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Encyclopedia > Louis Antoine de Bougainville
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, by Jean-Pierre Franquel
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, by Jean-Pierre Franquel

Louis-Antoine, comte de Bougainville (November 12, 1729 Paris - August 20, 1811 Paris) was a French navigator and military commander. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Contents

Early career

Bougainville was born in Paris, the son of a notary. In early life, he studied law, but soon abandoned the profession, and in 1753 entered the army in the corps of musketeers. At the age of twenty-five he published a treatise on the integral calculus, as a supplement to De l'Hôpital's treatise, Des infiniment petits. This article is about the capital of France. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses of this term, see Musketeer (disambiguation). ... This article deals with the concept of an integral in calculus. ... Guillaume François Antoine, Marquis de lHôpital (1661 - February 2, 1704) was a French mathematician. ...


In 1755 he was sent to London as secretary to the French embassy, and was made a member of the Royal Society. 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)

In 1756 he went to Canada as captain of dragoons and aide-de-camp to the Marquis de Montcalm. He took an active part in the capture of Fort Oswego in 1756 and in 1757 at the Battle of Fort William Henry. He was wounded in 1758 at the successful defence of Fort Carillon. He sailed back to France the following winter, under orders from the marquis to obtain additional military resources for the colony; during this crossing, he continued familiarising himself with the ways of the sea, skills that would later serve him well. Having distinguished himself in the war against Britain, he was rewarded with the cross of St Louis and returned to Canada the following year with the rank of colonel, but with little supplies to show for his trip - the metropolitan authorities having decided that "When the house is on fire, one does not worry about the stables". 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Portrait of Montcalm Montcalm trying to stop Native Americans from attacking British soldiers and civilians as they leave Fort William Henry. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm James Mercer † Strength 3,000 2,000 Casualties 30 dead or wounded 80 dead 1,700 captured The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theater of the Seven Years War won... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson...

Louis-Antoine de Bougainville
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville

During the pivotal year of 1759 (see Seven Years' War and French and Indian War), he participated in the defence of the capital of New France, the fortified Quebec City. With a small elite troop under his command, among which the Grenadiers and the Volontaires à cheval, he patrolled the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, upstream from the city, all summer long stopping the British several times from landing and thus cutting communications with Montreal. He was not given sufficient time, however, to rally his troops and attack the British rear when they successfully climbed up to the Plains of Abraham and attacked Quebec on September 13. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1372x1820, 3192 KB) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Louis Antoine de Bougainville ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1372x1820, 3192 KB) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Louis Antoine de Bougainville ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle during the French and Indian War, the U.S. name for the North American phase of the Seven Years War. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the death of the Marquis de Montcalm and the fall of Québec on September 18 - after the colonel's aborted attempt to resupply the besieged city - Bougainville was dispatched to the western front by his new commanding officer, the Chevalier de Lévis and attempted to stop the British advance from his entrenchments at Île-aux-Noix. He was among the officers who accompanied Lévis to Saint Helen's Island off Montreal for the last French stand in North America before the general capitulation of 1761. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Man, a sculpture by Alexander Calder, on Saint Helens Island Saint Helens Island (French ÃŽle Sainte-Hélène [1]) (, ) is an island in the Saint Lawrence River, in the territory of the city of Montreal. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Shipped back to Europe along with the other French officers, all deprived of military honours by the victors, Bougainville was prohibited from taking up any further active duty against the British under the terms of surrender. He spent the remainding years of the Seven Years' War (1761 to 1763) as a diplomat and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris that eventually conceded most of New France to the British Empire. 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The first French circumnavigation

The Boudeuse, of Louis Antoine de Bougainville
The Boudeuse, of Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Falklands settlement

After the peace, when the French government conceived the project of colonising the Falkland Islands, Bougainville undertook the task at his own expense. But the settlement he established, Port St. Louis, excited the jealousy of Britain and the French government, trying to get Spain involved in resisting the British, sold the Islands to the Spanish on condition that they could use them as a stepping-stone to the Pacific. Location of Puerto Soledad, Falkland Islands Puerto Soledad (Puerto de Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, English: ) was a Spanish military outpost and penal colony on the Falkland Islands, situated at an inner cove of Berkeley Sound (French: [1], Spanish: ). Louis Antoine de Bougainville The settlement was established as a...


Port Louis is named after him. Port Louis is a settlement on northeastern East Falkland. ...


