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Encyclopedia > Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV
King of France and of Navarre

Louis XIV (1638–1715), by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
Reign May 14, 1643September 1, 1715
Coronation June 7, 1654, Notre-Dame de Reims, Reims, France
Full name Louis-Dieudonné; known as The Great, The Grand Monarch, or The Sun King
Titles Dauphin of France (1638 – 1643)
King of France and of Navarre (1643 – 1715)
Born September 5, 1638(1638-09-05)
Birthplace Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Died September 1, 1715 (aged 76)
Place of death Château de Versailles, Versailles, France
Buried Saint Denis Basilica, Saint-Denis, France
Predecessor Louis XIII, King of France
Heir apparent Louis de France, "le Grand Dauphin"
Successor Louis XV, King of France
Consort Marie-Thérèse of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Queen of France
Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon (morganatic second marriage)
Issue Louis de France
Anne-Élisabeth de France
Marie-Anne de France
Marie-Thérèse de France
Philippe-Charles de France
Louis-François de France
Royal House House of France (Bourbon Branch)
Father Louis XIII, King of France
Mother Anne of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Queen of France
House of Bourbon
Henri IV
Sister
Catherine, duchesse de Lorraine
Children
Louis XIII
Elisabeth, Queen of Spain
Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy
Nicholas Henri, duc d'Orléans
Gaston, duc d'Orléans

Henriette-Marie, Queen of England The band Louis XIV Louis XIV is a quartet Indie rock group from San Diego, California, formed in April 2003. ... Sun King is a song by The Beatles that appeared on the Abbey Road album. ... Emmanuel Moire is a French singer born in Mans on June 16th 1979. ... Le Roi Soleil is a successful French musical by Kamel Ouali, produced by Dove Attia and Albert Cohen, about the life of Louis XIV (played by Emmanuel Moire). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x824, 90 KB)King Louis XIV of France painted by Hyacinthe Rigaud 1701 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 20, 1659-December 27, 1743) was a French painter. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Façade of the Notre-Dame de Reims The Notre-Dame de Reims (Our Lady of Rheims) is the Cathedral of Reims, where the kings of France were once crowned. ... For other uses, see Reims (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of the kings of Navarre. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... Saint Denis can refer to: a Christian saint: see Denis Seine-Saint-Denis a département of France Several communes in France: Saint-Denis,in the Aude département Saint-Denis, in the Gard département Saint-Denis, in the Seine-Saint-Denis département, home of Saint Denis Basilica Saint-Denis, in the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon (November 27, 1635 - April 15, 1719), the second wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at Niort. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x840, 192 KB) Royal Arms of France Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Henry I (November 8, 1563 – July 31, 1624), was Duke of Lorraine from 1608 until his death. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philip IV of Spain Elisabeth of France, portrait by Diego Velázquez Élisabeth de Bourbon (November 22, 1602 - October 6, 1644), was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second Queen Marie de Medici. ... Christine Marie of France, Regent of Savoy Christine Marie of France, fr. ... Gaston Jean-Baptiste, duc dOrléans (April 25, 1608, Fontainebleau – February 2, 1660, Blois), was the third son of the French king Henry IV and of his wife Marie de Medici. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son...

Louis XIII
Children
Louis XIV
Philippe, duc d'Orléans
Louis XIV
Children
Louis, Dauphin
Anne-Élisabeth
Marie-Anne
Marie-Therèse
Philippe-Charles, duc d'Anjou
Louis-François, duc d'Anjou
Grandchildren
Louis, Dauphin
King Felipe V of Spain
Charles, duc de Berry
Great Grandchildren
Louis, Dauphin
Louis XV
Louis XV
Children
Louise-Elisabeth, duchesse de Parme
Madame Henriette
Louis, Dauphin
Madame Adélaïde
Madame Victoire
Madame Sophie
Madame Louise
Grandchildren
Marie Clotilde, Queen of Sardinia
Louis XVI
Louis XVIII
Charles X
Madame Élisabeth
Louis XVI
Children
Marie-Thérèse, duchesse d'Angouleme
Louis-Joseph, Dauphin
Louis XVII
Sophie-Beatrix
Louis XVII
Louis XVIII
Charles X
Children
Louis XIX
Charles, duc de Berry
Grandchildren
Henri V
Louise, duchesse de Parme
French monarchy, 843-1870
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Louis XIV (baptised as Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre. He acceded to the throne a few months before his fifth birthday, but did not assume actual personal control of the government until the death of his First Minister ("premier ministre"), the Italian Jules Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661.[1] Louis would remain on the throne till his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday in 1715. His reign thus spanned seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days, the longest documented of any European monarch to date.[2] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philippe de France, duc dOrléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701) was the second son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and thus the younger brother of the future Louis XIV of France. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Counts of Anjou, c. ... Counts of Anjou, c. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Louis as Duke of Brittany Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707–8 March 1712) was the second son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Marie Louise Élisabeth de France (14 August 1727 – 6 December 1759) was the eldest daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort, Maria LeszczyÅ„ska, and the elder twin sister of Henriette-Anne. ... Louis, Dauphin of France Louis, Dauphin of France (Louis-Ferdinand de France [1]) (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765), was the eldest and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Victoire Louise Marie Thérèse de France (May 11, 1733 - June 7, 1799) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria LeszczyÅ„ska. ... Portrait of the young Marie-Louise by Jean-Marc Nattier. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Élisabeth Philippine Marie Hélène of France (May 3, 1764 – May 10, 1794), commonly called Madame Élisabeth, was the youngest sister of King Louis XVI of France. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Louis de France. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Princess Sophie died as a baby, much to the grief of her parents. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry (1778 - February 13, 1820), younger son of Charles X of France, was born at Versailles. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Louise Marie Thérèse of France (Louise Marie Thérèse dArtois; born September 21, 1819, Élysée-Bourbon, Paris, France; died February 1, 1864, Palazzo Giustiniani, Venice, Austrian Empire) was the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of King Charles X of France... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of the kings of Navarre. ... Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ...


Louis XIV is also known as Louis the Great (in French Louis le Grand or Le Grand Monarque, "the Great Monarch"), because, following his victory in the Franco-Dutch War and the Treaty of Nijmegen, the Parlement de Paris decreed that all public inscriptions and statues of the king should carry that epithet attached to his name. The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... The Treaty of Nijmegen (1678) was signed in Nijmegen, and ended the Dutch War. ...


He is also popularly known as The Sun King (in French Le Roi Soleil) because of the idea that, just as the planets revolve around the Sun, so too should France and the court revolve around him. As a result, he was commonly associated with Apollo Helios, the Greco-Roman god of the Sun. As a patron of the arts, this association was fitting because Louis was, like Apollo Musagetes, the "leader of the Muses". For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ...


During his reign, he increased the power and influence of France in Europe, engaging in three major wars—the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession—and two minor conflicts—the War of Devolution, and the War of the Reunions.-1... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the Orleans War, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ... The War of the Reunions (1683-1684) was a small conflict between Louis XIVs France and Spain and her allies. ...


The political and military scene in France during his reign was filled with such illustrious names as Mazarin, Fouquet, Colbert, Michel le Tellier, Le Tellier's son Louvois, the Great Condé, Turenne, Vauban, Villars and Tourville. Under his reign, France achieved not only political and military pre-eminence, but also cultural dominance with various cultural figures such as Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Le Brun, Rigaud, Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin Mansart, Claude Perrault and Le Nôtre. The cultural achievements accomplished by these figures contributed to the prestige of France, its people, its language and its king. Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman, by Pierre-Louis Bouchart. ... Portrait by Édouard Lacretelle. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ... Michel le Tellier (April 19, 1603 - October 30, 1685) was a French statesman. ... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... Turenne Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 – July 27, 1675) achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... Marquis and duc de Villars, Marshal of France by Hyacinthe Rigaud. ... Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville (1642–1701) was a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. Aged 17, a Knight of Malta, he fought his first naval fight on a frigate of... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Jean Racine, in an engraving by Pierre Savart. ... Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, commonly called Boileau, (November 1, 1636 - March 13, 1711) was a French poet and critic. ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... Charles Le Brun, contemporary portrait Charles Le Brun (February 24, 1619 - February 22, 1690) was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 20, 1659-December 27, 1743) was a French painter. ... Louis Le Vau (1612 – 1670) was a French architect who worked for Louis XIV of France. ... Jules Hardouin-Mansart, marble bust by Jean-Louis Lemoyne: a full-dress Baroque portrait bust demonstrates that the Kings architect is no mere craftsman Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Paris, April 16, 1646 – Marly, France, May 11, 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the apex... Though Claude Perrault (Paris, 1613 - Paris, 1688) is best known as the architect of the eastern range of the Louvre in Paris, he also achieved success as physician and anatomist, and as an author, who wrote treatises on physics and natural history. ... Painting of André Le Nôtre by Carlo Maratti André Le Nôtre (March 12, 1613 - September 15, 1700) was a landscape architect and the gardener of King Louis XIV of France from 1645 to 1700. ...


