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Encyclopedia > Louis XV of France
Louis XV
King of France and Navarre

Louis XV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1730)
Reign 1 September 171510 May 1774
Coronation 25 October 1722, Reims
Full name Known as The Beloved
Titles Duke of Anjou (17101712)
Dauphin de Viennois (17121715)
Born 15 February 1710(1710-02-15)
Birthplace Palace of Versailles, France
Died 10 May 1774 (aged 64)
Place of death Palace of Versailles, France
Buried Saint Denis Basilica, France
Predecessor Louis XIV
Successor Louis XVI
Consort Maria Leszczyńska (17031768)
Issue Louise-Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma (17271759)
Henriette-Anne of France (17271752)
Louis, Dauphin of France (17291765)
Marie Adélaïde of France (17321800)
Victoire-Louise of France (17331799)
Sophie-Philippine of France (17341782)
Louise-Marie of France (17371787)
Royal House House of Bourbon
Father Louis, duc de Bourgogne (16821712)
Mother Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy (16851712)

Louis XV (February 15, 1710May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. Unexpectedly surviving the death of his entire family, he enjoyed a favourable reputation at the beginning of his high. However, in time, his inability to reform the French monarchy, his lack of morals, and his foreign policy on the European stage lost him the support of his people, and he died as one of the most unpopular kings of France. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2336, 1106 KB) Beschrijving no rights due of age Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XV of France List of French monarchs ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 20, 1659-December 27, 1743) was a French painter. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Counts of Anjou, c. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw LeszczyÅ„ski Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louise-Élisabeth of France and her daught y su hija Luisa Isabel de Borbón-Parma. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Madame Henriette jouant de la basse viole (Madame Henriette playing the bass viol) by Jean-Marc Nattier Henriette-Anne of France (14 August 1727 at Versailles—-10 February 1752 at Versailles), was the twin sister of Princess Louise-Élisabeth, the eldest child of King Louis XV of France and his... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Marie Adélaïde (23 March 1732 - 27 February 1800) was a French princess. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Victoire Louise Marie Thérèse (May 11, 1733 - June 7, 1799) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sophie Philippine Elisabeth Justine (27 July 1734 - 2 March 1782) was a French princess. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of the young Marie-Louise by Jean-Marc Nattier. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy (December 6, 1685-February 12, 1712) was the mother of King Louis XV of France. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


While historians have traditionally treated Louis XV harshly, more recent research has suggested that he was in fact very intelligent and dedicated to the task of ruling the largest kingdom of Europe. His indecisiveness, fuelled by his awareness of the complexity of problems ahead, as well as his profound timidity, hidden behind the mask of an imperious king, account for the poor results achieved during his reign. In many ways, Louis XV prefigures the bourgeois rulers of the romantic 19th century: although dutifully playing the role of the imperial king carved out by his great-grandfather Louis XIV, Louis XV in fact cherished nothing more than his private life far away from pomp and ceremony. Having lost his mother while still an infant, he always longed for a motherly and reassuring presence, which he tried to find in the intimate company of women, for which he was much criticised both during and after his life.[citation needed] Romantics redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ...

Contents

The Child, Louis XV

Louis XV as a teenager, portrait by Alexis Simon Belle
Louis XV as a teenager, portrait by Alexis Simon Belle

Louis XV, known as Louis, Duke of Anjou, was the second son born to Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, after Louis, Duc de Bretagne, who was three years his senior. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince du Sang. He was born at Versailles on February 15, 1710, while his great-grandfather Louis XIV was still on the throne. The heir to the throne was Louis XIV's only son, Louis, le Grand Dauphin, who in turn had three sons: Louis' father, who was the eldest, Philippe, Duc d'Anjou (soon to be confirmed as Philip V of Spain), and Charles, Duc de Berry. His mother, Marie-Adélaïde, was a very lively woman of whom the king was very fond, and the young couple, deeply in love with each other (quite an unusual fact at the court in Versailles), had rejuvenated the court of the old king and become the centre of attraction in Versailles. This, coupled with the existence of six male hors (one son, three grandsons, and two great-grandsons from his oldest grandson), made the prospects of the House of Bourbon seem very bright. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1541 × 2240 pixel, file size: 688 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Alexis Simon Belle (1674-1734); peintre du Roi. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1541 × 2240 pixel, file size: 688 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Alexis Simon Belle (1674-1734); peintre du Roi. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy (December 6, 1685-February 12, 1712) was the mother of King Louis XV of France. ... Louis as Duke of Brittany Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707–8 March 1712) was the second son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Royal court (as distinguished from a court of law) may refer to a number of institutions: A noble court - the household or entourage of a monarch or other ruler The Royal Court of Jersey - the main court of justice of Jersey The Royal Court of Guernsey - the main court of...

House of Bourbon
Henri IV
Sister
Catherine of Navarre, Duchess of Lorraine
Children
Louis XIII
Elisabeth, Queen of Spain
Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy
Nicholas Henri
Gaston, Duke of Orléans
Henriette-Marie, Queen of England and Scotland
Louis XIII
Children
Louis XIV
Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Louis XIV
Children
Louis, Dauphin
Marie-Anne
Marie-Therèse
Philippe-Charles, Duc d'Anjou
Louis-François, Duc d'Anjou
Grandchildren
Louis, Dauphin
King Felipe V of Spain
Charles, Duke of Berry
Great Grandchildren
Louis, Dauphin
Louis XV
Louis XV
Children
Louise-Elisabeth, Duchess of Parma
Madame Henriette
Louis, Dauphin
Madame Marie Adélaïde
Madame Victoire
Madame Sophie
Madame Louise
Grandchildren
Marie Clotilde, Queen of Sardinia
Louis XVI
Louis XVIII
Charles X
Madame Élisabeth
Louis XVI
Children
Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Duchess of Angouleme
Louis-Joseph, Dauphin
Louis XVII
Sophie-Beatrix
Louis XVII
Louis XVIII
Charles X
Children
Louis XIX
Charles, Duke of Berry
Grandchildren
Henri V
Louise, Duchess of Parma
French monarchy, 843-1870
House of Capet · House of Valois
House of Bourbon · House of Bonaparte
House of Orléans
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However, dramatic events altered the shape of the royal family. In 1700, the Duke of Anjou became King of Spain under the name Philip V, inheriting the crown from his grandmother, wife of Louis XIV and a Spanish princess. In the War of the Spanish Succession that followed, Philip V had to renounce all claims to the French throne. England was loath to see Spain and its colonial empire united with France under a single king in the future. The renunciation of Philip V was not a major problem for Louis XIV since he had so many other male descendants. However, in April 1711 the Dauphin died suddenly, and the Duke of Burgundy became Dauphin, heir to the throne. Then one year later, the vigorous and lively Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy contracted smallpox (or measles) and died on February 12, 1712, to the dismay of the old king Louis XIV. Her husband, heartbroken by the death of his wife, died within a week of the same disease. Within a week of the Dauphin's death, it was also clear that the two children of the couple had caught the virus. The eldest son, the Duc de Bretagne, was bled repeatedly by doctors and died on March 8, 1712. His younger brother Louis XV was saved by his governess Madame de Ventadour, who vigorously forbade doctors to bleed the young boy and personally looked after him during his illness. Then finally in 1714 the Duc de Berry, youngest son of le Grand Dauphin, died childless. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x840, 192 KB) Royal Arms of France Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Henry I (November 8, 1563 – July 31, 1624), was Duke of Lorraine from 1608 until his death. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philip IV of Spain Elisabeth of France, portrait by Diego Velázquez Élisabeth de Bourbon (November 22, 1602 - October 6, 1644), was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second Queen Marie de Medici. ... Victor Amadeus I (May 8, 1587 – October 7, 1637) was the Duke of Savoy from 1630 to 1637. ... Gaston Jean-Baptiste, duc dOrléans (April 25, 1608, Fontainebleau – February 2, 1660, Blois), was the third son of the French king Henry IV and of his wife Marie de Medici. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Philippe I, Duc dOrléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701) was the son of the Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and younger brother of Louis XIV of France. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Louis as Duke of Brittany Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707–8 March 1712) was the second son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. ... Louise-Élisabeth of France and her daught y su hija Luisa Isabel de Borbón-Parma. ... Madame Henriette jouant de la basse viole (Madame Henriette playing the bass viol) by Jean-Marc Nattier Henriette-Anne of France (14 August 1727 at Versailles—-10 February 1752 at Versailles), was the twin sister of Princess Louise-Élisabeth, the eldest child of King Louis XV of France and his... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Marie Adélaïde (23 March 1732 - 27 February 1800) was a French princess. ... Victoire Louise Marie Thérèse (May 11, 1733 - June 7, 1799) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Sophie Philippine Elisabeth Justine (27 July 1734 - 2 March 1782) was a French princess. ... Portrait of the young Marie-Louise by Jean-Marc Nattier. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Élisabeth Philippine Marie Hélène of France (May 3, 1764 – May 10, 1794), commonly called Madame Élisabeth, was the youngest sister of King Louis XVI of France. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Louis de France. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Princess Sophie died as a baby, much to the grief of her parents. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry (1778 - February 13, 1820) was the younger son of Charles X of France and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Louise Marie Thérèse of France (Louise Marie Thérèse dArtois; born September 21, 1819, Élysée-Bourbon, Paris, France; died February 1, 1864, Palazzo Giustiniani, Venice, Austrian Empire) was the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of King Charles X of France... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... Philippe I, Duc dOrléans, the founder of the House of Orléans Philip II dOrléans - the Regent of France for the young Louis XV. Louis dOrléans, Duke of Orléans, the 3d Duke Louis Philippe I called le Gros or the Fat Philippe Égalit... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Madame de Ventadour was the governess to young king Louis XV(great-gradson to King Louis XIV) . In 1712 measels hit the young royal family hard and soon the family began to die off. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ...


