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Encyclopedia > Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI
King of France and Navarre
Reign 10 May 177421 September 1792
Coronation 11 June 1775, Reims
Full name Louis-Auguste
Titles Duke of Berry (175465)
Dauphin of France (176574)
King of France (177491)
King of the French (179192)
'Citizen Louis Capet'
Born 23 August 1754(1754-08-23)
Palace of Versailles, France
Died 21 January 1793 (aged 38)
Paris, France
Buried Eventually Saint Denis Basilica, France
Predecessor Louis XV
Successor De facto National Convention, ruling legislative body of the French First Republic
De jure Louis XVII
Consort Marie Antoinette of Austria (175593)
Issue Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Dauphine of France (17781851)
Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François, Dauphin of France (178189)
Louis-Charles, future titular Louis XVII (178595)
Sophie Hélène Béatrix of France (178687)
Royal House House of Bourbon
Father Louis, Dauphin of France (172965)
Mother Marie-Josèphe of Saxony (173167)

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 175421 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. Suspended and arrested during the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason, and executed on 21 January 1793. His execution signaled the end of absolute monarchy in France and would eventually bring about the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Arms of the ducs de Berry (after 1376) The title of Duke of Berry (Duc de Berry) in the French nobility was frequently created for junior members of the French royal family. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Louis de France. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Princess Sophie died as a baby, much to the grief of her parents. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Marie-Josèphe de Saxe Princess Maria Josepha Carolina of Saxony, Dauphine of France, (4 November 1731-13 March 1767), was the daughter of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, (1699-1757), the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Popular Monarchy is a system of monarchical governance in which the monarchs title is linked with the people rather than a unitary state. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Although he was beloved at first, his indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to eventually hate him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1792, the new republican government gave him the surname Capet (a reference to the nickname of Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian dynasty, which the Revolutionaries wrongly interpreted as a family name), and forced him to be called Louis Capet in an attempt to discredit his status as king. He was also informally nicknamed Louis le Dernier (Louis the Last), a derisive use of the traditional nicknaming of French kings. Today, historians and Frenchmen in general have a more nuanced view of Louis XVI, who is seen as an honest man with good intentions but who was probably unfit for the Herculean task of reforming the monarchy, and who was used as a scapegoat by the Revolutionaries. Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ...

Contents

Early life

The future king Louis XVI was born Louis-Auguste at the Palace of Versailles on 23 August 1754 to the heir to the French throne, the dauphin Louis (172965), who was the only son of the King Louis XV and his consort, Queen Maria Leszczyńska. Louis-Auguste's father died at the age of thirty-five and never ascended the French throne. Louis-Auguste's mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the Dauphin's second wife, and the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw LeszczyÅ„ski Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Marie-Josèphe de Saxe Princess Maria Josepha Carolina of Saxony, Dauphine of France, (4 November 1731-13 March 1767), was the daughter of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, (1699-1757), the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ...

Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, mother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, mother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
House of Bourbon

Henri IV
Sister
   Catherine of Navarre, Duchess of Lorraine
Children
   Louis XIII
   Elisabeth, Queen of Spain
   Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy
   Nicholas Henri
   Gaston, Duke of Orléans
   Henriette-Marie, Queen of England and Scotland
Louis XIII
Children
   Louis XIV
   Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Louis XIV
Children
   Louis, Dauphin
   Marie-Anne
   Marie-Therèse
   Philippe-Charles, Duc d'Anjou
   Louis-François, Duc d'Anjou
Grandchildren
   Louis, Dauphin
   King Felipe V of Spain
   Charles, Duke of Berry
Great Grandchildren
   Louis, Dauphin
   Louis XV
Louis XV
Children
   Louise-Elisabeth, Duchess of Parma
   Madame Henriette
   Louis, Dauphin
   Madame Marie Adélaïde
   Madame Victoire
   Madame Sophie
   Madame Louise
Grandchildren
   Marie Clotilde, Queen of Sardinia
   Louis XVI
   Louis XVIII
   Charles X
   Madame Élisabeth
Louis XVI
Children
   Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Duchess of Angouleme
   Louis-Joseph, Dauphin
   Louis XVII
   Sophie-Beatrix
Louis XVII
Louis XVIII
Charles X
Children
   Louis XIX
   Charles, Duke of Berry
Grandchildren
   Henri V
   Louise, Duchess of Parma