Louis XIV worked successfully to create a centralized state governed from the capital in order to sweep away the fragmented feudalism which had hitherto persisted in France, thus giving rise to the modern state. As a result of his efforts, which seemed absolutist, Louis XIV became the archetypal absolute monarch. The phrase "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State") is frequently attributed to him, though this is considered by historians to be a historical inaccuracy and is more likely to have been conceived by political opponents as a way of confirming the stereotypical view of the absolutism he represented. Quite contrary to that apocryphal quote, Louis XIV is actually reported to have said on his death bed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." ("I am going away, but the State will always remain").[3] A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Absolutism is a historiographical term used to describe a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ...

Contents

Early years

Birth and ancestry

Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5, 1638 and promptly received the title "Premier fils de France" ("First Son of France") as well as the traditional "Dauphin".[4] His birth came after the almost twenty-three years of childlessness of his estranged parents, Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria. As a result, contemporaries regarded him as a divine gift and his birth as a miracle,[5][6][7] and, in a show of gratitude to God for the long-awaited arrival of an heir, he was aptly named Louis-Dieudonné ("God-given") by his parents. The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... Fils de France (Son of France in English) was the title given to the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 - May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ...


His ancestors were figures from some of Europe's most noteworthy royal and noble houses.[8] His paternal grandparents were Henri IV of France and Marie de' Medici, who were French and Italian respectively; while both his maternal grandparents were Habsburgs, Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. In this manner, he counted as his ancestors various historical figures like Charles V and Frederick Barbarossa, both Holy Roman Emperors. He also found himself descended from the founder of the Rurik dynasty, Rurik the Viking, as well as Charles I "le Téméraire", duc de Bourgogne, the poet Charles, duc d'Orléans, and Giovanni de' Medici, last of the great Condottieri. Most importantly, he traced his paternal lineage, and hence his and his descendants' right to the throne, in unbroken male succession from Saint Louis, King of France. Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Margaret of Austria, 1609, by Bartolomé González y Serrano Margaret of Austria (December 25, 1584-October 3, 1611), Queen of Spain and Portugal, was the daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria, and the sister of the Emperor Ferdinand II. She married Philip III... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Rogier van der Weyden painted Charles the Bold in about 1460, wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece. ... Charles of Valois, Duc dOrléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis of Valois on the orders of Duke John-the-Fearless of Burgundy. ... Portrait of Giovanni by Gian Paolo Pace, now housed in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. ... Condottieri (singular condottiere (in English) or condottiero (in Italian)) were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-sixteenth century. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ...


Louis XIII and Anne had a second child, Philippe de France, duc d'Anjou (soon to be Philippe I, duc d'Orléans) in 1640. Louis XIII, however, did not trust his wife's ability to govern France after his own demise. Thus he decreed that a regency council, of which Anne would be head, should rule in his son's name in the event of Louis' minority, diminishing her power. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Philippe I, Duke of Orléans (September 21, 1640 – June 8, 1701) was the son of the Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, and younger brother of Louis XIV of France. ... // Ingelger (870–898) Fulk I the Red (898–941), son of Fulk II the Good (941–958), son of Geoffrey I Greymantle (958–987), son of Fulk III the Black (987–1040), son of Geoffrey II Martel (1040–1060) Geoffrey III the Bearded (1060–1067) Fulk IV the Ill-Tempered...


Royal minority and fronde

Nevertheless, on May 14, 1643, after Louis XIII died and his young son became Louis XIV, Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement, did away with the Council and became sole Regent. She entrusted power to her First Minister, the Italian-born Cardinal Mazarin, who was despised in most French political circles because of his alien non-French background, despite having already become a naturalized French subject. is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) was an accomplished Italian politician who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. ...

Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

The Thirty Years' War, which had commenced in the previous reign, ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, made up of the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, the work of Cardinal Mazarin. This Peace ensured the Dutch independence from Spain, awarded a great degree of autonomy to the various German princes and granted Sweden territories which gave her control of the mouths of the Oder, Elbe, and Weser as well as seats on the Reichstag. It marked the apogee of Swedish power and influence in German and European affairs. However, it was France who had the most to gain from the terms of the Peace. Austria ceded to France all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace; and the petty German states eager to dislodge themselves from Habsburg domination placed themselves under French protection, paving the way for the formation of the League of the Rhine in 1658 and leading to the further dissolution of Imperial power. The Peace of Westphalia humiliated Habsburg ambitions in the Holy Roman Empire and Europe and laid rest to the idea of the Empire having secular dominion over all of Christendom. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1900x1378, 181 KB) Summary Map of Europe in 1648 (at the end of the Thirty Years War), based on free map of europe Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1900x1378, 181 KB) Summary Map of Europe in 1648 (at the end of the Thirty Years War), based on free map of europe Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) was an accomplished Italian politician who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Weser watershed Orthographic projection centred over Bremen The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

Louis XIV as a young child
Louis XIV as a young child

In the closing years of the Thirty Years' War, a civil war, the Fronde, which effectively curbed France's ability to make good the advantages gained in the Peace of Westphalia, broke out. The Frondeurs originally sought to protect the traditional feudal "liberties" from an increasingly centralized and centralizing royal government. On the other hand, Cardinal Mazarin had continued and would continue to follow the policies of centralization pursued by his predecessor, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, seeking to augment the power of the Crown at the expense of the nobility and the Parlements. In 1648, he sought to levy a tax on the members of the Parlement, a court whose judges comprised mostly nobles or high clergymen. The members of the Parlement not only refused to comply, but also ordered all of Cardinal Mazarin's earlier financial edicts burned. When Cardinal Mazarin, strengthened by the news of Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Condé's victory at Lens, arrested certain members of the Parlement in a show of force, Paris erupted in rioting and insurrection. A mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king. Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis XIV, who was feigning sleep, and quietly departed. Prompted by the possible danger to the royal family and the monarchy, Anne fled Paris with the king and his courtiers. Shortly thereafter, the signing of the Peace of Westphalia allowed the French army under Condé to return to the aid of Louis XIV and his royal court. By January 1649, Condé had started to besiege rebellious Paris; the subsequent Peace of Rueil temporarily ended the conflict. Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... For other uses, see Fronde (disambiguation). ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... Combatants France with Swedish contingent Spain Commanders Prince de Condé Leopold Wilhelm Strength 16,000 18 guns 18,000 38 guns Casualties Unknown 3,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Lens (August 20, 1648) was a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Cond... This article is about the capital of France. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... The Peace of Rueil (French: Paix de Rueil), signed 11 March 1649, signalled an end to the opening episodes of the Fronde, Frances civil war, after little blood had been shed. ...


After the first Fronde (Fronde Parlementaire) ended, the second Fronde, that of the princes, began in 1650. This second phase of the Fronde, unlike that which preceded it, was characterized by tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare. It was conducted by nobles for whom it represented a last protest against their demotion from vassals to courtiers. It was led by France's highest ranking nobles, from Princes of the Blood like Gaston, duc d'Orléans, his daughter, Anne de Montpensier (known as la grande Mademoiselle), Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Condé, Armand de Bourbon, prince de Conti, and Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé, duchesse de Longueville; to dukes of legitimated royal descent, like Henri II d'Orléans, duc de Longueville, and François de Bourbon-Vendôme, duc de Beaufort; and princelings descended from foreign dynasties such as Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon, his brother, Henri, vicomte de Turenne, and Marie de Rohan, duchesse de Chevreuse; as well as scions of France's oldest families, like François VI, duc de La Rochefoucauld. Even the clergy was represented by Jean François Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de Retz. Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... Look up rank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gaston Jean-Baptiste, duc dOrléans (April 25, 1608, Fontainebleau – February 2, 1660, Blois), was the third son of the French king Henry IV and of his wife Marie de Medici. ... Anne Marie Louise dOrleans, duchesse de Montpensier (May 29, 1627 - April 5, 1693), French memoir-writer, was born at the Louvre. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... Armand de Bourbon, Prince de Conti (1629 – 1666) was the second son of Henry II, prince de Condé and brother of Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Condé and Anne Genevieve, Duchess of Longueville. ... Anne Genevieve de Bourbon-Condé, Duchess of Longueville (August 28, 1619 - 1679), was the only daughter of Henri II de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, and his wife Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, and the sister of Louis, the great Condé. She was born in the prison of Vincennes, into which her... Henri II dOrléans, duc de Longueville or Henri de Valois-Longueville (1595 — 1663) a legitimated prince of the blood (of royal descent) and peer of France, was a major figure in the civil war of France, the Fronde. ... François de Vendôme, duc de Beaufort (January 16, 1616 – 25 June 1669) was the illegitimate grandson of Henri IV of France. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Frédéric Maurice de La Tour dAuvergne, duc de Bouillon (1605-1652) was prince of the independent principality of Sedan, and general in the French royal army. ... Turenne Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 – July 27, 1675) achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. ... Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, duchesse de Chevreuse (1600-1679) was a French aristocrat at the center of all the intrigues of the first half of the 17th century in France. ... This article is about the French noble and writer de La Rochefoucauld. ... Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz (1614 - August 24, 1679), French churchman and agitator, was born at Montmirail. ...