Circumnavigation

In 1766 Bougainville received from Louis XV permission to circumnavigate the globe. He would become the 14th navigator in western history, and the first Frenchman, to sail around the world, and the completion of his mission would bolster the prestige of France following its defeats during the Seven Years' War. Bougainville left Nantes on 15 November 1766 with two ships: La Boudeuse and the Étoile. On board was the botanist Philibert Commerçon and his valet, later unmasked by the ship's surgeon as Jeanne Baré, Commerçon's mistress; she would become the first woman to circumnavigate the globe. Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Boudeuse was a frigate of the French Navy, famous for being the exploration ship of Louis Antoine de Bougainville between 1766 and 1769. ... The Étoile (Star) was a fluyt famous for being one of the ships of Louis Antoine de Bougainville in his circumnavigation between 1766 and 1769, along with La Boudeuse. ... Philibert Commerçon Dr. Philibert Commerçon (also sometimes spelled Commerson) (November 18, 1727–March 13, 1773) was a French naturalist, best known for accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of circumnavigation in 1766–1769. ... Jeanne Baré is probably the first woman to have completed a voyage of circumnavigation. ...


Tahiti

He saw islands of the Tuamotu group on the following March 22, on April 2 saw the peak of Mehetea and famously visited the island of Otaheite shortly after and narrowly missed becoming their discoverer, unaware of a previous visit, and claim, by Samuel Wallis in HMS Dolphin less than a year previously. He claimed the island for France and named it New Cythera. Categories: Stub | Polynesia ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Samuel Wallis (c. ... HMS Dolphin was a 24-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. ...


They left Tahiti and sailed westward to southern Samoa and the New Hebrides, then on sighting Espiritu Santo turned west still looking for the Southern Continent. On June 4 he almost ran into heavy breakers and had to change course to the north and east. He had almost found the Great Barrier Reef. He sailed through what is now know as the Solomon Islands that, due of the hostility of the people there, he avoided. He named Bougainville Island for himself. The expedition was attacked by people from New Ireland so they made for the Moluccas. At Batavia they received news of Wallis and Carteret who had preceded Bougainville. The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... Espiritu Santo (Spanish: Holy Ghost) is is the largest island in the nation of Vanuatu. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... Bougainville and neighbouring islands For other uses of Bougainville, see Bougainville. ... Location of New Ireland Province New Ireland (Tok Pisin: Niu Ailan) is a about 8,650 km² large island in Papua New Guinea. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... Samuel Wallis (c. ... Philip Carteret (1733 - 1796) was a British naval officer and explorer who participated in the Royal Navys circumnavigation expedition of 1766. ...


Return to France

On 16 March 1769 the expedition completed its circumnavigation and arrived at St Malo, with the loss of only seven out of upwards of 200 men, an extremely low level of casualty, and a credit to the enlightened management of the expedition by Bougainville. His voyage of circumnavigation was also notable for being the first to include a woman, Jeanne Baret. 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Jeanne Baré is probably the first woman to have completed a voyage of circumnavigation. ...


The legend begins

Describing Tahiti in his 1771 book Voyage autour du monde, Bougainville offered a vision of an earthly paradise where men and women live happily in innocence, away from the corruption of civilisation. His description powerfully illustrated the concept of the noble savage, and influenced the utopian thoughts of philosophers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau before the advent of the French Revolution. Denis Diderot's book, Supplément au voyage de Bougainville, retells the story of Bougainville's landing on Tahiti, narrated by an anonymous reader to one of his friends: this fictional approach to Bougainville's expedition, along with the description of the Tahitians as noble savages, is meant to criticise Western ways of living and thinking. 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Voyage autour du monde (Le voyage autour du monde, par la frégate La Boudeuse, et la flûte LÉtoile: Journey around the World) is a book written by French explorater Louis Antoine de Bougainville. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Supplément au voyage de Bougainville, ou dialogue entre A et B sur linconvénient dattacher des idées morales à certaines actions physiques qui nen comportent pas. ...