Louis-Auguste was the oldest surviving son out of eight children, three of whom died young. He had a difficult childhood because his parents for the most part neglected him, favoring his older brother Louis Duc de Bourgogne, who died at the age of ten in 1761. This caused his parents to turn their back on Louis-Auguste even more. A strong and healthy boy, despite being very shy, Louis-Auguste excelled in the school room and had a strong taste for English history and astronomy. He enjoyed working on locks and hunting with his grandfather King Louis XV and playing with his younger brothers Louis-Stanislas, Comte de Provence (the future King Louis XVIII) and Charles-Philip, Comte d'Artois (the future King Charles X). The boys' father died on 20 December 1765, which dealt their mother, Marie-Josèphe, a devastating blow from which she never recovered, sinking into a deep depression for the rest of her life. With his father dead, eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste was now the Dauphin of France and next-in-line to the French throne, which at the time was known as the "Finest" kingdom in Europe; but it was a job his grandfather, Louis XV, failed to prepare him for, a job which he himself did not feel capable of doing. Louis Auguste's mother died two years after his father on 13 March 1767, leaving young Louis-Auguste and his younger siblings orphans. For the first year after the death of his mother he was cared for by his grandmother, Queen Maria Leszczyńska, who died the next year, in 1768; and after that he was taken into the care of his spinster aunts Adélaïde, Victoire, Sophie, and Louise-Marie, known collectively as Mesdames Tantes. Image File history File links Marie-Josèphe_de_Saxe. ... Image File history File links Marie-Josèphe_de_Saxe. ... Marie-Josèphe de Saxe Princess Maria Josepha Carolina of Saxony, Dauphine of France, (4 November 1731-13 March 1767), was the daughter of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, (1699-1757), the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x840, 192 KB) Royal Arms of France Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Henry I (November 8, 1563 – July 31, 1624), was Duke of Lorraine from 1608 until his death. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philip IV of Spain Elisabeth of France, portrait by Diego Velázquez Élisabeth de Bourbon (November 22, 1602 - October 6, 1644), was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second Queen Marie de Medici. ... Victor Amadeus I (May 8, 1587 – October 7, 1637) was the Duke of Savoy from 1630 to 1637. ... Gaston Jean-Baptiste, duc dOrléans (April 25, 1608, Fontainebleau – February 2, 1660, Blois), was the third son of the French king Henry IV and of his wife Marie de Medici. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Philippe I, Duc dOrléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701) was the son of the Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and younger brother of Louis XIV of France. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Louis as Duke of Brittany Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707–8 March 1712) was the second son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Louise-Élisabeth of France and her daught y su hija Luisa Isabel de Borbón-Parma. ... Madame Henriette jouant de la basse viole (Madame Henriette playing the bass viol) by Jean-Marc Nattier Henriette-Anne of France (14 August 1727 at Versailles—-10 February 1752 at Versailles), was the twin sister of Princess Louise-Élisabeth, the eldest child of King Louis XV of France and his... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Marie Adélaïde (23 March 1732 - 27 February 1800) was a French princess. ... Victoire Louise Marie Thérèse (May 11, 1733 - June 7, 1799) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Sophie Philippine Elisabeth Justine (27 July 1734 - 2 March 1782) was a French princess. ... Portrait of the young Marie-Louise by Jean-Marc Nattier. ... Charles Emmanuel IV. Charles Emmanuel IV (May 24, 1751 – October 6, 1819) was King of Sardinia from 1796 to 1802. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Élisabeth Philippine Marie Hélène of France (May 3, 1764 – May 10, 1794), commonly called Madame Élisabeth, was the youngest sister of King Louis XVI of France. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Louis de France. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Princess Sophie died as a baby, much to the grief of her parents. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry (1778 - February 13, 1820) was the younger son of Charles X of France and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Louise Marie Thérèse of France (Louise Marie Thérèse dArtois; born September 21, 1819, Élysée-Bourbon, Paris, France; died February 1, 1864, Palazzo Giustiniani, Venice, Austrian Empire) was the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of King Charles X of France... The following is a list of the Dukes of Burgundy Richard of Autun, the Justicier (880–921) Rudolph of Burgundy (king of France from 923) (921–923) Hugh the Black (923–952) Gilbert of Chalon (952–956) Odo of Paris (956-965) Otto-Henry the Great... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marie-Josèphe de Saxe Princess Maria Josepha Carolina of Saxony, Dauphine of France, (4 November 1731-13 March 1767), was the daughter of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, (1699-1757), the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw LeszczyÅ„ski Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Marie Adélaïde (23 March 1732 - 27 February 1800) was a French princess. ... Victoire Louise Marie Thérèse (May 11, 1733 - June 7, 1799) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Sophie Philippine Elisabeth Justine (27 July 1734 - 2 March 1782) was a French princess. ... Portrait of the young Marie-Louise by Jean-Marc Nattier. ...


Family life

Queen Marie Antoinette of Austria with her three oldest children, Marie-Thérèse, Louis-Charles and Louis-Joseph
Queen Marie Antoinette of Austria with her three oldest children, Marie-Thérèse, Louis-Charles and Louis-Joseph

On 16 May 1770, at the age of fifteen, Louis-Auguste married the fourteen-year-old Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria (better known by the French form of her name, Marie Antoinette), the youngest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and his wife, the formidable Empress Maria Theresa. The young couple was not able to have children for several years, apparently due to the fact that Louis-Auguste suffered from an unknown and unproven sexual dysfunction.[1]. Some have speculated that this dysfunction was due to phimosis, a physical condition which was later relieved by a circumcision operation seven years after the marriage [2]. Image File history File links Lebr04. ... Image File history File links Lebr04. ... Marie-Antoinette, painted by Wagenschon shortly after her marriage in 1770 Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born 2 November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... Marie-Antoinette, painted by Wagenschon shortly after her marriage in 1770 Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born 2 November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Phimosis is a medical condition in which the foreskin of the penis of a male cannot be fully retracted. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