With the coming of age of Louis XIV and his subsequent coronation, the Frondeurs, who could hitherto have claimed to have been acting on his behalf and in his real interests against his Regent-Queen-Mother and First Minister, had lost their pretext for revolt. The Fronde thus gradually lost steam until it ended in 1653 when Mazarin returned triumphant from abroad after having fled into exile on several occasions. The result of these tumultuous times, when the Queen Mother reputedly sold her jewels to feed her children, was a king filled with a permanent distrust for the nobility and the mob.


End of war and marriage

Despite the end of the Thirty Years' War and the Fronde, war with Spain continued. The French received aid in this military effort from England, then governed by Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. The Anglo-French alliance achieved victory in 1658 with the Battle of the Dunes. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Commanders Vicomte de Turenne Juan José de Austria Louis II de Condé Strength 26,000 and ships 15,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 captured The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14 (Gregorian calendar), 1658...


The subsequent Treaty of the Pyrenees, signed in 1659, fixed the border between France and Spain at the Pyrenees; according to its terms, Louis XIV pardoned Condé who had gone into the service of Spain against his king, while Spain ceded to France the whole of Roussillon, the northern half of Cerdanya and various provinces and towns in the Spanish Netherlands. The treaty signalled a change in the balance of power in Europe with the decline of Spain and the rise of France. The Treaty of the Pyrenees was a treaty signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... French Cerdagne is the northern half of Cerdagne that became French at the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, while the southern half remained Spanish (part of Catalonia). ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. ...


By the terms of the treaty, Louis XIV became engaged to marry the daughter of Philip IV of Spain, his double first cousin, Maria Theresa (Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche). The Spanish had understandably been ill-disposed to the idea of such a marriage since Marie-Thérèse had been heir presumptive for many years and appeared soon to return to that position with the latest heir apparent, her brother Philip Prospero (ultimately to die in 1661), nothing but a toddler. The possibility of Marie-Thérèse's acceding to the throne therefore loomed large. This made the unpleasant prospect of an eventual personal union between the two countries, the result of a royal marriage, all too probable and, in the eyes of Spanish diplomats, to be avoided. Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ...


To get around Spanish hesitation and intransigeance, Mazarin, in the words of Bussy-Rabutin, "invited the Duchess of Savoy to meet Louis and his Court at Lyon and to bring the princesses her daughters with her ostensibly for the purpose of marrying her eldest (Marguerite of Savoy, Louis' other first cousin) to the King".[9] According to Bluche, on hearing the news of the meeting at Lyon and the possibility of an impending Franco-Savoyard union, Philip IV reputedly exclaimed, "Esto no puede ser, y no sera" ("This cannot be, and will not be").[10] The marquis de Pimentel was thus promptly dispatched to Lyon to commence negotiations for a Franco-Spanish marriage. Christine Marie of France, Regent of Savoy Christine Marie of France, fr. ...

The wedding ceremony of Louis XIV and Marie-Thérèse at Saint-Jean-de-Luz
The wedding ceremony of Louis XIV and Marie-Thérèse at Saint-Jean-de-Luz

This resulted in a marriage contract and treaty, stipulating an immense dowry of 500,000 gold écus, to be paid in three installments; the marriage would later serve as a pretext for the War of Devolution.[11] Louis and Marie-Thérèse were married on June 9, 1660 inside a church in Saint-Jean-de-Luz, near the Franco-Spanish border. According to the terms of the marriage contract, as translated by Ian Dunlop, "that on condition (que moyennant) that the sums are made over to His Most Christian Majesty (Louis XIV)...the said most serene Infanta (Marie-Thérèse) will rest content with the said dowry and not thereafter sue for any other of her rights", and thus she would renounce for herself and her descendants all claims the territories of the Spanish Monarchy.[12] Since the dowry was not fully paid, Spain being at the time bankrupt, the renunciation was theoretically null and void and was never officially recognized by the French Crown. Image File history File links Louis_XIV_wedding. ... Image File history File links Louis_XIV_wedding. ... Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Basque Donibane Lohitzun) is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département in France. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... The term écu may refer to one of several French coins. ... The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Basque Donibane Lohitzun) is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département in France. ... In law, void means of no legal effect. ...


Personal reign and reforms

Within France, upon the death of Cardinal Mazarin, his First Minister, in 1661, Louis XIV assumed personal control of the reins of government. He was able to exploit the widespread public yearning for peace and order, which had resulted from the long foreign wars and domestic civil strife, caused by events such as the Fronde and the abuses of the people perpetrated by certain nobles, to consoliate central authority at the feudal aristocracy's expense. Trials such as the "Grands Jours d'Auvergne" were used to impose order by punishing some of the most outrageous abuses by nobles, to "lift the people up from the oppression of the powerful" in the words of the Procureur-Général Denis Talon, and to increase public support for Louis' policies.


At the same time, the French treasury stood close to bankruptcy. Louis XIV eliminated Nicolas Fouquet, commuting his sentence of banishment to imprisonment for life, abolished the latter's position of Surintendant des Finances, and appointed Jean-Baptiste Colbert as Contrôleur-Général des Finances in 1665. While it is true that Fouquet had committed no other financial indiscretions which Mazarin had committed before him or Colbert would after and that he had, during the war with Spain and the Fronde, effectively performed his duties as Surintendant des Finances and had been a loyal supporter of the king, Fouquet's growing ambition to succeed to Richelieu and Mazarin as First Minister was such that Louis had to rid himself of him if he was to rule alone. Portrait by Édouard Lacretelle. ... The Superintendent of Finances (Surintendant des finances) was the name of the minister in charge of finances in France from 1561 to 1661. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ... The Controller-General of Finances (Contrôleur général des finances) was the name of the minister in charge of finances in France from 1661 to 1791. ...


The commencement of Louis' personal reign was marked by a series of administrative and fiscal reforms. Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation. His principal means of taxation included the aides, the douanes, the gabelle, and the taille. The aides and douanes were customs duties, the gabelle a tax on salt, and the taille a tax on land. While Colbert did not abolish the historic tax exemption enjoyed by the nobility and clergy, he did improve the methods of tax collection then in use. Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ... Aides has various meanings: Aides is the god Hades. ... Douanes were a system of taxation through custom duties in France in King Louis XIVs reign. ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ...


He also had wide-ranging plans to strengthen France through commerce and trade. His administration ordained new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and the Manufacture des Gobelins, which produced and still produces tapestries. He also brought professional manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe, such as glassmakers from Murano, or ironworkers from Sweden or shipbuilders from the United Provinces. In this manner, he sought to decrease French dependence on foreign imported goods while increasing French exports and hence to decrease the flow of gold and silver out of France. Outside of France, Colbert supported and encouraged the development of colonies in the Americas, Africa and Asia not only to provide markets for French exports, but also to provide resources for French industries. The Manufacture des Gobelins is a tapestry factory located in Paris, France. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


Colbert also made improvements to the navy to increase French naval prestige and to gain control of the high seas in times of war and of peace, improvements to the merchant marine to remove, at least partially, control of French commerce from Dutch hands, and improvements to the highways and the waterways of France which decreased the costs and time of transporting goods around the kingdom.


He ranks as one of the fathers of the school of thought regarding trade and economics known as mercantilism — in fact, France calls "mercantilism" Colbertisme, and his policies effectively increased French State revenue for the king. A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ...

Silver coin of Louis XIV, dated 1674
Obverse. The Latin inscription is LVDOVICVS XIIII D[EI] GRA[TIA] ("Louis XIV, by the grace of God"). Reverse. The Latin inscription is FRAN[CIÆ] ET NAVARRÆ REX 1674 ("King of France and of Navarre, 1674").

While Colbert, his family, clients and allies at Court, focussed on the economy and maritime matters, another faction at Court, with Michel Le Tellier and his son François-Michel Le Tellier, marquis de Louvois at its head, turned their attention to military matters. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1552x784, 340 KB) Coin of Louis XIV, dated 1674. ... Michel le Tellier (April 19, 1603 - October 30, 1685) was a French statesman. ... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois. ...


By creating these two opposing factions, Louis XIV sought to play them off against one another and thus create a sense of checks-and-balances, ensuring that no one group would attain such power and influence at Court as to destabilize his reign.


