to a unique collection of dialects of English spoken in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... The New Orleans Metropolitan Area, consisting of the Greater New Orleans region and three addtional parishes which share the perimeter of Lake Ponchartrain, is the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Louisiana, centered around the city of New Orleans. ... The New Orleans Metropolitan Area, consisting of the Greater New Orleans region and three addtional parishes which share the perimeter of Lake Ponchartrain, is the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Louisiana, centered around the city of New Orleans. ...


Religion

Like the other Southern states, Louisiana is mostly Protestant, which stems mostly from northern and most of central Louisiana. Because of French descendants, known as Cajun and French Creole, and later Irish, Italian, and German immigrants, there is also a large native Catholic population in the state, particularly in the southern part of the state. Catholics have also traditionally been well represented in the politics. Most of the early governors were Catholic.[14] in the era when the predominantly Catholic south had a greater population advantage over the mostly Protestant north. Despite no longer outnumbering Protestants, Catholics continue to play important roles in Louisiana's politics; for example as of 2007 both Senators and the Governor are Catholic. The importance of the Catholic population makes Louisiana unique among Southern states. The current religious affiliations of the people of Louisiana are shown in the table below: 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

According to www.Adherents.com, a leading and respected worldwide web authority on religious affiliation, Roman Catholicism remains the largest single church body in the state of Louisiana according to the most recent, certifiable, statistical figures available. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... Roman Catholicism in the United States has grown dramatically over the countrys history, from being a tiny minority faith during the time of the Thirteen Colonies to being the countrys largest profession of faith today. ... Adherents. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


A number of cities in Louisiana are also home to Jewish communities, notably Baton Rouge, and New Orleans.[15] The most significant of these is the Jewish community of the New Orleans area, with a pre-Katrina population of about 12,000. The presence of a significant Jewish community already well established by the early 20th century also makes Louisiana unique among Southern states. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Music

See Music of Louisiana This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Nicknames

  • The Pelican State
  • The Bayou State
  • The Sugar State
  • The Child of the Mississippi
  • The Creole State
  • Sportman's Paradise
  • Fisherman's Paradise
  • The Holland of America
  • The Birth Place of Jazz

See also

Louisiana Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... . ... This is a list of official symbols of Louisiana. ... People from the state of Louisiana who have achieved fame or note include: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Jamar Adcock (1917–1991) politician and banker... Politics in Louisiana have always been a controversial yet interesting combination. ...

References

  1. ^ "Expert: N.O. population at 273,000", WWL-TV, August 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. 
  2. ^ Relocation. Connecting U.S. Cities (3 May 2007).
  3. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  4. ^ [1] NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006.
  5. ^ Stewart, Stacy (August 23, 2005). Tropical Depression Twelve, Discussion No. 1, 5:00 p.m. EDT. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  6. ^ Sturdevent, William C. (1967): Early Indian Tribes, Cultures, and Linguistic Stocks, Smithsonian Institution Map (Eastern United States).
  7. ^ Katrina Effect: LA Tops Nation in Income Growth. 2theadvocate.com (2007).
  8. ^ [2] linked from [3], accessed 28 September 2006
  9. ^ New Jersey Local Jobs - NJ.com
  10. ^ Shevory, Kristina. "The Fiery Family," New York Times, March 31, 2007, p. B1.
  11. ^ http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=111053
  12. ^ http://www.legis.state.la.us/lss/lss.asp?doc=111041
  13. ^ U.S. college athletics by state
  14. ^   "Louisiana". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  15. ^ Isaacs, Ronald H. The Jewish Information Source Book: A Dictionary and Almanac. Jason Aronson, Inc., Northvale, NJ, 1993. p. 202.

WWL-TV CBS 4 is the CBS affiliate serving New Orleans, Louisiana, southeast Louisiana and parts of southern and coastal Mississippi. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This list main article is College sports. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

Bibliography

  • Yiannopoulos, A.N., The Civil Codes of Louisiana (reprinted from Civil Law System: Louisiana and Comparative law, A Coursebook: Texts, Cases and Materials, 3d Edition; similar to version in preface to Louisiana Civil Code, ed. by Yiannopoulos)
  • Rodolfo Batiza, The Louisiana Civil Code of 1808: Its Actual Sources and Present Relevance, 46 TUL. L. REV. 4 (1971); Rodolfo Batiza, Sources of the Civil Code of 1808, Facts and Speculation: A Rejoinder, 46 TUL. L. REV. 628 (1972); Robert A. Pascal, Sources of the Digest of 1808: A Reply to Professor Batiza, 46 TUL. L. REV. 603 (1972); Joseph M. Sweeney, Tournament of Scholars Over the Sources of the Civil Code of 1808,46 TUL. L. REV. 585 (1972).
  • The standard history of the state, though only through the Civil War, is Charles Gayarré's History of Louisiana (various editions, culminating in 1866, 4 vols., with a posthumous and further expanded edition in 1885).
  • A number of accounts by 17th and 18th century French explorers, among whom the following at least should be cited: Jean-Bernard Bossu, François-Marie Perrin du Lac, Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix, Dumont (as published by Fr. Mascrier), Fr. Louis Hennepin, Lahontan, Louis Narcisse Baudry des Lozières, Jean-Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe, and Laval. In this group, the explorer Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz may be considered the first historian of Louisiana with his Histoire de la Louisiane (3 vols., Paris, 1758; 2 vols., London, 1763)
  • François Xavier Martin's History of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1827–1829, later ed. by J. F. Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) is the first scholarly treatment of the subject, along with François Barbé-Marbois' Histoire de la Louisiane et de la cession de colonie par la France aux Etats-Unis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830).
  • Alcée Fortier's A History of Louisiana (N.Y., 4 vols., 1904) is the most recent of the large-scale scholarly histories of the state.
  • The official works of Albert Phelps and Grace King should also be mentioned among the more important, as well as the publications of the Louisiana Historical Society and several works on the history of New Orleans (q.v.), among them those by Henry Rightor and John Smith Kendall.

It has been suggested that Charles Etienne Arthur Gayarre be merged into this article or section. ... A painting of Father Louis Hennepin discovering Saint Anthony Falls. ... Francois Xavier Martin (March 17, 1762-December 1846), American jurist and author, was born in Marseilles, France, of Provençal descent. ... U.S. postage stamp (c. ... Grace King, 1887 Grace Elizabeth King (1852-1932) was an American author of Louisiana stories, history, and biography, and a leader in historical and literary activities. ... The history of New Orleans, Louisiana traces its development from its founding by the French, through its period under Spanish control, then back to French rule before being sold to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. ...

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This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... 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Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mar_4_1865. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The South Atlantic States form one of the nine divisions within the United States that are formally recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The East South Central States constitute one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The West South Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Louisiana Travel (437 words)
The state of Louisiana is conveniently organized into five distinct regions, each offering a different experience.
In the Southeast corner of Louisiana, at the toe of the pirate's boot, lies the Greater New Orleans region and the city of New Orleans -- undoubtedly one of the most talked about, sung about and written about cities in the western world.
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Spanish is spoken by 2.5% of the population, Vietnamese is at 0.6% and German is at 0.2%.
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