Other historians have claimed, though, that the King was only advised to undergo a circumcision, which he declined to do as it was unsafe for a man of his age. As evidence, these historians point to the fact that there are no historical records to show that King Louis ever had the surgery, and that his hunting records show that he still went hunting regularly during the time when the surgery was supposed to have taken place. Regardless of the true nature of the dysfunction, eventually the marriage was "consummated" not long after Louis XVI had a frank discussion with Marie Antoinette's brother Joseph II. The Emperor had the same "talk" with his Royal sister, and not long after, the Queen discovered she was pregnant. It has been argued that, based on this, the lack of an heir to the throne was due to the King and Queen's limited knowledge of sexual intercourse. In a letter Joseph penned to one of his brothers in Austria, he wrote that Louis XVI had told him how he "inserted his member, stayed still for a few minutes, and withdrew without ejaculating." The King confided that he took no pleasure and did this out of duty. This is an interesting note, as it confirms the fact that the King and Queen did not link ejaculation to conception. Both had had limited educations, and given that, as early as 1772, Louis (as Dauphin) had informed his grandfather Louis XV that he had "made" Marie Antoinette his wife (meaning, engaged in sexual intercourse), there is even less evidence for a sexual dysfunction, only that the Royal couple had not had access to a good course in sexual education. Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ...


Subsequently, the Royal couple had four children:

The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Louis de France. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Princess Sophie died as a baby, much to the grief of her parents. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Ancestors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Louis, Dauphin of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Maria Anna of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Louis XV of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Anne Marie of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Louis, Dauphin of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Rafał Leszczyński
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Stanisław Leszczyński
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Anna Jabłonowska
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Maria Leszczyńska
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Jean-Charles Opaliński
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Katarzyna Opalińska
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Catherine-Sophie-Anne Czarnkowska
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Louis XVI of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. John George III, Elector of Saxony
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Augustus II of Poland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Princess Anne Sophie of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Augustus III of Poland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Sofie Luise of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Princess Marie-Josèphe of Saxony
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Benedicta-Henrietta of Simmern
 
 
 
 
 
 

Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... Marie-Anne Christine Victoire de Bavière Maria Anna of Bavaria (28 November 1660, Munich - 20 April 1690, Versailles), Dauphine of France, was also known as Dauphine Victoire. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy (December 6, 1685-February 12, 1712) was the mother of King Louis XV of France. ... Anne Marie of Orléans (Saint Cloud, August 27, 1669 - Turin, August 26, 1728), was a Queen of Savoy and Sardinia and maternal grandmother of Louis XV of France. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents BogusÅ‚aw LeszczyÅ„ski Anna Denhoff Consorts Anna JabÅ‚onowska Children with Anna JabÅ‚onowska StanisÅ‚aw LeszczyÅ„ski Date of Birth 1650 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death January 31, 1703 Place of Death PleÅ›nica RafaÅ‚ LeszczyÅ„ski (1650... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Noble Family JabÅ‚onowski Coat of Arms Prus III Parents StanisÅ‚aw Jan JabÅ‚onowski Marianna Kazanowska Consorts RafaÅ‚ LeszczyÅ„ski Children with RafaÅ‚ LeszczyÅ„ski StanisÅ‚aw LeszczyÅ„ski Date of Birth 1660 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death August 29, 1727 Place of Death  ? Princess Anna JabÅ‚onowska... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw LeszczyÅ„ski Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska (1682 - 1747) was the daughter of Magnate Jean-Charles OpaliÅ„ski and his wife Catherine-Sophie-Anne. ... Army of Saxony John George III, Elector of Saxony (20 June 1647 - 12 September 1691) was born into the house of Wettin. ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Bayreuth, December 19, 1671 - Pretzsch (Elbe), September 4, 1727) was the wife of Augustus II the Strong. ... Marie-Josèphe de Saxe Princess Maria Josepha Carolina of Saxony, Dauphine of France, (4 November 1731-13 March 1767), was the daughter of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, (1699-1757), the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg or Eleonore of Pfalz-Neuburg (January 6, 1655, Düsseldorf - January 19, 1720, Vienna) was empress of Austria as wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Archduchess Maria Josefa of Austria, Queen of Poland. ... John Frederick (German: Johann Friedrich; 25 April 1625, Herzberg am Harz – 18 December 1679, Augsburg) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg subdivision of the duchy from 1665 until his death. ... Wilhelmina Amalia (21 April 1673 - 10 April 1742) was the daughter of John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Benedicta-Henrietta of Simmern. ...

Personality

Louis XVI was characterized for a long time as a little simpleton, handled by his advisers, with crazes for iron work and hunting. This image is partly due to his attitude towards the court.