Le Tellier and Louvois had an important role to play in government, curbing the independent spirit of much of the nobility at Court and in the army. Gone were the days when army generals, without regard to the bigger political and diplomatic picture, protracted war at the frontiers and disobeyed orders coming from the capital, while quarrelling and bickering with each other over rank, precedence and status. Gone too were the days when positions of seniority and rank in the army were the sole possession of the old aristocracy. Louvois, in particular, pledged himself to modernizing the army, organizing it into a new professional, disciplined and well-trained force out of the old. He sought to contrive and direct campaigns and devoted himself to providing for the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and he did so admirably. Like Colbert and Louis XIV, Louvois was exceedingly hardworking. He was one of the greatest of the rare class of great war ministers and was comparable to Lazare Carnot. Lazare Carnot Comte Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (May 13, 1753—August 2, 1823) was a French politician, engineer, and mathematician. ...

Louis XIV, King of France
Louis XIV, King of France

Louis also instituted various legal reforms. This is reflected in the sheer number of Great Ordinances enacted during his reign. The Grande Ordonnance de Procédure Civile (Great Ordinance on Civil Procedure) of 1667, also known as Code Louis, was a comprehensive code regulating Civil Procedure in all of France in a uniform manner. It made it compulsory to record baptisms, marriages and burials in the registers of the State (as opposed to the registers of the Church). The Code Louis played an important part in France's legal history as it was the basis for Napoleon I's Code Napoléon, which is itself the basis for many of Western Europe's modern legal codes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (534x638, 221 KB) Beschreibung Louis XIV. 1661 Charles le Brun Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (534x638, 221 KB) Beschreibung Louis XIV. 1661 Charles le Brun Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ...


It sought to provide France with a single system of law where there were two: customary law in the north, and Roman law in the south. Another important Great Ordinance was the Ordonnance Criminelle de 1670 (Criminal Ordinance of 1670), which was one of the first legal texts attempting to codify Criminal Procedure in France. One of Louis XIV's more infamous Great Ordinances was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies (Grand Ordinance on the Colonies) of 1685, also known as Code Noir. It granted sanction to slavery, although it did extend a measure of humanity to the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. In law, custom can be described as the established patterns of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... The Code noir (French language: The Black Code), was a decree passed by Frances King Louis XIV in 1689. ... Slave redirects here. ...


However, no person could own a slave in the French colonies unless he were a member of the Roman Catholic Church, and a Catholic priest had to baptise each slave. Another important legal text enacted under Louis XIV was the Code Forestier, which sought to control and oversee the forestry industry in France, protecting forests from destruction. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ...


Patronage of the arts

The Sun King proved a generous spender, dispensing large sums of money to finance the Royal court, and supported those who worked under him. He brought the Académie Française under his patronage, and became its "Protector". He also operated as a patron of the arts, funding literary and cultural figures such as Molière, Charles Le Brun, and Jean-Baptiste Lully. It was under his reign and indeed his patronage that Classical French literature flourished with such writers as Molière, who mastered the art of comic satire and whose works still have a major impact on modern French literature and culture, or such as Jean Racine, whose stylistic elegance is considered exceptional in its harmony, simplicity and poetry, or such as Jean de La Fontaine, the most famous French fabulist whose works are to this day learnt by generations of French students. The visual arts also found in Louis XIV the ultimate patron for he funded and commissioned various artists, such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox, André Le Nôtre and Hyacinthe Rigaud whose works became famed throughout Europe. In music, composers and musicians like Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières and François Couperin occupied the scene. Lully introduced opera to France and founded French Opera and, with Molière, popularized the Comédie-Ballet, while Couperin's famous book L'Art de toucher le clavecin greatly influenced Bach, Strauss and Maurice Ravel. A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Charles Le Brun, contemporary portrait Charles Le Brun (February 24, 1619 - February 22, 1690) was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... Jean Racine, in an engraving by Pierre Savart. ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Charles Le Brun, contemporary portrait Charles Le Brun (February 24, 1619 - February 22, 1690) was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France. ... Pierre Mignard (1610-1695), called—to distinguish him from his brother Nicholas— Le Romain, was a French painter. ... Charles Antoine Coysevox (September 29, 1640 - October 10, French sculptor, was born at Lyons, and belonged to a family which had emigrated from Spain. ... Painting of André Le Nôtre by Carlo Maratti André Le Nôtre (March 12, 1613 - September 15, 1700) was a landscape architect and the gardener of King Louis XIV of France from 1645 to 1700. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 20, 1659-December 27, 1743) was a French painter. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... This article is about Jacques Champion de Chambonnières. ... François Couperin. ... In rivalry with imported Italian opera productions, a separate French tradition, sung in the French, was founded by Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... “Bach” redirects here. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Maurice Ravel. ...

The colonnade of the Louvre
The colonnade of the Louvre

Louis XIV ordered the construction of the military complex known as the Hôtel des Invalides to provide a home for the officers and soldiers who had served him loyally in the army, but who had been rendered infirm by either injury or age. While methods of pharmaceuticals at the time were quite elementary, the Hôtel des Invalides pioneered new treatments frequently and set a new standard for the rather barbarous hospice treatment styles of the period. Louis considered its construction one of the greatest achievements of his reign, which, along with the Château de Versailles, is one of the largest and most extravagant monuments in Europe, extolling a king and his country. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2049x1534, 1320 KB) Louvre in Paris. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2049x1534, 1320 KB) Louvre in Paris. ... , The church at the Invalides Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings original purpose. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Versailles: Garden front The Château de Versailles — often called the Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles — is a royal château, outside the gates of which the...


He also improved the Palais du Louvre, as well as many other royal residences. Originally, when planning additions to the Louvre, Louis XIV had hired Gian Lorenzo Bernini as architect. However, his plans for the Louvre would have called for the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with a most awkward-looking Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris. In his place, Louis chose the French architect Claude Perrault, whose work on the "Perrault Wing" of the Louvre is widely-celebrated. The cour dhonneur looking west The palais du Louvre in Paris, on the Right Bank of the Seine is a former royal palace, situated between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain lAuxerrois. ... Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini; December 7, 1598 – November 28, 1680) was a pre-eminent Baroque sculptor and architect of 17th century Rome. ... Though Claude Perrault (Paris, 1613 - Paris, 1688) is best known as the architect of the eastern range of the Louvre in Paris, he also achieved success as physician and anatomist, and as an author, who wrote treatises on physics and natural history. ...


Against a shadowed void, and with pavilions at either end, the simplicity of the ground-floor basement is set off by the rhythmically paired Corinthian columns and crowned by a distinctly non-French classical roof. Through the centre rose a pedimented triumphal arch entrance. Perrault's restrained classicizing baroque Louvre would provide a model for grand edifices throughout Europe and America for ages. The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental archway, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...

Monarchical Styles of
King Louis XIV
Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre
Reference style His Most Christian Majesty
Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty
Alternative style Monsieur Le Roi

A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ...

Early wars in the Low Countries

Main article: War of Devolution
Main article: Franco-Dutch War
Anne of Austria and her niece, Marie-Thérèse, both Infantas of Spain and Queens of France
Anne of Austria and her niece, Marie-Thérèse, both Infantas of Spain and Queens of France

After Louis XIV's father-in-law and uncle, Philip IV of Spain, died in 1665, Philip IV's son (by his second wife) became Charles II of Spain. Louis XIV claimed that Brabant, a territory in the Low Countries ruled by the King of Spain, had "devolved" to his wife, Marie-Thérèse, Charles II's elder half-sister by their father's first marriage. For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... Image File history File links Anne&_marie. ... Image File history File links Anne&_marie. ... Father-in-law A father-in-law is a spouses father. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


He argued that the custom of Brabant required that a child should not suffer from his or her father's remarriage, hence having precedence in inheritance over children of the second or subsequent marriages. Louis personally participated in the campaigns of the ensuing War of Devolution, which broke out in 1667. The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ...