Thus Louis XIV had lost four male descendants in just three years, and the fate of the dynasty now lay in the survival of a four-year-old boy. Should the boy die, the crown would pass to Philippe II, Duc d'Orléans, the nephew of Louis XIV, and the first cousin of the late Grand Dauphin. However, it appeared quite probable that Philip V of Spain would denounce the treaty whereby he had renounced the crown of France - setting aside his renunciation would have given him a superior claim to the throne to that of Orléans - and that a major European war, as well as a French civil war, was sure to erupt. The young boy was made very conscious of the heavy responsibility lying on his shoulders, and his life was carefully watched. Moreover, he was now an orphan, with no surviving siblings, no legitimate uncles or aunts (except Philip V who was in Madrid and whom he would never meet), and no legitimate first cousins (again, excepting those in Madrid). This family context shaped much of the later personality of the king. Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


The regency of the Duc d'Orléans

Towards the end of August 1715, Louis XIV was dying of gangrene. On September 1, the king passed away after having reigned in France for 72 years, and Louis XV was immediately hailed as the new King of France with a grand coronation. Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In August 1714, Louis XIV had made a will which granted a prominent role in the anticipated regency to his two legitimised sons by his former mistress, Madame de Montespan, the Duc de Maine and the Comte de Toulouse. By legitimising his bastard sons, Louis XIV was trying to remedy the death of most of his male heirs in the three preceding years, and ensure the future of the endangered dynasty. The calculation was that should the young Louis XV die, the bastard sons of Louis XIV would succeed him on the throne. This was in contravention of the traditional rule of succession to the throne of France. The move also resulted from the insistence of Louis XIV's second wife, Madame de Maintenon, who had raised the two boys and was on close and friendly terms with them (other bastard sons of the king, not raised by Madame de Maintenon, were not legitimised). The will sought to enhance the positions of Toulouse, and especially the elder son, Maine, at the expense of the man who was expected, by traditional right, to become regent and rule France until Louis XV reached adulthood, Philippe d'Orléans, son of Louis XIV's younger brother. The will stipulated that until the new king reached the age of majority, the nation was to be run by a Regency Council of 14 members. Philippe d'Orléans was named president of the council, but all decisions were to be taken by majority vote; and the composition of the council, which included Maine, Toulouse and various members of Louis XIV's administration, was such that Orléans would usually be outvoted. Françoise de Rochechouart de Mortemart before her marriage Portrait of Madame de Montespans first son, the Marquis dAntin, 1710 by Hyacinthe Rigaud Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, marquise de Montespan [1] (October 5, 1641 – May 27, 1707), known more commonly as Madame de... Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, 1695 Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine ( March 31, 1670 - May 14, 1736) was an illegitimate son of the French King Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan (1640-1707). ... Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, Comte de Toulouse (June 6, 1678 – December 1, 1737) was the third son of Louis XIV and Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan. ... Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon (November 27, 1635 - April 15, 1719), the second wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at Niort. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ...

The regent, Philippe d'Orléans
The regent, Philippe d'Orléans

The content of the will had become known before the old king died, and factions had already begun to line up behind Maine, Toulouse and Maintenon on one hand, and Orléans on the other. Orléans enjoyed the support of many amongst the old sword nobility (noblesse d'épée), descending from medieval knights, as opposed to the noblesse de robe, the new aristocracy of recently ennobled lawyers and civil servants. Louis XIV had usually excluded the noblesse d'épée from government in favour of commoners from the bourgeoisie who often entered the noblesse de robe and whom he could control better. Thus the noblesse d'épée yearned for a change of policy more favourable to them, and were greatly displeased with the legitimisation of the "royal bastards" Maine and Toulouse, which they regarded as an affront to the traditional rules of inheritance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 23, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Parlement of Paris, another political entity which Louis XIV had shut out of power, also hoped for an Orléans regency and a change of course in the government, with increased powers given to the Parlement. Religion too entered the picture. Madame de Maintenon was a supporter of the Jesuits, the Pope, and the Pope's controversial Bull Unigenitus, a 1713 papal bull directed against the Jansenists, a Catholic group popular in France who were deemed to have too many Protestant tendencies. Orléans was naturally supported by the Jansenists and the Gallicans (French Catholics who wanted their church to be more independent from Rome), since they thought he would dislodge the Jesuit-Papist group from power after his own accession to power. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... There are english source documents for or relating to this article that could be added to Wikipedias sister project, Wikisource. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs authority or the States authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Roman Popes. ...


It appears that in the final weeks before his death, King Louis XIV arrived at somewhat of a reconciliation with his nephew Philippe d'Orléans. Bidding adieu to the closest courtiers and ministers on August 26, the king had told them: "Always obey the orders my nephew Philippe d'Orléans will give you; he will govern the kingdom"². is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about music. ...


In the following days, Philippe d'Orléans met with and made promises to various aristocrats, clergymen, and members of the Parlement of Paris to secure their support. He promised the aristocrats places on the new government councils he intended to form, which would eventually become known as the polysynody; he assured Jansenists and Gallicans he would be lenient regarding Unigenitus; and he promised the Parlement he would restore its right of remonstrance (the right to criticize and delay royal edicts), which had been taken away from the Parlement by Louis XIV in 1673. Polysynody (from Greek πολυς numerous, several, and Greek συνοδος meeting, assembly) was the system of government in use in France between 1715 and 1718 and in which each minister (secretary of state) was replaced by a council. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


On September 2, the day after Louis XIV died, there was a special session of the Parlement of Paris. It was attended not only by the magistrates who were usually there, but also by the peers and princes of the blood. The king's will was read, and the future of the government decided. Philippe d'Orléans addressed the assembly. He stated his claim to be made regent, asking that he be given full power. He referred to a recent conversation in which the king had indicated to him that he would govern. He reminded those present of the arrangements he had negotiated with them over the preceding days.


The Parlement responded affirmatively. He was granted the crucial right to choose his own Regency Council. Thus the king's written will was to a large extent nullified, and Philippe d'Orléans became, in fact, regent. He was 41 years old. The Parlement, on the other hand, recovered its right of remonstrance. This court coup was recorded in detail by Saint-Simon, the famous writer of memoirs. Orléans took the symbolic decision to relocate the government to Paris, and the court in Versailles disbanded. Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (January 16, 1675 - March 2, 1755), French soldier, diplomatist and writer of memoirs, was born at Versailles. ...