The "thoughtlessness" that was sometimes attributed to him is explained partly by a strong myopia which isolated him from the world, and in particular, enabled him only with difficulty to recognize his interlocutors. Louis XVI was a studious prince and scholar. In addition to his known passion for iron work, he was set on history, geography, navy and sciences. He made the navy a priority of France's foreign politics, and was anxious to thwart the British projections overseas, and to take revenge for the disastrous Treaty of Paris. This powerful navy strongly contributed to the success of the American Revolutionary War. He had moreover a theoretical knowledge of the navy so pointed that he was likely, when he saw the sea for the first time, to make remarks whose relevance astounded his interlocutors. Normal vision. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... This article is about military actions only. ...


Since Louis XIV, the nobility had been "mainly domesticated" by the structure of the royal court. The configuration of the court governed the life of the nobles by making the king the center of a very strict and complex set of ceremonies in which he was attended by the nobles in a way regimented by rigid etiquette. By constructing this system, Louis XIV aimed to eliminate the effect of the often rebellious, and always threatening, nobility toward the royal power. Within the court, the nobility saw its participation in the life of the king organized as if in a vase, enclosed in a subtle system of dependencies, hierarchies, and rewards, so that its inclinations for autonomy with respect to the royal authority definitely became much reduced.


Louis XVI inherited this system: nobility was seen as being in service to the king, and nobles judged their status upon the rewards and honours derived from him. Even if the majority of the nobility did not have the means of living at the court, the texts show an attachment of provincial noblemen to the role of the court, and the importance with which they attached a "presentation" at court.


Like Louis XV, Louis XVI entered this system with great sadness. This was not for lack of education: he was the first French monarch who spoke fluent English, and nourished philosophers of the Enlightenment. He sought to divorce himself from the royally authoritarian image of Louis XIV. To do this, he tried to develop an image for himself as a simple man, an image more in keeping with that of the "enlightened despots" of Europe, like Frederick II of Prussia. Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ...


Louis's refusal to fully immerse himself in the court system explains the bad reputation that he eventually gained with the nobles. By depriving the nobility of its ceremonial role, the king deprived it of its accepted social role and protections. Initially created to control the nobility, the court system gradually ended up controlling the king as well.


Gradually, the image of the king during Louis's reign became degraded. Poor management by Louis of the royal court, the refusal of the parlements (where the nobility and a part of the upper middle classes expressed themselves) to pass any meaningful reforms, and the often frivolous and capricious image of the Queen combined to tarnish the image of the king and monarchy. Many lampooners ridiculing Louis came from a part of the nobility that had a lot to lose, describing him not as "simply the king", but as a "simpleton king." This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ...


Absolute monarch of France, 1774-1789

Louis XVI at the age of 20
Louis XVI at the age of 20

When Louis XVI succeeded to the throne in 1774 he was 20, as his father, the son of the previous king, Louis XV, had died in 1765. He had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment towards 'despotic' monarchy was on the rise. Louis therefore appointed an experienced advisor, Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas who, until his death in 1781 would take charge on many important ministerial decisions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (785 × 1013 pixel, file size: 674 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Louis XVI. 1775 Duplessis +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (785 × 1013 pixel, file size: 674 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Louis XVI. 1775 Duplessis +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas (July 9, 1701 - November 21, 1781) was a French statesman. ...


Radical financial reforms by Turgot and Malesherbes disaffected the nobles and were blocked by the parlements who insisted that the King did not have the legal right to levy new taxes. So Turgot was dismissed in 1776 and Malesherbes resigned in 1776 to be replaced by Jacques Necker. Necker supported the American Revolution, and progressed upon a policy of taking out large international loans instead of raising taxes. This, Louis hoped, would reduce France's deficit and fund the American Revolutionary War, in which France participated from 1778 onward. When this policy failed miserably, Louis dismissed him, and replaced him with Charles Alexandre de Calonne, in 1783, who increased public spending to 'buy' the country's way out of debt. Again this failed, so Louis convoked the Assembly of Notables in 1787 to discuss a revolutionary new fiscal reform of Calonne's. When the nobles were told the extent of the debt, they were shocked into rejecting the plan. This signalled that Louis had lost his legitimacy to rule as an absolute monarch, and he fell into depression. Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, often referred to as Turgot (May 10, 1727 ? March 18, 1781), was a French statesman and economist. ... Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, often referred to as Malesherbes or Lamoignon-Malesherbes (December 6, 1721–April 23, 1794) was a French statesman, minister, and afterwards counsel for the defence of Louis XVI. Born at Paris from a famous legal family... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman of Swiss origin and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Necker was born in Geneva, Switzerland. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article is about military actions only. ... Charles Alexandre de Calonne, portrait by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. ... The Assembly of Notables was an assembly convened on 1787-02-22 by Charles Alexandre de Calonne, the minister of finance of France. ...