Problems internal to the Republic of the Seven United Provinces (the Netherlands) aided Louis XIV's designs on the Low Countries. The most prominent political figure in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary, feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange, who in seeking to seize control might thus deprive De Witt of supreme power in the Republic and restore the House of Orange to the influence it had hitherto enjoyed until the death of William II, Prince of Orange. Therefore, with the United Provinces in internal conflict between supporters of De Witt and those of William of Orange, the "States faction" and the "Orange faction" respectively, and with England preoccupied in the Second Anglo-Dutch War with the Dutch, who were being supported, in accordance with the terms of the treaties signed between them, by their ally, Louis XIV, France easily conquered both Flanders and Franche-Comté. Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Johan de Witt (September 24, 1625, Dordrecht - August 20, 1672, The Hague) was a significant Dutch political figure. ... The Grand Pensionary (Dutch: raad(s)pensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... William II (fragment of a 1641 painting by Antoon van Dijck) William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 – November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from March 14, 1647 until his death. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


Shocked by the rapidity of French successes and fearful of the future, the United Provinces turned on their former friends and put aside their differences with England and, when joined by Sweden, formed a Triple Alliance in 1668. Faced with the threat of the spread of war and having signed a secret treaty partitioning the Spanish succession with the Emperor, the other major claimant, Louis XIV agreed to make peace. Under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668), France retained Flanders, including the great fortress of Lille, but returned Franche-Comté to Spain. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Triple Alliance of 1668 consisted of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 2 May 1668 ended the War of Devolution between France and Spain. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

Louis XIV
Louis XIV

The Triple Alliance did not last very long. In 1670, Charles II, lured by French bribes and pensions, signed the secret Treaty of Dover, entering into an alliance with France; the two kingdoms, along with certain Rhineland German princes, declared war on the United Provinces in 1672, sparking off the Franco-Dutch War. The rapid invasion and occupation of most of the Netherlands precipitated a coup, which toppled De Witt and allowed William III, Prince of Orange, to seize power. William III entered into an alliance with Spain, the Emperor and the rest of the Empire; and a treaty of peace with England was signed in 1674, the result of which was England's withdrawal from the war and the marriage between William III, Prince of Orange, and the Princess Mary, niece of the English King Charles II. Facing a possible Imperial advance on his flank while in the Low Countries in that year, Louis XIV ordered his army to withdraw to more defensible positions. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (704x889, 294 KB) no rights due of age File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (704x889, 294 KB) no rights due of age File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... The Treaty of Dover was secret treaty of 1670 between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France. ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... The Treaty of Westminster was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Despite these diplomatic and military reverses, the war continued with brilliant French victories against the overwhelming forces of the opposing coalition. In a matter of weeks in 1674, the Spanish territory of Franche Comté fell to the French armies under the eyes of the king; while Condé defeated a much larger combined army, with Austrian, Spanish and Dutch contingents, under the Prince of Orange, preventing them from descending on Paris. In the winter of 1674–1675, the outnumbered Turenne, through a most daring and brilliant of campaigns, inflicted defeat upon the Imperial armies under Montecuccoli, drove them out of Alsace and back across the Rhine, and recovered the province for Louis XIV. Through a series of feints, marches and counter-marches towards the end of the war, Louis XIV led his army to besiege and capture Ghent, an action which dissuaded Charles II and his English Parliament from declaring war upon France and which allowed him, in a very superior position, to force the allies to the negotiating table. After six years, Europe was exhausted by war, and peace negotiations commenced, being accomplished in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen. While Louis XIV returned all captured Dutch territory, he gained more towns and associated lands in the Spanish Netherlands and retained Franche-Comté, which had been captured by Louis and his army in a matter of weeks. As he was in a position to make demands which were much more exorbitant, Louis' actions were celebrated as evidence of his virtues of moderation in victory. The Treaty of Nijmegen (1678) was signed in Nijmegen, and ended the Dutch War. ...

Reception of Le Grand Condé at Versailles, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1878)
Reception of Le Grand Condé at Versailles, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1878)

The Treaty of Nijmegen further increased France's influence in Europe, but did not satisfy Louis XIV. The King dismissed his foreign minister, Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne, in 1679, as he was viewed as having compromised too much with the allies and for being too much of a pacifist. Louis XIV also kept up his army but, instead of pursuing his claims through purely military action, utilised judicial processes to accomplish further territorial aggrandizement. Thanks to the ambiguous nature of treaties of the time, Louis was able to claim that the territories ceded to him in previous treaties ought to be ceded along with all their dependencies and lands which had formerly belonged to them, but had separated over the years, as had in fact been stipulated in the peace treaties. French Chambers of Reunion were appointed to ascertain which territories formally belonged to France; the French troops later occupied them. The annexation of these lesser territories was designed to give France a more defensible frontier, the "pré carré" suggested by Vauban. Image File history File links Geromeconde. ... Image File history File links Geromeconde. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... Simon Arnauld, sr and then marquis (1682) de Pomponne (Paris, november 1618 - Fontainebleau, september 26, 1699) is a French diplomat and minister. ... The Chambers of Reunion were French courts established by King Louis XIV in the early 1680s. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...


Louis sought to gain cities such as Luxembourg, for its strategic offensive and defensive position on the frontier, as well as Casale, which would give him access to the Po River valley in the heart of Northern Italy. Louis also desired to gain Strasbourg, an important strategic outpost through which various Imperial armies had in the previous wars crossed over the Rhine to invade France. Strasbourg was a part of Alsace, but had not been ceded with the rest of Habsburg-ruled Alsace in the Peace of Westphalia. It was nonetheless occupied by the French in 1681 under Louis' new legal pretext, and, along with other occupied territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale, was ceded to France for a period of twenty years by the Truce of Ratisbon. For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Elsaß redirects here. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ...


Height of power in the 1680s

By the early 1680s, Louis XIV had greatly augmented his and France's influence and power in Europe and the world. Louis XIV's most famous minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who died in 1683, exercised a tremendous influence on the royal treasury and coffers — the royal revenue had tripled under his supervision. Image File history File links Portrait_louis_xiv. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ...


The princes of Europe began to imitate France and Louis XIV in everything from taste in art, food and fashion to political systems; many even took official mistresses simply because it was done at Versailles.


In the sphere of Foreign Affairs outside Europe, French colonies abroad were multiplying in the Americas, Asia and Africa, while diplomatic relations had been initiated with countries as far afield as Siam (through the embassy of the Chevalier de Chaumont), India and Persia. For example, the explorer René Robert Cavelier de La Salle claimed and named, in 1682, the basin of the Mississippi River in North America "Louisiane" in honour of Louis XIV (Both the Louisiana Territory and the State of Louisiana in the United States formed part of Louisiane), while French Jesuits and missionaries could be seen at the Manchu Court of the Emperor Kangxi in China. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Engraving of La Salle René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French cleric and explorer. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... North American redirects here. ... The United States in 1810, following the Louisiana Purchase. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ...


In France, Louis XIV received the visit of a Chinese Jesuit named Michael Shen Fu-Tsung as early as 1684,[13] and a few years later he had a Chinese librarian and translator at his court, named Arcadio Huang.[14][15]

Siamese embassy of King Narai to Louis XIV in 1686, led by Kosa Pan. Painting by Nicolas Larmessin.
Siamese embassy of King Narai to Louis XIV in 1686, led by Kosa Pan. Painting by Nicolas Larmessin.

Domestically, Louis XIV succeeded in establishing and increasing the influence and central authority of the King of France at the expense of the Church and the nobles. Louis sought to reinforce traditional Gallicanism, a doctrine limiting the authority of the Pope in France. He convened an assembly of clergymen (Assemblée du Clergé) in November 1681. Before it was dissolved in June 1682, it had agreed to the Declaration of the Clergy of France. The power of the King of France was increased in contrast to the power of the Pope, which was reduced. The Pope was not allowed to send papal legates to France without the king's consent; such legates as could enter France, furthermore, required further approval before they could exercise their power.[1] Bishops were not to leave France without royal approval; no government officials could be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties; and no appeal could be made to the Pope without the approval of the king. The king was allowed to enact ecclesiastical laws, and all regulations made by the Pope were deemed invalid in France without the assent of the monarch. The Declaration was not accepted by the Pope, which is not surprising given the infringements of the document upon papal privileges.[1] The previous theory often been proposed, the history of Thailand begins with the migration of the Thais from their ancestral home in southern China into mainland southeast asia around the 10th century AD. Prior to this Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms ruled the region. ... King Narai the Great (Son of Prasat Thong) (Thai: ; 1629 - July 11, 1688) became king of the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam, todays Thailand, in 1656. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs authority or the States authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Roman Popes. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Declaration of the Clergy of France was put forth in 1682 by a council convened by Louis XIV of France, in which the rivers of France were bathed in the blood of the clergy as red orbs of liquid smothered the streets of France. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ...


Louis also achieved immense control over the Second Estate, that is of the nobility, in France by attaching much of the higher nobility to his orbit at his palace at Versailles, requiring them to spend the majority of the year under his close watch instead of in their own local communities and power-bases plotting rebellion and insurrection. Only in this way were they able to gain the pensions and privileges that were necessary to their rank. He entertained his permanent visitors with extravagant parties and other distractions, which were significant factors contributing to Louis' power and control over his hitherto unruly nobility. Thus, Louis was continuing the work of the Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin.


He, as a result of the experiences derived from the Fronde, believed that his power would prevail only if he filled the high executive offices with commoners, or at least members of the relatively newer aristocracy (the "noblesse de robe"), because, he believed, while he could reduce a commoner to a nonentity by simply dismissing him, he could not destroy the influence of a great nobleman of ancient lineage as easily. Thus Louis XIV forced the older aristocracy to serve him ceremonially as courtiers, whilst he appointed commoners or newer nobles as ministers and regional intendants. As courtiers, the power of the great nobles grew ever weaker. The diminution of the power of the high aristocracy could be witnessed in the lack of such rebellions as the Fronde after Louis XIV.