A new command

After an interval of several years, Bougainville again accepted a naval command and saw much active service between 1779 and 1782, including participating in the Battle of the Chesapeake. In the memorable engagement of the Battle of the Saintes, in which Admiral George Rodney defeated the Comte de Grasse, Bougainville, who commanded the Auguste, succeeded in rallying eight ships of his own division, and bringing them safely into Saint Eustace. He was promoted to chef d'escadre and, on reentering the army, was given the rank of maréchal de camp. 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Comte de Grasse Sir Thomas Graves Strength 24 ships 19 ships Casualties none some ships damaged The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as Battle of the Virginia Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War which took place near the mouth... The Battle of the Saintes, 12 April 1782: surrender of the Ville de Paris by Thomas Whitcombe, painted 1783, shows Hoods Barfleur, centre, attacking the French flagship Ville de Paris, right. ... Admiral Lord George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, 1719–1792 by Jean-Laurent Mosnier, painted 1791, George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney (February 1718 – May 24, 1792), was a British naval officer. ... François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse (1722 - January 1788), French admiral, was born at Bar, in the present départment of the Alpes-Maritimes. ... On a wing of the Paumgartner Altarpiece, Albrecht Dürer painted Lukas Paumgartner with the banner of his patron St Eustace, in the contemporary armor of a landsknecht. ... In the ancien Régime French Navy, the rank of chef descadre (literally, squadron commander) was equivalent to the present-day rank of rear admiral. ... In the French army of the Ancien Régime, the normal brigade command rank in French army was Field Marshal (Maréchal de camp). ...


After the peace of 1783 he returned to Paris, and obtained the place of associate of the Academy. He projected a voyage of discovery towards the North Pole but this did not meet with support from the French government. For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ...


Promotion and retirement

In 1787, he became a member of the French Academy of Sciences. He obtained the rank of vice-admiral in 1791; and in 1794, having escaped from the Reign of Terror, he retired to his estate in Normandy. Returning to Paris, he was one of the founding members of the Bureau des Longitudes. In 1799, Napoleon I made him a senator, and in 1808, a count of the Empire and member of the Legion of Honour. He died in Paris on the August 31, 1811. He was married and had three sons, who all served in the French army. Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses of terror, see Terror. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... The Bureau des Longitudes is a French scientific institution, founded by decree of June 25, 1795 and charged with the improvement of nautical navigation, standardisation of time-keeping, geodesy and astronomical observation. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (in Legion of Honor (AmE) or Legion of Honour (ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ...


References

  • Waggaman, Beatrice Elisabeth. Le Voyage autour du monde de Bougainville: droit et imaginaire. (Nancy: Presses universitaires de Nancy), 1992. 286480476X.

Legacy

Bougainville's name is given to the largest of the Solomon Islands; and to the strait which divides it from the island of Choiseul. It is also applied to the strait between Mallicollo and Espiritu Santo islands of the New Hebrides group. In the Falklands, Port Louis and "Isla Bougainville" (Lively Island's Spanish name, commemorate him) Bougainville and neighbouring islands For other uses of Bougainville, see Bougainville. ... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... Choiseul Island seen from space Topographic map of Choiseul. ... Espiritu Santo (Spanish: Holy Ghost) is is the largest island in the nation of Vanuatu. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... Port Louis is a settlement on northeastern East Falkland. ... Lively Island is one of the Falkland Islands, lying west of West Falkland. ...


The South American climbing shrub with colorful bracts, Bougainvillea spp., is named after him. Species Selected species: Bougainvillea buttiana Bougainvillea glabra Bougainvillea peruviana Bougainvillea spectabilis Bougainvillea spinosa Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants native to South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina (Chubut Province). ...


Thirteen ships of the French Navy have been named in his honour, see French ship Bougainville. The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Thirteen ships of the French Navy have been named in honour of Louis Antoine de Bougainville: A privateer (1797-1800) captured by HMS Amazon. ...


External links

  • Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • From the Warpath to the Plains of Abraham (Virtual exhibition)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis Antoine De Bougainville - LoveToKnow 1911 (657 words)
LOUIS ANTOINE DE BOUGAINVILLE (1729-1811), French navigator, was born at Paris on the 11th of November 1729.
Bougainville obtained the rank of vice-admiral in 1791; and in 1792, having escaped almost miraculously from the massacres of Paris, he retired to his estate in Normandy.
Bougainville's name is given to the largest member of the Solomon Islands, which belongs to Germany; and to the strait which divides 'it from the British island of Choiseul.
Louis Antoine de Bougainville - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1313 words)
Bougainville was born in Paris, France, the son of a notary.
Bougainville obtained the rank of vice-admiral in 1791; and in 1792, having escaped almost miraculously from the massacres of Paris, he retired to his estate in Normandy.
Bougainville's name is given to the largest member of the Solomon Islands; and to the strait which divides it from the island of Choiseul.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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