As power drifted from him, there were increasingly loud calls for him to convoke the Estates-General, and in May 1789 he did so, bringing it together for the first time since 1614 in a last-ditch attempt to get new monetary reforms approved. This convocation was one of the events that transformed the general economic and political malaise of the country into the French Revolution, which began in June 1789, when the Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly; Louis' attempts to control it resulted in the Tennis Court Oath (serment du jeu de paume, 20 June), and the declaration of the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July. Hence, the legitimate power of King Louis had been undermined and became transferred to the elected representatives of the people's nation. The storming of the Bastille on 14 July symbolised the victory of democratic constitutional monarchy over King Louis XVI's absolute power. The word States-General, or Estates-General, refers in English to : the Etats-Généraux of France before the French Revolution the Staten-Generaal of the Netherlands. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) was a transitional body between the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly that existed from June 17 to July 9 of 1789. ... Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants French government Parisian militia (predecessor of Frances National Guard) Commanders Bernard-René de Launay â€  Prince de Lambesc Camille Desmoulins Strength 114 soldiers, 30 artillery pieces 600 - 1,000 insurgents Casualties 1 (6 or possibly 8 killed after surrender) 98 The Storming of the Bastille in Paris occurred on... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Revolutionary constitutional reign, 1789–1792

On 5 October 1789, an angry mob of women from the Parisian underclass who had been incited by revolutionaries marched on the Palace of Versailles, where the royal family lived. During the night, they infiltrated the palace and attempted to kill the Queen, who was associated with a frivolous lifestyle that symbolized much that was despised about the Ancient Regime. After the situation had been diffused, the King and his family were brought back by the crowd to Paris to live in the Tuileries Palace. is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Womens March to Versailles was an event in the French Revolution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard The Tuileries Palace stood in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed. ...


Initially, after the removal of the royal family to Paris, Louis maintained a high popularity and was obliging to the social, political, and economic reforms of the Revolution.[citation needed] Unbeknownst to the public, however, recent scholarship has concluded that Louis began to suffer at the time from severe bouts of clinical depression, which left him prone to paralyzing indecisiveness. During these indecisive moments, his wife, the unpopular Queen, was essentially forced into assuming the role of decision-maker for the Crown. Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


The Revolution's principles of popular sovereignty, though central to democratic principles of later eras, marked a decisive break from the absolute monarchical principle of throne and altar that was at the heart of traditional French government. As a result, the Revolution was opposed by many of the rural people of France and by practically all the governments of France's neighbors. As the Revolution became more radical, several leading figures in the initial revolutionary movement themselves eventually began questioning the principles of popular control of government. Some, notably Honoré Mirabeau, secretly plotted to restore the power of the Crown in a new constitutional form. Portrait of Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) (March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ...


However, Mirabeau's sudden death, and Louis's depression, fatally weakened developments in that area. Louis was nowhere near as reactionary as his right-wing brothers, the Comte de Provence and the Comte d'Artois, and he sent repeated messages publicly and privately calling on them to halt their attempts to launch counter-coups (often through his secretly nominated regent, former minister de Brienne). However, he was alienated from the new democratic government both by its negative reaction to the traditional role of the monarch and in its treatment of him and his family. He was particularly irked by being kept essentially as a prisoner in the Tuileries, where his wife was forced humiliatingly to have revolutionary soldiers in her private bedroom watching her as she slept, and by the refusal of the new regime to allow him to have Catholic confessors and priests of his choice rather than 'constitutional priests' created by the Revolution. Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ...


On 21 June 1791, Louis attempted to flee secretly with his family from Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montmédy on the northeastern border of France in the hope of forcing a more moderate swing in the Revolution than was deemed possible in radical Paris. However, flaws in the escape plan caused sufficient delays to enable the royal refugees to be recognized and captured along the way at Varennes. Supposedly Louis was captured while trying to make a purchase at a store, where the clerk recognized him. According to the legend, Louis was recognized because the coin used as payment featured an accurate portrait of him. He was returned to Paris, where he remained indubitably as constitutional king, though under effective house-arrest. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Flight to Varennes (June 20-21, 1791) was a significant episode in the French Revolution during which the French royal family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from the radical agitation of the Jacobins in Paris disguised as a Russian aristocratic family. ... Montmédy is a commune of the Meuse département, in northeastern France. ... Varennes-en-Argonne or simply Varennes is a city and commune in the French département of Meuse. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...

The return of the royal family to Paris on June 25, 1791, colored copperplate after a drawing of Jean-Louis Prieur
The return of the royal family to Paris on June 25, 1791, colored copperplate after a drawing of Jean-Louis Prieur

The other monarchies of Europe looked with concern at the developments in France, and considered whether they should intervene, either in support of Louis or to take advantage of the chaos in France. The key figure was Marie Antoinette's brother, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, who had initially looked on the Revolution with equanimity, but became more and more disturbed as the Revolution became more radical, although he still hoped to avoid war. On 27 August, Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia, in consultation with émigré French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pilnitz, which declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe in the well-being of Louis and his family, and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. Although Leopold saw the Pillnitz Declaration as a way of taking action that would enable him to avoid actually doing anything about France, at least for the moment, it was seen in France as a serious threat and was denounced by the revolutionary leaders. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1400 × 1198 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1400 × 1198 pixel, file size: 2. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... The Declaration of Pillnitz on August 27, 1791, was a statement issued at the Castle of Pillnitz in Saxony by Emperor Leopold II and Frederick William II of Prussia. ...