In fact, the victory of the Crown over the nobles, finally achieved under Louis XIV, ensured that the Fronde was the last major civil war to plague France until the Revolution and the Napoleonic Age. Indeed, John A. Lynn has calculated that after Louis XIV there was a significant drop in years with internal civil war. The number of years dropped from a high of around 50 years out of 101 between 1560 and 1660 (50%), to 6 years out of 55 during Louis' personal reign from 1661 to 1715 (11%), to no civil wars till the Revolution in 1789. Not until the Revolution, about a hundred years later, did civil war once again trouble France.

The Cour d'Honneur of the Château of Versailles
The Cour d'Honneur of the Château of Versailles

Louis XIV had the Château of Versailles outside Paris, originally a hunting lodge built by his father, converted into a spectacular royal palace in a series of four major and distinct building campaigns. By the end of the third building campaign, the Château had taken on most of the appearance that it retains to this day, except for the Royal Chapel in the last decade of the reign. He officially moved there, along with the royal court, on May 6, 1682. Louis had several reasons for creating such a symbol of extravagant opulence and stately grandeur, and for shifting the seat of the monarch. The assertion that he did so because he hated Paris, however, is flawed as he did not cease to embellish his capital with glorious monuments while improving and developing it. On the other hand, contemporary writers such as Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily recognized.[16] Blenheim Palace, The Cour dHonneur is the large central court formed by the secondary wings containing kitchens and domestic offices flanking the Corps de logis Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Cour d... The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (January 16, 1675 - March 2, 1755), French soldier, diplomatist and writer of memoirs, was born at Versailles. ...


Versailles served as a dazzling and awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and for the reception of foreign dignitaries, where the attention was not shared with the capital and the people, but was assumed solely by the person of the king. Court life centered on magnificence; courtiers lived lives of expensive luxury, dressed with suitable magnificence and constantly attended balls, dinners, performances, and celebrations. Thus, many noblemen had perforce either to give up all influence, or to depend entirely on the king for grants and subsidies.[16] Instead of exercising power and potentially creating trouble, the nobles vied for the honour of dining at the king's table or the privilege of carrying a candlestick as the king retired to his bedroom.

The Doge of Genoa at Versailles on the 15 May 1685Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes.15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle, Château de Versailles
The Doge of Genoa at Versailles on the 15 May 1685
Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes.15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle, Château de Versailles

By 1685, Louis XIV stood at the apogee of his power. One of France's chief rivals, the Holy Roman Empire, was occupied in fighting the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War, which began in 1683 and lasted till 1699. The Ottoman Grand Vizier had almost captured Vienna, but at the last moment King John III Sobieski of Poland led an army of Polish, German and Austrian forces to final victory at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In the meantime, Louis XIV, by the Truce of Ratisbon, had acquired control of several territories, including Luxembourg and Strasbourg, which covered the frontier and protected France from foreign invasion. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 426 pixelsFull resolution (1127 × 600 pixel, file size: 179 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Réparation faite à Louis XIV par le doge de Gênes dans la Galerie des Glaces de Versailles (par Claude Guy Halle, château de Versailles... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 426 pixelsFull resolution (1127 × 600 pixel, file size: 179 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Réparation faite à Louis XIV par le doge de Gênes dans la Galerie des Glaces de Versailles (par Claude Guy Halle, château de Versailles... Flag of Genoa. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Versailles: Garden front The Château de Versailles — often called the Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles — is a royal château, outside the gates of which the... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Consorts Marie Casimire Louise Children... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ...


After repelling the Ottoman attack on Vienna, the Holy Roman Empire was no longer in grave imminent danger from the Turks, but the Emperor nevertheless did not attempt to regain the territories annexed by Louis XIV, but rather acquiesced to the fait accompli of the Truce. After having his city bombarded by the French in 1685 from the sea as punishment for having supported the Spanish and having granted them use of Genoese ships in the Franco-Dutch War, the Doge of Genoa travelled to Versailles where he was received amidst courtly magnificence and made his apologies and peace to Louis XIV. The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ...


Louis XIV's Queen, Marie-Thérèse, died in 1683. He remarked on her demise that that was the only one occasion in which she had caused him anguish. Although he was said to have performed his marital duties every night, he had not remained utterly faithful to her for long after their union in 1660: his mistresses included Louise de la Vallière, duchesse de Vaujours; Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, marquise de Montespan; and Marie-Angélique de Scoraille, duchesse de Fontanges. As a result, he produced many illegitimate children, most of whom were joined in marriage with members of cadet branches of the Royal Family itself. These children, as well as their descendants, would go on to claim positions of power and influence in the next century. Louise Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc, duchesse de La Vallière [1] [2] (August 6, 1644 – June 7, 1710) was a French courtesan, the mistress to Louis XIV of France from 1661 to 1667. ... Françoise de Rochechouart de Mortemart before her marriage Portrait of Madame de Montespans first son, the Marquis dAntin, 1710 by Hyacinthe Rigaud Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, marquise de Montespan [1] (October 5, 1641 – May 27, 1707), known more commonly as Madame de... -1... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ...


He proved, however, more faithful to his second wife, Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon. The marriage between Louis XIV and Madame de Maintenon, which probably occurred in late 1685, was secret and morganatic,[11] and would last to his death. Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon (November 27, 1635 - April 15, 1719), the second wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at Niort. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ...


Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Mme de Maintenon, once a Protestant, had converted to Roman Catholicism. It was once believed that she vigorously promoted the persecution of the Protestants, and that she urged Louis XIV to revoke the Edict of Nantes (1598), which granted a degree of religious freedom to the Huguenots. However, this view of her participation is now being questioned. It has been suggested that Marie-Thérèse, on her deathbed, had urged him on the subject, which, given her Spanish Catholic upbringing, is not surprising. Whatever the truth of such a proposition, Louis XIV himself clearly supported such a plan; he believed, along with the rest of Europe, Catholic or Protestant, that, in order to achieve national unity, he had to first achieve a religiously unified nation—specifically a Catholic one in his case. This was enshrined in the principle of "Cuius regio, eius religio", which defined religious policy throughout Europe since its establishment, by the Peace of Augsburg, in 1555. He had already begun the persecution of the Huguenots by quartering soldiers in their homes, though it must be said that it was theoretically within his feudal rights, and hence legal, to do so with any of his subjects. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ...


Louis continued his attempt to achieve a religiously united France by issuing an Edict in March 1685. The Edict affected the French colonies, and expelled all Jews from them. The public practice of any religion except Roman Catholicism became prohibited. In October 1685, Louis XIV issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking that of Nantes, on the pretext that the near-extinction of Protestantism and Protestants in France made any edict granting them privileges redundant.[1] The new edict banished from the realm any Protestant minister who refused to convert to Roman Catholicism. Protestant schools and institutions were banned. Children born into Protestant families were to be forcibly baptised by Roman Catholic priests, and Protestant places of worship were demolished. The Edict precluded individuals from publicly practising or exercising the religion, but not from merely believing in it. The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ...


The Edict provided "liberty is granted to the said persons of the Pretended Reformed Religion [Protestantism] ... on condition of not engaging in the exercise of the said religion, or of meeting under pretext of prayers or religious services." Although the Edict formally denied Huguenots permission to leave France, about 200,000 of them left in any case, taking with them their skills in commerce and trade. The Edict proved economically damaging to France,[11] though not ruinous; and while Sébastien Le Prestre, seigneur de Vauban, one of Louis XIV's most influential generals, publicly condemned the measure, its proclamation was celebrated by many Catholics throughout the realm. Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...


The League of Augsburg

Combatants  Denmark Dutch Republic, England,[3]  Holy Roman Empire,  Portugal Duchy of Savoy, Spain,  Sweden France, Jacobites Commanders William III, Prince Waldeck, Duke of Savoy, Duke of Lorraine , Elector of Bavaria, Prince of Baden Louis XIV, Duc de Luxembourg â€ , Duc de Villeroi, Duc de Lorge, Duc de Boufflers, Nicolas Catinat...

Causes and conduct of the war

The wider political and diplomatic result of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, however, was to provoke increased anti-French sentiment in Protestant countries. In 1686, both Catholic and Protestant rulers joined in the League of Augsburg, ostensibly a defensive pact to protect the Rhine, but really designed as an offensive alliance against France. The coalition included the Holy Roman Emperor and several of the German states that formed part of the Empire — most notably the Palatinate, Bavaria, and Brandenburg. The United Provinces, Spain and Sweden also adhered to the League. The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382...