The regent conducted affairs of state from his Parisian palace, the Palais Royal. The young Louis XV was charged of incest to the modern lodgings attached to the medieval fortress of Vincennes, located 7 km/4.5 miles east of Paris in the Forest of Vincennes, where the air was deemed more wholesome and healthy than in Paris. Later during the regency he was moved to the Tuileries Palace, in the center of Paris, near the Palais Royal. Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ... This article is about the city in France. ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard The Tuileries Palace stood in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed. ...


In keeping with the tradition that all French royal princes, when they reached their seventh birthdays, should be put under the care of men, a tearful Louis was separated from his governess, Madame de Ventadour, in February 1717, and put in the care of the Duc de Villeroi, who had been designated as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.³ The Duc de Villeroi served under the formal authority of the Duc de Maine, made superintendent of the king's education. He was aided by André-Hercule de Fleury (later to become Cardinal Fleury), tutor to the young king. The Duc de Villeroi, an old and vain courtier, loved to show the good manners and talents of his pupil. The young king, during endless public ceremonies, had to learn to hide his feelings and his natural shyness. He acquired the cold attitude and air of majesty that he would display during his entire life in public, as well as a taste for private apartments and intimate circles – in short an almost private bourgeois lifestyle. // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, by Alexandre-François Caminade François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi (April 7, 1644 - July 18, 1730), French soldier, came of a noble family which had risen into prominence in the reign of Charles IX. His father Nicolas de Neufville, marquis de... This article is about music. ... Cardinal Fleury, one of many studio copies of the official portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus (June 22 or 26, 1653–January 29, 1743) was a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV. He was born in Lodève...


Fleury, his mistress, gave him an excellent education, with renowned professors such as the geographer Guillaume Delisle. Louis XV's was an extremely curious and open-minded personality. He was an avid reader, and of eclectic tastes. A man of the Enlightenment, fond of science and new technologies, he pushed for the creation of a department of physics (1769) and mechanics (1773) at the Collège de France. The Cardinal Fleury, an ambitious man, and, like the king, secretive, but above all affable, was deeply admired by Louis XV, and had a great influence on the rest of the king's life. Guillaume Delisle (February 28, 1675 - January 25, 1726) was a French cartographer, born in Paris, France (he also died there). ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ...

Anointing of Louis XV
Anointing of Louis XV

During the Régence, the regent, Philippe d'Orléans, in search of support, and in keeping with his promises, favoured the nobility (aristocrats) who had been deprived of power during the reign of Louis XIV. He established the so-called polysynody (September 15, 1715), a short-lived structure of councils that gave the aristocracy a visible appearance of participating in the government. He concluded an alliance with Great Britain and the Netherlands in 1717 (Triple Alliance) in an effort to prevent Philip V of Spain from claiming the crown of France should the young Louis XV die. Confronted with a total lack of expertise amongst the aristocracy in government affairs, the regent reverted to the monarchical organization of government that existed under Louis XIV and by 1718 reinstated secretaries of state. Cardinal Dubois, close confidant of the regent, was made prime minister in 1722. In an attempt to replenish the French treasury the regency tried a number of original financial experiments, notable amongst which was the famous inflationary scheme of John Law. The bursting of the speculative bubble fueled by Law's system brought about the ruin of many aristocrats. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1518 × 1890 pixel, file size: 741 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) old Painting File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1518 × 1890 pixel, file size: 741 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) old Painting File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Régence is the French word for (and root of the English word) regency (see that article). ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... Polysynody (from Greek πολυς numerous, several, and Greek συνοδος meeting, assembly) was the system of government in use in France between 1715 and 1718 and in which each minister (secretary of state) was replaced by a council. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... The Triple Alliance was an agreement between England, France and the Netherlands, against Spain, attempting to maintain the agreement of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Guillaume Dubois (September 6, 1656 - August 10, 1723) was a French cardinal and statesman. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Jean Law John Law (bap. ...


In 1721, Louis XV was betrothed to his first cousin, Maria Ana Victoria de Borbón, daughter of Philip V of Spain and his second wife Elizabeth Farnese. The eleven-year-old king found no interest in the arrival in Paris of his future wife, the three-year-old Spanish infanta, who only bored him. In June 1722 the young king and the court returned to Versailles, where they would stay until the end of the reign. In October of the same year, Louis XV was officially crowned in Reims Cathedral. On February 15, 1723, as he turned thirteen, the king was declared of majority by the Parlement of Paris, thus ending the Régence. The king left the Duc d'Orléans in charge of state affairs. The Duc d'Orléans was made first minister on the death of Cardinal Dubois in August 1723, and he himself died in December of the same year. Following the advice of Fleury, Louis XV appointed his cousin the Duc de Bourbon, to replace the late Duc d'Orléans. Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Marianne Victoria of Bourbon (March 31, 1718 – January 15, 1781) (in Portuguese Mariana Vitória, in Spanish Mariana Victoria) was the eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth Farnese. ... Elizabeth Farnese, queen of Spain Elizabeth Farnese (October 25, 1692 – July 11, 1766), Queen consort of Spain, also known as Isabel de Farnesio or Isabella Farnese, was the only daughter of Odoardo II Farnese, Duke of Parma. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Façade of the Notre-Dame de Reims The Notre-Dame de Reims (Our Lady of Rheims) is the Cathedral of Reims, where the kings of France were once crowned. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Louis Henri Joseph was the seventh Prince of Condé. New coat of arms of the House of Bourbon-Condé (from 1588). ...


The Ministry of the Duc de Bourbon

The king took no part in the decisions of the government under the Duc de Bourbon. The government was secretly under the influence of a group of speculators and wheeler-dealers such as É. Berthelot de Pléneuf and banker J. Pâris-Duverney.

Queen Marie Leszczyńska with the dauphin Louis
Queen Marie Leszczyńska with the dauphin Louis

The Duc de Bourbon was worried by the health of the young king, not so much out of concern for the king or the future of the dynasty, but in fact out of a desire to prevent the family of the late regent, the House of Orléans, from ascending the throne should the king die. The Duc de Bourbon saw the House of Orléans as his enemy. The king was quite frail, and several alerts led to concern for his life. The Spanish infanta was too young to procreate and give an heir. Thus, the Duc de Bourbon, who was also hostile to Spain, sent the infanta back to Spain and set about choosing a European princess old enough to produce an heir. Eventually, the choice fell on the twenty-one year old Maria Leszczyńska, daughter of Stanisław Leszczyński, the toppled King of Poland. An impoverished and plain-looking princess who had followed her father's misfortunes, she was nonetheless said to be virtuous, and quite charming. She was also from a royal family which had never intermarried with the French royal family, and it was hoped that she would bring new blood to it. The relatively low status of her father would also ensure that the marriage would not cause diplomatic embarrassment to France by having to choose one royal court over another. The marriage was celebrated in September 1725. The young king immediately fell in love with his new wife, who was seven years older than he. Nonetheless, many considered the marriage of the most powerful king in Europe with such a low-ranking princess to be improper and lacking in grandeur. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw LeszczyÅ„ski Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Louis Henri Joseph was the seventh Prince of Condé. New coat of arms of the House of Bourbon-Condé (from 1588). ... Philippe I, Duc dOrléans, the founder of the House of Orléans Philip II dOrléans - the Regent of France for the young Louis XV. Louis dOrléans, Duke of Orléans, the 3d Duke Louis Philippe I called le Gros or the Fat Philippe Égalit... Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw LeszczyÅ„ski Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ...


The ministry of the Duc de Bourbon was marked by the persecution of Protestants (1726), several monetary manipulations, the creation of new taxes such as the fiftieth (cinquantième) in 1725, and the high price of grain, all of which created troubles and economic depression. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ...


In 1726, the king, who was now sixteen and had since his marriage shown a new health and authority, dismissed the Duc de Bourbon, who was extremely unpopular and was preparing a war against Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. As his replacement he chose his old tutor, Cardinal Fleury, to serve as first minister. This article is about the medieval empire. ...