In addition to the ideological differences between France and the monarchical powers of Europe, there were continuing disputes over the status of Austrian estates in Alsace, and the concern of members of the National Constituent Assembly about the agitation of emigré nobles abroad, especially in the Austrian Netherlands and the minor states of Germany. (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ...


In the end, the Legislative Assembly, supported by Louis, declared war on the Holy Roman Empire first, voting for war on 20 April 1792, after a long list of grievances were presented to it by the foreign minister, Charles François Dumouriez. Dumouriez prepared an immediate invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule. However, the Revolution had thoroughly disorganized the army, and the forces raised were insufficient for the invasion. The soldiers fled at the first sign of battle, deserting en masse and in one case, murdering their general. During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Charles François Dumouriez. ...

August 10, 1792 The Storming of the Tuileries Palace
August 10, 1792 The Storming of the Tuileries Palace

While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganized its armies, a mostly Prussian allied army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Koblenz on the Rhine. In July, the invasion commenced, with Brunswick's army easily taking the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun. Brunswick then issued on 25 July a proclamation, written by Louis' émigré cousin, the Prince of Condé, declaring the intent of the Austrians and Prussians to restore the King to his full powers and to treat any person or town who opposed them as rebels to be condemned to death by martial-law. Download high resolution version (1000x675, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x675, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard The Tuileries Palace stood in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed. ... Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (October 9, 1735 - November 10, German general, was born at Wolfenbüttel. ... Map of the Koblenz region Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German spellings; French Coblence) is a city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument ( Emperor William I on horseback) are situated. ... Longwy is a town and commune located in the Meurthe-et-Moselle département in northeastern France. ... Verdun, (German: Wirten) sometimes also called Verdun-sur-Meuse, is a city and commune in northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Joseph of Bourbon or Louis V (August 9, 1736 – May 13, 1818) was Prince of Condé from 1740 to his death. ...


Contrary to its intended purpose of strengthening the position of the King against the revolutionaries, the Brunswick Manifesto had the opposite effect of greatly undermining Louis' already highly tenuous position in Paris. It was taken by many to be the final proof of a collusion between Louis and foreign powers in a conspiracy against his own country. The anger of the populace boiled over on 10 August when a mob — with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the "insurrectionary" Paris Communebesieged the Tuileries Palace. The King and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly. This article needs cleanup. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ...


Arrest and execution, 1792-1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI

Louis was officially arrested on 13 August and sent to the Temple, an ancient Paris fortress used as a prison. On 21 September, the National Convention declared France to be a republic. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x906, 104 KB) After the French Revolution, Louis XVI was beheaded with Dr. Guillotins invention, the guillotine Summary from http://chnm. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x906, 104 KB) After the French Revolution, Louis XVI was beheaded with Dr. Guillotins invention, the guillotine Summary from http://chnm. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Temple was an ancient fortress in Paris, located in what are now the IIIe and IVe arrondissements. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Louis was tried (from 11 December 1792) and convicted of high treason before the National Convention. He was sentenced to death (21 January 1793) by guillotine by a vote of 361 to 288, with 72 effective abstentions. December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Historic replicas (1:6 scale) of the two main types of French guillotines: Model 1792, left, and Model 1872 (state as of 1907), right The guillotine is a device used for carrying out executions by decapitation. ...


Stripped of all titles and honorifics by the egalitarian, republican government, Citizen Louis Capet was guillotined in front of a cheering crowd on 21 January 1793. Executioner Charles Henri Sanson testified that the former King had bravely met his fate. Charles Henri Sanson (1739 - 1806), public executioner of Paris from 1788 to 1795, was the great grandson of Charles Sanson de Longval (born before 1658, died in 1707), who received the office of executeur des hautes oeuvres de Paris in 1688, which became hereditary in his family. ...


On his death, his eight-year-old son, Louis-Charles, automatically became to royalists and some foreign states the de jure King Louis XVII of France, despite France having been declared a republic. Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis...


References

  1. ^ Francine du Plessix Gray (2000-08-07). The New Yorker From the Archive Books. The Child Queen. Retrieved on 2006-10-17.
  2. ^ "Dictionary of World Biography". Author: Barry Jones. Published in 1994

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Louis XVI - full access article
Louis XVI of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 23 August 1754 Died: 21 January 1793
French royalty
Preceded by
Louis
Dauphin of France
December 20, 1765May 10, 1774
Succeeded by
Louis-Joseph
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis XV
King of France and Navarre
May 10, 1774October 1, 1791
Vacant
Title next held by
Louis XVIII
New title
King of the French
October 1, 1791September 21, 1792
Vacant
Title next held by
Louis-Philippe
Political offices
Preceded by
Louis XV
as King of France and Navarre
Monarch of France
as King of France and Navarre
May 10, 1774October 1, 1791
Vacant
Title next held by
Napoléon I
Titles in pretence
New title — TITULAR —
King of France and Navarre
September 21, 1792January 21, 1793
* Reason for succession failure *
French Revolution (1789-1799
Succeeded by
Louis XVII
Chronology of French monarchs from 987 to 1870
Medieval France
House of Capet