Louis XIV sent his troops into the Palatinate in 1688 after the expiry of an ultimatum to the German princes to ratify the Truce of Ratisbon and confirm his possession of annexed territories, as well as to recognise his sister-in-law's claims. Ostensibly, the army had the task of supporting the claims of Louis XIV's sister-in-law, Charlotte-Elizabeth, duchesse d'Orléans, to the Palatinate. (The duchesse d'Orléans's brother, Charles II, Elector Palatine had died in 1685, and the comital Crown had gone, not to her, but to the junior Neuburg branch of the family.) The invasion had the real aim of applying diplomatic pressure and forcing the Palatinate to leave the League of Augsburg, and thus weakening it. These troops under the command of the Comte de Melac eventually executed Louis' order to "brûlez le Palatinat!" and devastated large areas of South Western Germany. This was done with the aim of preventing the larger gathering Imperial army from reaching the frontiers of France and invading Lorraine and Alsace. Elisabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz Elisabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz (Charlotte Elizabeth, Duchesse dOrléans), (May 27, 1652 in Heidelberg - 9 October or December 8, 1722 in St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Neuburg can refer to: Neuburg an der Donau, a town which is the administrative seat of the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district, in the state of Bavaria, Germany Neuburg-Schrobenhausen, a district in the state of Bavaria in Germany The Count Palatine of Neuburg — see Palatinate This is a disambiguation page — a... Ezechiel du Mas, Comte de Melac (about 1630 - May 10, 1704) was a career soldier in the French army under King Louis XIV and war minister Louvain, where he rose to the rank of a General. ...


Louis XIV's actions united the German princes behind the Holy Roman Emperor. Louis had expected that England, under the Catholic James II, would remain neutral. In 1688, however, the "Glorious Revolution" resulted in the deposition of James II and his replacement by his daughter, Mary II of England, who ruled jointly with her husband, William III of England (the Prince of Orange). As William III had developed an enmity against Louis XIV during the Dutch War, he pushed England into the League of Augsburg, which then became known as the Grand Alliance. James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ...

Louis XIV at the siege of Namur
Louis XIV at the siege of Namur

The campaigns of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) generally proceeded favorably for France. The forces of the Holy Roman Emperor proved ineffective, as many Imperial troops still concentrated on fighting the Ottoman Empire and the Imperials generally took to the field much later than the French. Thus France could accumulate a string of victories from Flanders in the north, to the Rhine valley in the east, to Italy and Spain in the south, as well as on the high seas and in the colonies. Image File history File links Equestrian_portrait_louis_xiv_1692. ... Image File history File links Equestrian_portrait_louis_xiv_1692. ... The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the Orleans War, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Louis XIV aided James II in his attempt to regain the British crown, but the Stuart king was unsuccessful and was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. A year later, the last Stuart stronghold, Limerick, fell to Williamite forces after the Battle of Aughrim, and James' dreams of returning to the throne dissipated. Williamite England could then devote more of her funds and troops to the war on the continent. Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... This article is about the city. ... The Battle of Aughrim was the decisive battle of the Williamite war in Ireland. ...


Nonetheless, despite the size of the opposing coalition, which encompassed most of Europe, French forces in Flanders under the famous pupil of the Great Condé, François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Piney (called the duc de Luxembourg), crushed the allied armies at the Battle of Fleurus in the same year as the Battle of the Boyne, as well as at the Battle of Steenkerque two years later and the Battle of Landen a year after that, gaining Luxembourg the nickname "le tapissier de Notre-Dame" for the number of captured enemy standards which he sent to decorate the Cathedral. Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Piney, called de Luxembourg (January 8, 1628 - January 4, 1695), marshal of France, the comrade and successor of the great Condé, was born at Paris, France. ... There have been three battles fought near the town of Fleurus in Belgium: The Battle of Fleurus (1622) in the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of Steenkerque (Steenkerque also spelled Steenkerke or Steenkirk) was fought on August 3, 1692, as a part of the Nine Years War. ... The Battle of Landen (or Neerwinden), in the current Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in the Netherlands on July 29, 1693 between the French army of Marshal Luxembourg and the Allied army of King William III of England. ...


Under the personal supervision of Louis XIV, the French army captured Mons in 1691 and the hitherto impregnable fortress of Namur in 1692; and with the capture of Charleroi by Luxembourg in 1693 after his victory at Landen, France gained the forward defensive line of the Sambre. At the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde, France was victorious over the allied forces under Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, overrunning his dominion and reducing the territory under his effective command to merely the area around Turin. In the southeast, along the Pyrenees, the Battle of Torroella opened Catalonia to French invasion. The French naval victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in 1690, however, was offset by the Anglo-Dutch naval victory at the Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue in 1692; but neither side was able to entirely defeat the opposing navy. Mons Mons ---- (more info) Stage 1 : Request (How-to) Article EN is too short for the city where the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is located Sylfred1977 20:04, 13 October 2007 (UTC) Very good article (featured article in the french WIKIPEDIA) Join this translation   ---   Update this information (instructions)   This... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ... Charleroi (Walloon: TchÃ¥lerwè) is the first city and municipality of Wallonia in population. ... Combatants France Piemont Spain Commanders Nicolas Catinat Duke of Savoy Strength 35,000 30,000 Casualties 1,800 dead or wounded 10,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Marsaglia, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in Italy on October 4, 1693 between the... Combatants France Piedmont Spain Austria Commanders Nicolas Catinat Duke of Savoy Strength 18,000 17,000 Casualties 2,000 6,700 The Battle of Staffarda, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in Italy on August 18, 1690 between the French army of Marshal Catinat and... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Duc de Noailles Marquis of Villena-Escalona Strength 24,000 16,000 - 24,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 3,000 - 9,000 dead, wounded, or captured Battle of Torroella : battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought on the 27th of May 1694 along... The Battle of Beachy Head or Beveziers took place on the south coast of East Sussex, England on 30 June 1690 in the War of the Grand Alliance; Beachy Head is a promontory near Eastbourne. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Anne Hilarion de Tourville Edward Russell Strength 44 ships (3,142 guns) 98 ships (8,980 guns) Casualties 15 ships burnt 2 ships sunk The related naval battles of Barfleur and La Hougue took place between 27 May and 3 June 1692 (17-23...


The war continued for four more years, until the Duke of Savoy signed a separate peace and subsequent alliance with France in 1696, the Treaty of Turin, undertaking to join with French arms in a capture of the Milanese and allowing French armies in Italy to reinforce others; one of these reinforced armies, that of Spain, captured Barcelona and hastened the arrival of peace.

Image File history File links Marshal_luxembourg. ...

Treaty of Ryswick

The War of the Grand Alliance eventually ended with the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697. Louis XIV surrendered Luxembourg and all other "Réunion" territories he had seized since the end of the Dutch War in 1679, but retained Strasbourg, assuring the Rhine as the border between France and the Empire. He also gained de jure recognition of his hitherto de facto possession of Haiti, as well as the return of Pondicherry and Acadia. Louis undertook to recognise William III and Mary II as Joint Sovereigns of Great Britain and Ireland, and assured them that he would no longer assist James II; at the same time he renounced intervention in the electorate of Cologne and claims to the Palatinate, in return for financial compensation. The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than...


Louis XIV returned Lorraine to her duke, but on terms which allowed French passage at any time and which severely restricted the Duke's political manoeuvrability. The Dutch were allowed to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands, the "Barrier", to protect themselves against possible French aggression. Spain recovered Catalonia and the many territories lost, both in this war and the previous one (War of the Reunions), in the Low Countries. The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ...


The generous terms of the treaty were seen as concessions to Spain designed to foster pro-French sentiment, which would eventually lead Charles II, King of Spain to declare Philippe de France, duc d'Anjou (Louis' grandson) his heir. Similarly of note, he secured the dissolution of the Grand Alliance by manipulating the rivalries and suspicions of its member states; in so doing, he divided his enemies and broke their power since no one state on its own was capable of taking on France. Moreover, despite such seemingly disadvantageous terms in the Treaty of Ryswick, French influence was still at such a height in all of Europe that Louis XIV could offer his cousin, François Louis de Bourbon, prince de Conti, the Polish Crown, duly have him elected by the Sejm and proclaimed as King of Poland by the Polish primate, Michał Radziejowski. However, Conti's own tardiness in proceeding to Poland claiming the throne allowed his rival, Augustus II the Strong, Elector of Saxony to seize the throne and have himself crowned king. The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... François Louis de Bourbon (April 30, 1664 - February 9, 1709) was Prince de Conti, succeeding his brother Louis Armand I de Bourbon in 1685. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice de...


The Spanish Succession

Europe on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession (1700)
Europe on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession (1700)

Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1203x960, 289 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1203x960, 289 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France ...

Causes and build-up to the war

The great matter of the succession to the Spanish monarchy dominated European foreign affairs following the Peace of Ryswick. The Spanish King Charles II, severely incapacitated, could not father an heir. The Spanish inheritance offered a much sought-after huge prize, for Charles II ruled not only Spain, but also Naples, Sicily, the Milanese, the Spanish Netherlands and a vast colonial empire—in all, twenty-two different realms, many of which were on the periphery of France, surrounding her. Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...