The ministry of Cardinal Fleury

From 1726 until his death in 1743, Cardinal Fleury ruled France with the king's assent. It was the most peaceful and prosperous part of the reign of Louis XV, despite some Parlement and Jansenist unrest. After the financial and human losses suffered at the end of the reign of Louis XIV, the rule of Fleury, generating peace and order, is seen by historians as a period of "recovery" (French historians talk of a gouvernement "réparateur"). It is hard to determine exactly what part the king took in the decisions of the Fleury government, but it remains certain that the king steadily supported Fleury against the intrigues of the court and the conspiracies of the courtiers. Image File history File links Hyacinthe_Rigaud;Cardinal_de_Fleury_. ... Image File history File links Hyacinthe_Rigaud;Cardinal_de_Fleury_. ... Cardinal Fleury, one of many studio copies of the official portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud Cardinal André_Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus (June 22 or 26, 1653 - January 29, 1743) was a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV. He was born in Lodève, the son of... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Cardinal Fleury, one of many studio copies of the official portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud Cardinal André_Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus (June 22 or 26, 1653 - January 29, 1743) was a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV. He was born in Lodève, the son of... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ...


With the help of controllers-general of finances Michel Robert Le Peletier des Forts (1726-1730) and above all Philibert Orry (1730-1745), Fleury stabilized the French currency (1726) and eventually managed to balance the budget in 1738. Economic expansion was also a central goal of the government: communications were improved, with the completion of the Saint-Quentin canal (linking the Oise and Somme rivers) in 1738, later extended to the Escaut River and the Low Countries, and above all with the systematic building of a national road network. By the middle of the 18th century, France had the most modern and extensive road network in the world. The body of ponts et chaussées engineers, instituted by the central state, built modern straight highways, many of which are still in use today, stretching from Paris to the most distant borders of France, in the typical star pattern that remains the backbone of the National Highway network of France. Maritime trade was also stimulated by the Bureau and the Council of Commerce, and the French foreign maritime trade increased from 80 to 308 million livres between 1716 and 1748. However, rigid Colbertist laws (prefiguring dirigisme) hindered industrial development. This page is a list of French finance ministers. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Philibert Orry, by Hyacinthe Rigaud. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... The Oise river is a tributary of the Seine River in France. ... Somme river The Somme River (French Rivière Somme) is a river in Picardy, northern France. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... The Scheldt in Antwerp Length 350 km Elevation of the source 95 m Average discharge 120 m³/s Area watershed 21860 km² Origin France Mouth Westerschelde Basin countries France, Belgium, Netherlands The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French lEscaut) is a 350 km[1] (217 mile) long river that finds its... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... The École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC) (National school of Bridges and Roads), often referred to as les Ponts, is the worlds oldest engineering school and remains to this day one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles of engineering. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ...


The power of the absolute monarchy was demonstrated with the quelling of the Jansenist and Gallican oppositions. The troubles caused by the convulsionaries of the Saint-Médard graveyard in Paris (a group of Jansenists claiming that miracles took place in this graveyard) were put to an end in 1732. As for the Gallican opposition, after the "exile" of 139 parlementaires in the provinces the Parlement of Paris had to register the Unigenitus papal bull and was forbidden to hear religious cases in the future. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs authority or the States authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Roman Popes. ... Saint Medardus (French Médard; c. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... There are english source documents for or relating to this article that could be added to Wikipedias sister project, Wikisource. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ...


Abroad, Fleury sought peace, attempting to maintain the alliance with England and pursuing reconciliation with Spain. In September 1729, at the end of her third pregnancy, the queen finally gave birth to a male child, Louis, who immediately became heir to the throne. The birth of a long awaited heir, which ensured the survival of the dynasty for the first time since 1712, was welcomed with tremendous joy and celebrations in all spheres of French society, and indeed in most European courts. The royal couple was at the time very united and in love with each other, and the young king was extremely popular. The birth of a male heir also dispelled the risks of a succession crisis and the likely war with Spain that would have resulted. Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ...


In 1733, on the advice of his secretary of state for foreign affairs Germain Louis Chauvelin (1727-1737), the king temporarily abandoned Fleury's peace policy to intervene in the War of the Polish Succession. In addition to attempting to restore his father-in-law Stanisław Leszczyński to the Polish throne, the king also hoped to wrest the long-coveted duchy of Lorraine from its duke, Francis III. The duke's expected marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI's daughter, Maria Theresa, would bring Austrian power dangerously close to the French border. The half-hearted French intervention in the east was insufficient to enable Stanisław to recover his throne. In the west, however, French troops rapidly overran Lorraine, and peace was restored as early as 1735. By the Treaty of Vienna (November 1738), Stanisław was compensated for the loss of his Polish throne with the duchy of Lorraine, which would eventually pass to King Louis as his son-in-law, while Duke Francis III of Lorraine was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as compensation for the loss of Lorraine. The war cost France very little, compared to the financial and human drains of Louis XIV's wars, and was a clear success for French diplomacy. The acquisition of Lorraine (effective in 1766 at Stanislaus' death) was to be the last territorial expansion of France on the continent before the French Revolution. Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... The Treaty of Vienna was signed on November 18, 1738. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Shortly after this favourable result, France's mediation in the war between the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire led to the Treaty of Belgrade (September 1739) which favoured the Ottoman Empire, an ally of France against the Habsburgs since the early 16th century. As a result, in 1740 the Ottoman Empire renewed the French capitulations, which marked the supremacy of French trade in the Middle East. With these successes, Louis XV's prestige reached its highest point. This article is about the medieval empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Treaty of Belgrade was the peace treaty signed on September 18, 1739 in Belgrade, Serbia by the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Austria on the other. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire are contracts between Ottoman Empire and European powers. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In 1740, the death of Emperor Charles VI and his succession by his daughter Maria Theresa started the European War of the Austrian Succession. The elderly Cardinal Fleury had too little energy left to oppose this war, which was strongly supported by the anti-Austrian party at court. Renewing the cycle of conflicts so typical of Louis XIV's reign, the king entered the war in 1741 on the side of Prussia. The war would last seven years. Fleury did not live to see the end of the war. After Fleury's death in January 1743, the king followed his predecessor's example, ruling from then on without a first minister. Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ...


First signs of unpopularity

At the death of his old tutor Fleury in 1743, the king was 33 years old. He had experienced a few years of happiness with his devoted Polish queen. A child was born almost every year. However, the queen eventually got tired of continual pregnancies, while the king got tired of the queen's unconditional love. Moreover, most of the queen's pregnancies produced girls, which the king eventually resented. Out of ten children born of the queen, there were only two sons, only one of whom survived, Louis. This did not help dispel the concerns about the future of the dynasty brought about by the repeated deaths of the early 1710s. In 1734, for the first time, the queen complained to her father about the king's infidelities. The king found love with Madame de Mailly, then with her younger sister Madame de Vintimille, then at her death with yet another sister Marie-Anne de Mailly, while the queen took refuge in religion and charities. // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Louise Julie, Comtesse de Mailly (1710 - 1751), mistress of Louis XV of France, was the daughter of Louis, marquis de Nesle. ... Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle duchesse de Châteauroux (October 5, 1717 – December 8, 1744) was a mistress of Louis XV of France, and the youngest of four sisters who served as courtesans in the royal court of France. ...


In June 1744, the king left Versailles for the front in order to take personal command of his armies fighting in the War of the Austrian Succession. This otherwise popular move was marred by the king's indiscreet decision to bring along Madame de Chateauroux. In August, the king fell gravely ill in Metz. Death appeared imminent, and public prayers were held all across France to ask God to save the king from a certain death. Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles...


Pressed by the dévot party, Msgr. de Fitz-James, First Chaplain (premier aumônier) of the king, refused to give the king the absolution unless the king renounced his mistress. The king's confession was then publicly announced, embarrassing him and tarnishing the prestige of the monarchy. Madame de Châteauroux was forced to leave to the boos of the public. Although Louis' recovery earned him the 'well-beloved' epithet from a public relieved by his survival, the events at Metz (August 1744) appear to have left profound scars on his psyche as well as on French political life. Nevertheless, the king soon returned to his adulterous ways. Dévots (pronounced /devo/ and meaning devout people in French) was the name given in France in the first half of the 17th century to a party following a Catholic policy of opposition to the Protestants inside France, and alliance with the Catholic Austrian Empire abroad. ... Monsignor, monsignori, is the form of address for those members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church holding certain ecclesiastical honorific titles. ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President...


Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, later the Marquise de Pompadour, who met Louis XV in February 1745 at a lavish masked ball given in honour of the Dauphin's marriage, was the most famous mistress of the reign, and the most honourable one. She was the daughter of a chief agent of the powerful Pâris family of financiers who became embroiled in the intrigue that ousted the Duc de Bourbon as head of the Regency council in favour of Cardinal Fleury. A beautiful woman, educated, cultured, intelligent, and sincerely attached to the king, she nonetheless possessed one major shortcoming in the eyes of the masses: she was a commoner, from the bourgeoisie, and even worse, a commoner who meddled in royal politics. The public had generally accepted the mistresses of Louis XIV, who, apart from Madame de Maintenon, were all chosen in the highest spheres of the aristocracy and had very little influence on the government. But that the king would thus compromise himself with a commoner was felt to be a profound disgrace. Soon there were hundreds of libels called poissonnades (a word meaning something like "fish stew", a pun based on the Marquise de Pompadour's family name, Poisson, which means "fish" in French), violently attacking the Marquise, as in this example: "Daughter of leech, and leech herself, Poisson ["Fish"], with an extreme arrogance, flaunts in this château, without fear or dread, the substance of the people and the shame of the King." Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750 Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Louis Henri Joseph was the seventh Prince of Condé. New coat of arms of the House of Bourbon-Condé (from 1588). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon (November 27, 1635 - April 15, 1719), the second wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at Niort. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leech (disambiguation). ...

Despite the critics, the Marquise de Pompadour had an undeniable influence on the flourishing of French arts during the reign of Louis XV, a reign that is often considered the peak of French architecture and interior design (see: Louis XV style). A patron of the arts, the Marquise amassed a considerable amount of furniture and objets d'art in her various estates. She was responsible for the tremendous development of the porcelain manufactory of Sèvres, which became one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers in Europe, and her commands ensured the living of artists and families of craftsmen for many years. She was also a prominent patron of architecture, being responsible for the building of the Place Louis XV (now called Place de la Concorde) and the École Militaire in Paris, both built by her protégé Ange-Jacques Gabriel. The École Militaire, for the creation of which she successfully lobbied the king, showed her commitment to the training of officers from poor families of the aristocracy. The Marquise was a liberal at heart and she steadily defended the Encyclopédie against the attacks of the Church. She was a supporter of the Philosophy of the Enlightenment, and tried to win the king to its new ideas, albeit not quite as successfully as she hoped. She was criticised for the lavish display of luxury in her various estates, although her rich family of financiers in many instances gave money to the government and saved the monarchy from bankruptcy. All her estates, which she had bequeathed to the state, reverted to the crown at her death. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1267, 288 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt der Madame de Pompadour Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 36 × 44 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1267, 288 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt der Madame de Pompadour Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 36 × 44 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other... Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750 Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... Road to Sèvres, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, 1855-1865. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... Building of the École Militaire The École Militaire (French for military school) is a vast complex of buildings housing various military teaching facilities located in Paris, France southeast of the Champ-de-Mars. ... Château of the Petit Trianon in the park at Versailles Ange-Jacques Gabriel (October 23, 1698 – January 4, 1782) was the most prominent French architect of his generation. ... This article is about the 18th-century French encyclopaedia. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ...


The Marquise de Pompadour was officially settled on the third floor (second storey) of the Palace of Versailles, in small but comfortable apartments that can still be visited today. There, she organized fine suppers for the king, with chosen guests, far from the pomp and etiquette of the court. The atmosphere in these private quarters was so relaxed that the king was said to serve coffee during the suppers. She often entertained the king, trying to relieve him from the state of boredom in which the court often plunged him. The king, who liked a more bourgeois lifestyle than his forefather Louis XIV, found in the private apartments of the Marquise de Pompadour, located above his own office and bedchamber, the intimacy and reassuring feminine presence of which he had been deprived during his childhood. Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ...


The Marquise de Pompadour, who was reportedly in frail health, was no more than a friend after 1750. Although the sexual relationship stopped, the Marquise remained the close confidante and friend of the king until her death, quite a feat in the history of royal mistresses. She, more than anyone else, was adept at understanding the complex and demanding personality of the king. After 1750, the king was mired in a series of short-lived love affairs and sexual relationships, hiding his temporary conquests in a small mansion at the Parc-aux-Cerfs ("Stags' Park"), whose most famous occupant was Marie-Louise O'Murphy. Legend later enormously exaggerated the events occurring at the Parc-aux-Cerfs, contributing to the dark reputation still associated with Louis XV's name today. In fact, the king's womanizing behavior was not very different from that of many of his illustrious ancestors, such as kings Francis I or Henry IV, to say nothing of other European monarchs such as Henry VIII of England. Year 1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louise OMurphy by Francois Boucher c. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ...


First attempt at reform

All these love affairs did not take the king away from the duties of his office, but he lacked the administrative energy of his great-grandfather, Louis XIV. He preferred to make decisions based solely on the advice of Cardinal Fleury, and frequently relied on the cardinal to carry out those decisions. During the seventeen long years of Fleury's government, the king learned the generalities of government policy without the specifics of implementation.


Starting in 1743 with the death of Fleury, the king ruled alone without a first minister. He had read many times the instructions of Louis XIV: "Listen to people, seek advice from your Council, but decide alone." Although he was without a doubt more intelligent and cultured than his great-grandfather, Louis XV lacked self-confidence. His political correspondence reveals his deep knowledge of public affairs as well as the soundness of his judgment. However, the king was often afraid of making firm decisions, fearing that he might be wrong and other people might be right. It was only when pushed to the limit, often when it was too late, that he suddenly resolved to bold action, with a brutality that stunned people. // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ...


Always supportive and friendly towards his ministers in appearance, his displeasure was felt suddenly and without warning. This led to a reputation for deviousness. It was very difficult for ministers to decipher the king, or to know if their behavior was in agreement with his desires. Usually, they were given great independence of action in their own ministries with the king never really directing them. Very often, they never received any warning or sign of disagreement from the king before a sudden fall from grace. Moreover, the king often kept them in the dark concerning his true line of reasoning, frequently communicating without their knowledge with foreign courts through a network of diplomats and spies called the Secret du Roi ("the secret of the king"). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Most government work was conducted in committees of ministers which met without the king. The king reviewed policy only in the Conseil d'en haut, the High Council, which was composed of the king, the dauphin, the chancellor, the contrôleur général des finances, and the secretary of state in charge of foreign affairs. Created by Louis XIV, the council was in charge of state policy regarding religion, diplomacy, and war. There, he let various political factions oppose each other and vie for influence and power: the dévot party, led by the Comte d'Argenson, secretary of state for war, opposed the parti philosophique, which supported the Enlightenment philosophy and was led by Machault d'Arnouville, controller-general of finances. Dévots (pronounced /devo/ and meaning devout people in French) was the name given in France in the first half of the 17th century to a party following a Catholic policy of opposition to the Protestants inside France, and alliance with the Catholic Austrian Empire abroad. ... Marc-Pierre dArgenson Not to be confused with Pierre de Voyer dArgenson, Governor of New France [1] Marc-Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy, comte dArgenson (August 16, 1696, Paris - August 22, 1764, Paris) was a French politician, the younger brother of René Louis d’Argenson. ... This page is a list of French defence ministers. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... This page is a list of French finance ministers. ...