Hugues (987-996) • Robert II (996-1031) • Henri I (1031-1060) • Philippe I (1060-1108) • Louis VI (1108-1137) • Louis VII (1137-1180) • Philippe II (1180-1223) • Louis VIII (1223-1226) • Louis IX (1226-1270) • Philippe III (1270-1285) • Philippe IV (1285-1314) • Louis X (1314-1316) • Jean I (1316) • Philippe V (1316-1322) • Charles IV (1322-1328) • Philippe VI (1328-1350) • Jean II (1350-1364) • Charles V (1364-1380) • Charles VI (1380-1422) • Charles VII (1422-1461) • Louis XI (1461-1483) • Charles VIII (1483-1498) Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Louis de France. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008–August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Philip V (17 November 1293 – 3 January 1322), called the Tall (French: le Long), was King of France and Navarre (as Philip II) and Count of Champagne from 1316 to his death, and the second to last of the House of Capet. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Louis XI (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), called the Prudent (French: ) and the Universal Spider (Old French: luniverselle aragne) or the Spider King, was the King of France from 1461−83. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Early Modern France
House of Valois

Louis XII (1498-1515) • François I (1515-1547) • Henri II (1547-1559) • François II (1559-1560) • Charles IX (1560-1574) • Henri III (1574-1589) For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Louis XII (b. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ...

Early Modern France
House of Bourbon

Henri IV (1589-1610) • Louis XIII (1610-1643) • Louis XIV (1643-1715) • Louis XV (1715-1774) • Louis XVI (1774-1792) For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

First Republic
First Empire
House of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1804-1814) Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Bourbon Restoration I
House of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1814-1815) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Hundred Days
House of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1815) • Napoléon II (1815) The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Bourbon Restoration II
House of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1815-1824) • Charles X (1824-1830) • Louis XIX (1830) • Henri V (1830) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

July Monarchy
House of Orléans

Louis-Philippe (1830-1848) The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Second Republic
Second Empire
House of Bonaparte

Napoléon III (1852-1870) This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Third, Fourth and Fifth Republic
List of French monarchsList of Queens and Empresses of France — History of France
Pretenders to the French throne since 1792
Legitimist pretenders
House of Bourbon
Orléanist pretenders
House of Orléans
Bonapartist pretenders
House of Bonaparte
Louis XVI (1792-1793)
Louis XVII (1793-1795)
Louis XVIII (1795-1814)
First Empire
1804-1814
Bourbon Restoration I
1814-1815
Napoléon I (1814-1815)
Louis XVIII (1815)
Reign of the Hundred Days
1815
Bourbon Restoration II
1815-1830
Napoléon II (1815-1832)
Joseph (1832-1844)
Louis (1844-1846)
Napoléon III (1846-1852)
Charles X (1830-1836)
Louis XIX (1836-1844)
Henri V (1844-1883)
Jean III (1883-1887)
Charles XI (1887-1909)
Jacques I (1909-1931)
Alphonse I (1931-1936)
Alphonse II (1936-1941)
Jacques II (1941-1975)
Alphonse III (1975-1989)
Louis XX (1989-)
July Monarchy
1830-1848
Louis-Philippe I (1848-1850)
Philippe VII (1850-1894)
Philippe VIII (1894-1926)
Jean III (1926-1940)
Henri VI (1940-1999)
Henri VII (1999-)
Second Empire
1852-1870
Napoléon III (1870-1873)
Napoléon IV Eugène (1873-1879)
Napoléon V Victor (1879-1926)
Napoléon VI Louis (1926-1997)
Napoléon VII Charles (1997-)
List of French monarchsList of Queens and Empresses of France • History of France
Royal coat of Arms of France (House of Bourbon)
Legitimist Pretenders
to the French throne
since 1792
French Revolution