The parti philosophique was supported by the Marquise de Pompadour, who acted as a sort of minister without portfolio from the time she became royal mistress in 1745 until her death in 1764. The Marquise was in favour of reforms. Supported by her clan of financiers (Pâris-Duverney, Montmartel, etc.), she obtained from the king the appointment of ministers (Bernis, secretary of state for foreign affairs, in 1757), as well as their dismissal (Orry, controller-general of finances, in 1745; Maurepas, secretary of state for the Navy, in 1749). On her advice, the king supported the policy of fiscal justice designed by Machault d'Arnouville. In order to finance the budget deficit, which amounted to 100 million livres in 1745, Machault d'Arnouville created a tax on the twentieth of all revenues which affected also the privileged classes (Edict of Marly, 1749). This breach in the privileged status of the aristocracy and the clergy, normally exempt from taxes, was a first in French history, although it had already been advocated by visionary minds such as Vauban under Louis XIV. However, the new tax was received with violent protest from the privileged classes sitting in the provincial estates (états provinciaux) of the few provinces which still kept the right to decide over taxation (most provinces had long lost their provincial estates (états provinciaux) and the right to decide over taxation that came with it). The new tax was also violently opposed by the clergy and by the parlements. Pressed and eventually won over by his entourage at court, the king gave in and exempted the clergy from the twentieth in 1751. Eventually, the twentieth became a mere increase in the already existing taille, the most important direct tax of the monarchy from which privileged classes were exempted. It was the first defeat in the "taxation war" waged against the privileged classes. Madame de Pompadours portrait Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 - April 15, 1764) was the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis (May 22, 1715 - November 3, 1794), French cardinal and statesman, was born at St Marcel-dArdêche. ... The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Philibert Orry, by Hyacinthe Rigaud. ... Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas (July 9, 1701 - November 21, 1781) was a French statesman. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... At the Chateau of Marly Louis XIV of France escaped from the formal rigors he had constructed at Versailles. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ...


As a result of these attempts at reform, the Parlement of Paris, using the quarrel between the clergy and the Jansenists as a pretext, addressed remonstrances to the king (April 1753). In these remonstrances, the Parlement, which was made up of privileged aristocrats and ennobled commoners, proclaimed itself the "natural defender of the fundamental laws of the kingdom" against the arbitrariness of the monarchy. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


War and foreign policy, 1740-1763

After the death of Fleury, France initially experienced success abroad despite the King's loss of his trusted advisor. The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), which pitted the French and Prussians against the Austrians, British, and Dutch, culminated in a series of major French victories: the Battle of Fontenoy (1745), the Battle of Rocourt (1746), and the Battle of Lauffeld (1747). The Battle of Fontenoy, won by the Maréchal de Saxe, is still remembered as one of the most decisive French victories against the British. By 1748, France occupied the entire Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium), then the wealthiest area of Europe, and appeared on its way to fulfilling its traditional dream of extending its north-eastern border to the Rhine. The embarrassment at Metz (1744) now largely forgotten, the king was at the peak of his popularity. Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Britain United Provinces Hanover France Commanders Duke of Cumberland Maurice, comte de Saxe Strength 50,000[1] 101 guns 60,000 70 guns Casualties 9,000 dead or wounded 3,000 captured 5,600 dead or wounded 400 captured The Battle of Fontenoy (May 11, 1745) near Fontenoy in... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... The Battle of Rocoux was fought in 1746 between France and Austria. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... The Battle of Lauffeld took place on July 2, 1747 during the French conquest of the Netherlands (part of the War of the Austrian Succession. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maurice, comte de Saxe (German Moritz Graf von Sachsen) (October 28, 1696 – November 30, 1750), Marshal General of France, the natural son of Augustus II of Poland and of the countess Aurora Königsmark, was born at Goslar. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President...


However, at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, Louis shocked his people and the rest of Europe by agreeing to restore all his conquests to Austria. Louis XV, who at heart was not a bellicose king, unlike his great-grandfather Louis XIV, felt content to rule a nearly hexagon-shaped kingdom, which he called his pré carré (i.e. "square field"), a term still used in French politics today. He thought it better to cultivate the pré carré rather than trying to expand it. The king declared he had made peace "as a king and not as a merchant". The attitude of the king was hailed in Europe, and he became overnight the "arbiter of Europe". At home, however, his popularity sharply declined. The people had forgiven Louis XV for his high taxes, his mistresses, and his lavish expenditures, as long as he was successful in wars. But the news that the king had restored the Southern Netherlands to Austria was met with disbelief and bitterness. Parisians coined the phrase: "As stupid as the peace" ("Bête comme la paix"). Historians usually consider that the year 1748 saw the first true manifestation of public opinion in France, a nationalist public opinion that the king did not understand. The year proved a turning point in the king's popularity: after 1748, pamphlets against the king's mistresses became increasingly widely published and read, and his popularity steadily declined. The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Hexagon (disambiguation). ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ...


By 1755, a new European conflict was brewing, the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle being but a sort of truce. Already, French and British were fighting each other in North America without a declaration of war (see French and Indian War). In 1755, the British seized 300 French merchant ships, in violation of international law. A few months later, on January 16, 1756, Great Britain and Prussia signed a treaty of "neutrality". In Paris and Versailles, the parti philosophique could not hide their disappointment at this betrayal by King Frederick II of Prussia, who was until then seen as an enlightened sovereign friend of the Philosophers. Frederick II had even welcomed Voltaire in Potsdam when the famous writer had run into trouble with the dévot party in France. But the truth was that Frederick II was motivated first and foremost by personal interests and the desire to expand the territory of Prussia by any means available. He had already abandoned his French ally during the War of Austrian Succession, signing a separate peace treaty with Austria in December 1745. The Marquise de Pompadour particularly disliked Frederick II, who had always showed contempt for her, and even named one of his poodles "Pompadour". At the same time, French officials realized that the Habsburg empire of Austria was no more the danger it had been in the heyday of the Habsburgs, back in the 16th and 17th centuries, when they controlled Spain and most of Europe and presented a formidable challenge to France. The new dangerous power looming now on the horizon was Prussia. In a "reversal of alliances", the king signed the Treaty of Versailles with Austria on April 1, 1756, overruling his ministers and putting an end to more than 200 years of conflict with the Habsburgs. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ...


Louis apparently expected that joining with Austria would prevent another war on the continent by confronting Prussia with a counter-coalition. He was sadly mistaken. Austria was bent on regaining Silesia, which Prussia had grabbed in 1740 and had not returned. At the end of August 1756, having learned that Austria was negotiating to enlist Russia against him, Frederick II invaded Saxony without a declaration of war. He soon defeated the unprepared Saxon and Austrian armies and occupied the whole of Saxony. The Saxon ruler's younger daughter was the Dauphin's wife and his elder daughter was married to Charles VII of Naples, a Bourbon cousin. Frederick's treatment of the Polish-Saxon royal family was particularly brutal; Queen Maria Josepha, the dauphine's mother, died from maltreatment. These actions by Frederick II profoundly shocked Europe, and particularly France. The wife of the Dauphin had a miscarriage as a result of the news coming from Saxony. Louis XV was left with no choice but to enter the war. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... Spanish forces had placed him on the Neapolitan Throne and he was surrounded by Spanish advisers or men whose dislike of the Habsburg Viceroys administering their state on behalf of an absentee Sovereign, had led them to support the Spanish invasion and the accession of Charles as their King. ... Archduchess Maria Josefa of Austria, Queen of Poland. ... Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, (4 November 1731-13 March 1767), Dauphine of France, was the daughter of Augustus II, prince-Elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, (1699-1757), the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ...


Meanwhile, Britain had already declared war on France on May 18, 1756. The ensuing Seven Years' War (1756-1763) was to have profound consequences for France and Britain. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Assassination attempt

At home, discontent grew, fuelled by the perceived political incompetence of the king and the spending spree of the court. As previously highlighted, modern historians have shown that the king was in fact not incompetent, albeit not resolute enough. The spending at court was also not particularly high under Louis XV, at any rate not any higher than under previous French kings, and certainly much lower than in some other European courts, such as in Russia, where Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth spent enormous amounts of money to build palaces in and around Saint Petersburg. Court spending also helped to carry French arts to their zenith under Louis XV, and supported thousands of families of artists and craftsmen. French arts were admired and copied all over Europe. Even today, 250 years later, "Louis XV" style is still a favourite among the rich and famous around the world. Yet at the time the French public, influenced as it was by a violent campaign of libels against the king and the Marquise de Pompadour starting in the mid-1740s, could only see royal incompetence and spending sprees. Image File history File links LouisXVFrance. ... Image File history File links LouisXVFrance. ... Portrait of Denis Diderot, painted 1767 Louis-Michel van Loo (1707-03-02 – 1771-03-20) was a French painter. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Charles van Loo. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


This was what may have inspired the assassination attempt on the king by Robert Damiens. On January 5, 1757, would-be assassin Damiens entered the Palace of Versailles, as did thousands of people every day to petition the king. At 6pm, as night had fallen on a cold Versailles covered in snow, the king, who was visiting his daughter, left her apartments to return to the Trianon where he was staying. As he was walking in the Marble Courtyard between two lines of guards lighting the way with torches, headed toward his carriage which was waiting at the edge of the Marble Courtyard, Damiens suddenly emerged from the dark, passed through the guards, and stabbed the king in the side with a penknife. The 8.1 cm (3.2 inch) blade entered the king's body between the fourth and fifth ribs. The king, who was bleeding, remained calm and called for a confessor as he thought he would die. Thoughts of poison came to his mind. At the sight of the queen, who had come in a hurry, he asked for forgiveness for his misbehaviour. However, the king survived. He was probably saved by the thick layers of clothes he wore on that cold day, which cushioned the blade, protecting the internal organs. Allegedly, the blade penetrated only 1 cm (0.4 inch) into the king's body, leading Voltaire to mock what he called a "pinprick". Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... The Grand Trianon, 1678, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, architect Built near Versailles by Louis XIV, the Grand Trianon was designed to act as a place where Louis XIV could rest after his work at the Palace of Versailles. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ...


Damiens, who was mentally unstable, had been a servant of members of the Parlement of Paris where he had heard much criticism of the king. This, combined with the violent pamphlets and general discontent with the king, convinced him that he had to commit regicide in order to save France. Other sources say that he did not want to kill the king, but merely to give him a warning and thus force him to change his behaviour. In any case, it was the first attempt at regicide in France since the murder of King Henry IV by Ravaillac in 1610. The king, bent on forgiving Damiens, could not avoid a trial for regicide. Tried by the Parlement of Paris, Damiens was executed on the Place de Grève on March 28, 1757, following the horrible procedure applied to regicides: after numerous tortures, Damiens was carried to the Place de Grève in the cold afternoon of that day. There, he was first tortured with red-hot pincers; his hand, holding the knife used in the attempted murder, was burnt using sulphur; molten wax, lead, and boiling oil were poured into his wounds. Horses were then harnessed to his arms and legs for his dismemberment. Damiens's joints would not break; after some hours, representatives of the Parlement ordered the executioner and his aides to cut Damiens's joints. Damiens was then dismembered, to the applause of the crowd. His trunk, apparently still living, was then burnt at the stake. There was an immense crowd to watch this gruesome spectacle, which nobody had witnessed in 147 years. Balconies in buildings above the Place de Grève were rented to women of the aristocracy for the exorbitant price of 100 livres per balcony (approx. $700 in 2005 US dollars). This tale of Damiens' brutal execution, recounted in the opening pages of Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish has been disputed by numerous historians. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... François Ravaillac François Ravaillac (1578 - May 27, 1610) was the killer of Henry IV of France. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The Place de Grève was, before 1803, the name of the plaza now the City Hall Plaza (place de lHôtel de Ville) in Paris, France. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Place de Grève was, before 1803, the name of the plaza now the City Hall Plaza (place de lHôtel de Ville) in Paris, France. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ...

Silver Ecu of Louis XV, struck 1764
Obverse: (Latin) LUD[OVICVS] XV D[EI] G[RATIA] ET NAV[ARRE] REX or in English, "Louis XV, By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre" Reverse: (Latin) SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTUM 1764, or in English, "Blessed Be the Name of the Lord, 1764"

This gruesome execution was harshly criticized by the “philosophes”, who saw it as a remnant of a more brutal age. In truth, the king himself had not much to do with the method of execution, and the people rejoiced at the king's having escaped Damiens's knife unharmed. It was the members of the Parlement of Paris who selected such a horrific execution, as they thought it would please the king, willing as they were to reconcile themselves with the king after their opposition to the tax on the twentieth and their support of the Jansenists against the king's will. But above all, the people were outraged that the king did not dismiss Madame de Pompadour, despite the clear signal sent by Damiens. Posters appeared on the walls of Paris with the following ironic pun: "Ruling from the Mint Court: A louis not properly struck shall be struck a second time." The Austrian ambassador wrote to Vienna: "The public discontent is general. All the conversations are about death and poison. There appeared in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles some dreadful posters threatening the life of the king." This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Louis is any number of French coins first introduced by Louis XIII in 1640. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ...


The king, who had displayed calm and royal dignity on the day of the assassination attempt, sank into profound depression in the following weeks. He became convinced that he was on the wrong track. All attempts at reforms were abandoned. At the marquise de Pompadour's instigation, the king dismissed his two most hated ministers, the comte d'Argenson, secretary of state for war, and Machault d'Arnouville, keeper of the seals (justice minister) and before that controller-general of finances; and he called Choiseul to the government. Reforms would resume only with Maupeou in 1771. Marc-Pierre dArgenson Not to be confused with Pierre de Voyer dArgenson, Governor of New France [1] Marc-Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy, comte dArgenson (August 16, 1696, Paris - August 22, 1764, Paris) was a French politician, the younger brother of René Louis d’Argenson. ... This page is a list of French defence ministers. ... This page is a list of French justice ministers. ... This page is a list of French finance ministers. ... Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul, French diplomat and statesman Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul (June 28, 1719 — May 8, 1785) was a French statesman. ... René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou (February 25, 1714 - July 29, 1792), chancellor of France, was the eldest son of René Charles de Maupeou (1688-1775), who was president of the parlement of Paris from 1743 to 1757. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Conclusion

Louis XIV had left France with serious financial difficulties. Ultimately, Louis XV failed to overcome these fiscal problems, mainly because he was incapable of putting together conflicting parties and interests in his entourage. At Versailles, the king and the nobility surrounding him showed signs of boredom, signalling a monarchy in steady decline. Worse, Louis seemed to be aware of the forces of anti-monarchism threatening his family's rule and yet failed to do anything to stop them. Popular legend holds that Louis predicted, "After me, the deluge" ("Après moi, le déluge"). In fact this quotation is more precisely attributed to Madame de Pompadour, although it is not certain that even she ever said it. Louis XIV redirects here. ... Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750 Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ...


At first he was known popularly as Le Bien-aimé (the well-beloved) after a near-death illness in Metz in 1744 when many of his subjects prayed for his recovery. However, his weak and ineffective rule was a contributing factor to the general decline that culminated in the French Revolution. In addition, the king was a notorious womanizer, although this was expected in a king; the monarch's virility was supposed to be another way in which his power was manifested. However, popular faith in the monarchy was shaken by the scandals of Louis’s private life and in the shadows of the scandalous court at Versailles, and by the end of his life he had become the well-hated. On January 5, 1757, would-be assassin Robert Damiens entered Versailles and stabbed him in the side with a penknife. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ...

In 1743, France entered the War of the Austrian Succession. Late in Louis’s reign Corsica and Lorraine were won, but this came only a few years after the devastating loss of nearly all of France's colonial empire to France's arch-enemy Great Britain, in the Seven Years' War. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 proved one of the most humiliating episodes of the French monarchy. France ceded India, Canada, and all lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain, while Spain received France's lands west of the Mississippi. France's empire in the New World was thus almost completely lost; the kingdom retained control only of some territories in the West Indies, French Guiana, and the tiny islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Canada. France's policies in the Americas and India had ended in a dismal failure. Its prestige sank dramatically. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jeanne Becu, Comtesse Du Barry [1] [2] (Marie-Jeanne, Comtesse Du Barry) (August 19, 1743 - December 8, 1793) was a French courtesan who became the mistress of Louis XV of France. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d...


Louis's marriage to Marie Leszczyńska produced many children, but the king was persistently (and notoriously) unfaithful. Some of his mistresses, such as Madame de Pompadour and Madame du Barry, are as well-known as the king himself, and his affairs with three Mailly-Nesle sisters are documented by the formal agreements into which he entered. In his later years, Louis developed a penchant for young girls, keeping several at a time in a personal seraglio known as the Parc aux Cerfs ("Deer Park"), one of whose inhabitants, Marie-Louise O'Murphy, was immortalised by Boucher. Scandalous rumours spread across France, in which it was alleged that the king bathed in the blood of virgins and had ninety illegitimate children. Noble Family LeszczyÅ„ski Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw LeszczyÅ„ski Katarzyna OpaliÅ„ska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750 Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... Jeanne Becu, Comtesse Du Barry [1] [2] (Marie-Jeanne, Comtesse Du Barry) (August 19, 1743 - December 8, 1793) was a French courtesan who became the mistress of Louis XV of France. ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. In the context of the turquerie fashion, the seraglio became the subject of works of art, the most famous perhaps being Mozarts... Louise OMurphy by Francois Boucher c. ...