Louis XVI (1792-1793)
Louis XVII (1793-1795)
Louis XVIII (1795-1814) The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of the women who have been Queens consort or Empresses consort of the realm of France. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The Orléanists were a French political faction or party which arose out of the French Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1870. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ... Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Jan. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Jan. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Don Juan Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbón, Count of Montizón (French: Jean Charles Marie Isidore de Bourbon, comte de Montizón) (May 15, 1822 – November 21, 1887) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain from 1860 to 1887, and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of Madrid (1848 - 1909) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain, and later the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Jaime, Duke of Madrid and Anjou Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, called Duke of Madrid and known in France as Jacques de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou (27 June 1870 – 2 October 1931) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and the Legitimist claimant to... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime Alfonso Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime (London 12 September 1849-Vienna 29 September 1936) was the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France and the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Jaime Luitpold Isabelino Enrique de Borbón y Battenberg, Infante of Spain, Duke of Segovia (June 23, 1908- March 20, 1975), was the second son of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso de Borbón y de Dampierre (French citizen as Alphonse de Bourbon) (1936–1989), also known as the Duke of Cádiz (as he was mostly called in Spain) and Duke of Anjou, was a pretender to the French throne. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... HRH Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou (on his French National Identity Card; full name: Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou, born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, Comte de Paris (August 24, 1838 – September 8, 1894) was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Louis-Philippe Robert, Duke of Orléans (August 24, 1869 - March 28, 1926) was the son of Philippe, Count of Paris, Orléanist claimant to the throne of France. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean Pierre Clément Marie dOrléans, Duc de Guise (September 4, 1874-August 25, 1940) was the son of Robert, Duke of Chartres (1840-1910), grandson of Prince Ferdinand-Philippe and great-grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri Robert Ferdinand Marie Louis Philippe dOrléans, also known as Henri, comte de Paris (5 July 1908-19 June 1999) was the Orleanist pretender to the French throne from 1940 until his death. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Prince Henri Philippe Pierre Marie dOrléans, comte de Paris, duc de France (born June 14, 1933) is a claimant to the French throne. ... This article is about the year. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Napoléon Eugène Louis John Joseph, called Napoleon IV, (March 16, 1856 – June 1, 1879), Prince Imperial, Fils de France, was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III of France and his Empress consort Eugénie de Montijo. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... NapolÄ—on-Victor Bonaparte (about 1905) Napoléon Victor Jérôme Frédéric Bonaparte (July 18, 1862 - May 3, 1926) was the son of Prince Napoleon and Marie Clothilde of Sardinia, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Napoléon, born as Louis Jerome Victor Emmanuel Leopold Marie Bonaparte, (23 January 1914 - 3 May 1997) was claimant to the Imperial throne of France in the Prince Napoléon pretentious line from 1926 until his death. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Napoléon VII, Prince Imperial (Charles Marie Jérôme Victor Napoléon) (born 19 October 1950) is a French politician, and claims to be the current head of the Imperial House of France as heir male to the rights and legacy established by his great-great-granduncle, Emperor Napol... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of the women who have been Queens consort or Empresses consort of the realm of France. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x840, 192 KB) Royal Arms of France Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Bourbon Restoration I

Louis XVIII (1815) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Bourbon Restoration II

Charles X (1830-1836)
Louis XIX (1836-1844)
Henri V (1844-1883)
Jean III (1883-1887)
Charles XI (1887-1909)
Jacques I (1909-1931)
Alphonse I (1931-1936)
Alphonse II (1936-1941)
Jacques II (1941-1975)
Alphonse III (1975-1989)
Louis XX (1989-) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Jan. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Don Juan Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbón, Count of Montizón (French: Jean Charles Marie Isidore de Bourbon, comte de Montizón) (May 15, 1822 – November 21, 1887) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain from 1860 to 1887, and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of Madrid (1848 - 1909) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain, and later the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Jaime, Duke of Madrid and Anjou Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, called Duke of Madrid and known in France as Jacques de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou (27 June 1870 – 2 October 1931) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and the Legitimist claimant to... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime Alfonso Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime (London 12 September 1849-Vienna 29 September 1936) was the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France and the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Jaime Luitpold Isabelino Enrique de Borbón y Battenberg, Infante of Spain, Duke of Segovia (June 23, 1908- March 20, 1975), was the second son of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and his wife Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso de Borbón y de Dampierre (French citizen as Alphonse de Bourbon) (1936–1989), also known as the Duke of Cádiz (as he was mostly called in Spain) and Duke of Anjou, was a pretender to the French throne. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... HRH Louis Alphonse de Bourbon, duc dAnjou (on his French National Identity Card; full name: Luis Alfonso Gonzalo Víctor Emanuel Marco de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, Duke of Anjou, born Madrid, April 25, 1974) is considered to be the head of the French Royal House by... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


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Louis XVI Style | Louis XVI Quote | Louis XVI Biography | Louis XVI Problem | France Louis XVI | King Louis XVI (648 words)
The interests of the monarchy had ceased to coincide with those of the people, and dissatisfaction grew on all sides-an accumulation of grievances that mere reforms and concessions were unable to assuage.
The government remained monarchic and aristocratic; the economy had passed into the hands of merchants, lawyers, manufacturers, and engineers-all legally barred from enjoying the prerogatives reserved for the nobility -a privileged elite that, together with the clergy, constituted less than one percent of the population in a nation of twenty-four million.
In the words of one modem historian, it made "the bourgeoisie mistress of the world." Louis XVI succeeded to his grandfather's throne at the age of nineteen, in 1774.
Louis XVI of France information - Search.com (1071 words)
Louis XVI (born August 23 1754 in Versailles; died January 21 1793 in Paris) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792.
Louis' mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, second wife of the Dauphin, and the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.
Louis was nowhere near as reactionary as his right-wing brothers, the comte d'Artois and the comte de Provence, and he sent repeated messages publicly and privately calling on them to halt their attempts to launch counter-coups (often through his secretly nominated regent, former minister de Brienne).
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