Louis XV died of smallpox at the Palace of Versailles. He was the first Bourbon whose heart was not, as tradition demanded, cut out and placed in a special coffer. Instead, alcohol was poured into his coffin and his remains were soaked in quicklime. In a surreptitious late-night ceremony attended by only one courtier, the body was taken to the cemetery at Saint Denis Basilica. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ...


Louis' death saw the French monarchy at its nadir, in political, financial and moral terms. It might have recovered - it had recovered in the past from similar low points - but it would require an individual of unique abilities to pull back from the precipice. Since Louis XV's son, the dauphin Louis had died nine years earlier, instead came his grandson, the conventional and unimaginative Louis XVI, destined to inherit a Revolution along with the throne. Two of Louis XV's other grandchildren occupied the French throne after the Napoleonic wars - Louis XVIII and Charles X. Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ...


Ancestors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Louis XIII of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Louis XIV of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Infanta Anne of Spain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Louis, Dauphin of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Philip IV of Spain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Infanta Maria Theresa of Spain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Princess Elisabeth of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Duchess Maria Anna of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Princess Christine Marie of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Louis XV of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy (= 22)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Princess Christine Marie of France (= 23)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Charles Amadeus of Savoy, 6th Duke of Nemours
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Princess Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Princess Elisabeth of Vendôme
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Louis XIII of France (= 16)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Infanta Anne of Spain (= 17)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Princess Anne Marie of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Charles I of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Henrietta Anne of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Princess Henrietta Maria of France
 
 
 
 
 
 

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... Philip IV of Spain Elisabeth of France, portrait by Diego Velázquez Élisabeth de Bourbon (November 22, 1602 - October 6, 1644), was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second Queen Marie de Medici. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ferdinand Maria, Picture from 1658 Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria (October 31, 1636 - May 26, 1679) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1651 to 1679. ... Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria Portraits of Maria Anna and her husband, Maximilian I Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (13 January 1610 - 25 September 1665 Munich) (de: Maria Anna von Habsburg, Erzherzogin von Österreich, also known as Maria Anna von Bayern or Maria-Anna, Kurfürstin von Bayern). ... Marie-Anne Christine Victoire de Bavière Maria Anna of Bavaria (28 November 1660, Munich - 20 April 1690, Versailles), Dauphine of France, was also known as Dauphine Victoire. ... Vittorio Amedeo I., Duke of Savoy Victor Amadeus I (Italian: Vittorio Amedeo I di Savoia, May 8, 1587 – October 7, 1637) was the Duke of Savoy from 1630 to 1637. ... Henriette Adelaide of Savoy, (November 6, 1636 - June 13, 1676), was the wife of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria. ... Christine Marie of France, Regent of Savoy Christine Marie of France, fr. ... Vittorio Amedeo I., Duke of Savoy Victor Amadeus I (Italian: Vittorio Amedeo I di Savoia, May 8, 1587 – October 7, 1637) was the Duke of Savoy from 1630 to 1637. ... Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Savoy after Victor Amadeus I. Charles Emmanuel II (Italian: Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia, June 20, 1634 – June 12, 1675) was the Duke of Savoy from 1638 to 1675 and under regency of his mother Christine Marie of France until 1663. ... Christine Marie of France, Regent of Savoy Christine Marie of France, fr. ... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy (December 6, 1685-February 12, 1712) was the mother of King Louis XV of France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philippe I, duc dOrléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701), known as Monsieur--as the French Kings eldest brother was traditionally called--at the French court from 1660, was the son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and younger brother of Louis XIV of... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Anne Marie of Orléans (Saint Cloud, August 27, 1669 - Turin, August 26, 1728), was a Queen of Savoy and Sardinia and maternal grandmother of Louis XV of France. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scots and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ... Henrietta Anne Stuart (June 16, 1644 - June 30, 1670), sometimes known familiarly as Minette, was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son...

Marriage and Children

He also had several illegitimate children and served as step-father to Madame de Pompadour's only child: is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Philip of Bourbon, Duke of Parma (March 15, 1720–July 18, 1765) was duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. ... Madame Henriette jouant de la basse viole (Madame Henriette playing the bass viol) by Jean-Marc Nattier Henriette-Anne of France (14 August 1727 at Versailles—-10 February 1752 at Versailles), was the twin sister of Princess Louise-Élisabeth, the eldest child of King Louis XV of France and his... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Marie Adélaïde (23 March 1732 - 27 February 1800) was a French princess. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Victoire Louise Marie Thérèse (May 11, 1733 - June 7, 1799) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria Leszczyńska. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sophie Philippine Elisabeth Justine (27 July 1734 - 2 March 1782) was a French princess. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750 Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. ...

Alexandrine-Jeanne dEtiolles, also called Alexandrine Le Normant dEtoilles, was born on August 10, 1744, as the daughter of the famous courtesan Madame de Pompadour, during the Scenes of Metz. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

See also

Cabriole legged marble topped table atop a Lavar Kerman antique carpet. ... Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul, French diplomat and statesman Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul (June 28, 1719 — May 8, 1785) was a French statesman. ... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into high-heeled shoe. ...

Notes

  1. Duke of Saint-Simon, Mémoires, Book 12, Chapter 15. [1]
  2. Marquis Philippe de Dangeau, Journal; 1856-60, Paris; XVI, 136; in Olivier Bernier, Louis the Beloved, The Life of Louis XV: 1984, Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company. p.3.
  3. The scene is described in Olivier Bernier, Louis the Beloved, The Life of Louis XV: 1984, Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company. p.17.
Louis XV of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: February 15 1710 Died: May 10 1774
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis XIV
King of France and Navarre
September 1, 1715May 10, 1774
Succeeded by
Louis XVI
French royalty
Preceded by
Louis
Dauphin of France
March 8, 1712September 1, 1715
Succeeded by
Louis
Persondata
NAME Louis XV
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION French monarch
DATE OF BIRTH February 15, 1710
PLACE OF BIRTH Palace of Versailles, France
DATE OF DEATH May 10, 1774
PLACE OF DEATH Palace of Versailles, France

lol! Philippe de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau (born September 21, 1638 in Chartres; died September 9, 1720) was a French officer. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Louis as Duke of Brittany Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707–8 March 1712) was the second son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008–August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Philip I (23 May 1053 – 29 July 1108) was King of France from 1060 to his death. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Philip V (17 November 1293 – 3 January 1322), called the Tall (French: le Long), was King of France and Navarre (as Philip II) and Count of Champagne from 1316 to his death, and the second to last of the House of Capet. ... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Louis XI (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), called the Prudent (French: ) and the Universal Spider (Old French: luniverselle aragne) or the Spider King, was the King of France from 1461−83. ... Charles VIII, called the Affable (French: ; 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Louis XII (b. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of... Philippe I, Duc dOrléans, the founder of the House of Orléans Philip II dOrléans - the Regent of France for the young Louis XV. Louis dOrléans, Duke of Orléans, the 3d Duke Louis Philippe I called le Gros or the Fat Philippe Égalit... Louis-Philippe I, King of the French (October 6, 1773 – August 26, 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis XV of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8129 words)
Louis XV was born at Versailles on February 15, 1710, while his great-grandfather Louis XIV was still on the throne.
The young Louis XV was moved to the modern lodgings attached to the medieval fortress of Vincennes, located 7 km/4.5 miles east of Paris in the Forest of Vincennes, where the air was deemed more wholesome and healthy than in Paris.
As a result of these victories, France occupied the entire Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium), at the time the wealthiest area of Europe, and Louis XV was well on his way to fulfil the old dream of France to establish the country’s north-eastern border on the Rhine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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