France and Austria were the main claimants to the throne, both of which had close family ties to the Spanish royal family. Philippe, duc d'Anjou (later Philip V of Spain), the French claimant, was the great-grandson of the eldest daughter of Philip III of Spain, Anne of Austria, and the grandson of the eldest daughter of Philip IV of Spain, Marie-Thérèse of Austria. The only bar to inheritance lay with their renunciations of claims to the throne, which in the case of Marie-Thérèse, however, was considered legally null and void as other terms of the treaty had not been fulfilled by Spain. Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ...


Charles, Archduke of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor), and younger son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor by his third marriage (with Elenor of Neuburg), claimed the throne through his paternal grandmother, Maria Anna of Spain, who was the youngest daughter of Philip III; this claim was not, however, tainted by any renunciation. Purely on the basis of the laws of primogeniture, however, France had the best claims since they were derived from the eldest daughters. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. ...


Many European powers feared that if either France or the Emperor came to control Spain, the balance of power in Europe would be threatened. Thus, both the Dutch and the English preferred another candidate, the Bavarian prince Joseph Ferdinand, who was the grandson of Leopold I, through his first wife Margaret Theresa of Spain, younger daughter of Philip IV. Under the terms of the First Partition Treaty, it was agreed that the Bavarian prince would inherit Spain, with the territories in Italy and the Low Countries being divided between the Houses of France and Austria. Spain, however, had not been consulted, and vehemently resisted the dismemberment of its empire. The Spanish court insisted on maintaining the entirety of the Spanish Empire. When the Treaty became known to Charles II in 1698, he settled on Joseph Ferdinand as his sole heir, assigning to him the entire Spanish inheritance. Duke Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria (28 October 1692 - 6 February 1699) was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1679-1705, 1714-1726) and his first wife, Marie Antonie of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, maternal granddaughter of King Felipe IV of Spain. ... Margaret of Spain in Mourning Dress 1666 by Juan Bautista Martinez del Mazo. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...

Philip V, King of Spain
Philip V, King of Spain

The entire issue opened up again when smallpox claimed the Bavarian prince six months later. The Spanish court, seeking to keep the inheritance united, acknowledged that they could only succeed in doing so by granting the crown to a member from either the House of France, or of Austria. Charles II, under pressure from his German wife, chose the House of Austria, settling on the Emperor's younger son, the Archduke Charles. Ignoring this, Louis and William III signed a second treaty, allowing the Archduke Charles to take Spain, the Low Countries and the Spanish colonies, whilst Louis XIV's eldest son and heir, le Grand Dauphin, would inherit the territories in Italy, with a mind to exchange them for Savoy or Lorraine. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1343x1956, 417 KB) Samenvatting Painting By Hyacinthe rigaud Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spain Philip V of Spain ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1343x1956, 417 KB) Samenvatting Painting By Hyacinthe rigaud Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spain Philip V of Spain ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Lorraine can refer to: the independent Duchy of Lorraine and later French province of Lorraine: see Lorraine (province). ...


Acceptance of the will and consequences

In 1700, as he lay upon his deathbed, Charles II unexpectedly interfered in the affair. He sought to prevent Spain from uniting with either France or the Empire, but, based on his past experience of French superiority in arms, considered France as more capable of preserving the empire in its entirety. The whole of the Spanish inheritance was thus offered to the Dauphin's second son, Philippe, duc d'Anjou, on condition he kept it undivided. In the event of his refusal or inability to accept the inheritance, it would be offered to the Dauphin's third son, Charles, duc de Berry, and thereafter to the Archduke Charles. If all these princes refused the Crown, it would be offered to the House of Savoy, distantly related to the Spanish royal family. King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ...


Louis XIV thus faced a difficult choice: he could have agreed to a partition and to possible peace in Europe, or he could have accepted the whole Spanish inheritance but alienated the other European nations. Louis originally assured William III that he would fulfill the terms of their previous treaty and partition the Spanish dominions. However, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de Torcy, the nephew of Colbert, advised Louis that even if France accepted a portion of the Spanish inheritance, a war with the Empire would almost certainly ensue; and William III had made it very clear that he had signed the Partition Treaties to avoid war, not make it, hence he would not assist France in a war to obtain the territories granted her by those treaties. Louis agreed that if a war occurred in any event, it would be more profitable to accept the whole of the Spanish inheritance. Consequently, when Charles II died on November 1, 1700, Philippe, duc d'Anjou became Philip V, King of Spain. Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619–September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance for 22 years under King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ...


The rest of Europe reluctantly accepted Philip V as King of Spain. Louis, however, acted too precipitately. In 1701, he transferred the "Asiento", a permit to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, to France, with potentially damaging consequences for British trade. Moreover, Louis ceased to acknowledge William III as King of Great Britain and Ireland upon the death of James II, instead acclaiming as king James II's son, James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"). Furthermore, Louis sent forces into the Spanish Netherlands to secure its loyalty to Philip V and to garrison the Spanish forts, which had long been garrisoned by Dutch troops as part of the "Barrier" protecting the United Provinces from potential French aggression. The result was the further alienation of both Britain and the United Provinces, both then ruled by William III. Consequently, another Grand Alliance was formed between Great Britain, the United Provinces, the Emperor and many of the petty states within the Holy Roman Empire. French diplomacy, however, secured as allies for Louis and Philip V, Bavaria, Portugal and Savoy. In the history of slavery, asiento (or assiento, meaning assent ) refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, from the years 1543-1834. ... The Prince James, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; The Old Pretender or The Old Chevalier; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II and VII. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III and VIII) from the... The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ...


Commencement of fighting

The subsequent War of the Spanish Succession continued for most of the remainder of the reign and proved costly for Louis. It began with Imperial aggression in Italy even before war was officially declared. France had some initial success, nearly capturing Vienna, but the victories of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy showed that the myth of French invincibility was broken. Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736), known as Prince Eugen the noble knight in Austria-Hungary, Principe Eugenio di Savoia in Italian, Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German was one of the most prominent generals to serve the Habsburgs. ...


Defeat of French invincibility

Following the Battle of Blenheim, Bavaria was flung out of the war, being partitioned between the Palatinate and Austria, and her elector, Maximilian II Emanuel, forced to flee to the Spanish Netherlands. Another consequence of the battle was the subsequent defection of Portugal and Savoy to the opposing side. With the Battle of Ramillies and that of Oudenarde, Franco-Spanish forces were driven ignominiously out of the Spanish Netherlands; while the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate what few forces remained to him in Italy. Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Battle of Ramillies was a major battle in the War of Spanish Succession, May 23, 1706. ... Combatants Great Britain United Provinces Holy Roman Empire France Commanders Duke of Marlborough Prince Eugene of Savoy Louis, duc de Bourgogne Duc de Vendôme Strength 105,000 100,000 Casualties 3,000 15,000 The Battle of Oudenarde (or Oudenaarde) was a key battle in the War of the... The Battle of Turin took place on 7 September 1706 west of the city of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. ...


Such military defeats, coupled with famine and mounting debt, forced France into a defensive posture. By 1709, Louis' position was grievously weakened, and he was willing to sue for peace at nearly any cost, even to return all lands and territories ceded to him during his reign and to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, signed more than sixty years prior. Nonetheless, the terms dictated by the allies were so harsh, including demands that he attack his own grandson alone to force the latter to accept the humiliating peace terms, that war continued.


Turning point

Whilst it became clear that France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance, it also seemed evident that its opponents could not overthrow Philip V in Spain after the definitive Franco-Spanish victory of the Battle of Almansa, and those of Villaviciosa and Brihuega, which drove the allies out of the central Spanish provinces. Furthermore, the Battle of Malplaquet in 1709 showed that it was neither easy nor cheap to defeat the French, for while the Allies gained the field, they did so at an abominable cost, losing 25 000 men, twice that of the French, led by their admirable general, Claude Louis Hector de Villars, duc de Villars. The Battle of Denain in 1712 turned the war in favour of Louis XIV, when Villars led French forces to a decisive victory over the Allies under Eugene of Savoy, recovering much lost territory and pride. Combatants Philippists Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Austriacists Britain Portugal United Provinces Commanders Duke of Berwick Marquis de Ruvigny Marquês das Minas Strength 25,000 22,000 Casualties 3,500 dead or wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 12,000 captured The Battle of Almansa, fought on April... Combatants France Spain Austria United Provinces Portugal Commanders Louis Joseph de Vendôme Guido Starhemberg Strength 20,000 12,000–14,000 Casualties 2,000–3,000 dead or wounded 2,000–3,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Villaviciosa took place on December 10, 1710 in the War... Combatants France Spain Britain Commanders Louis Joseph de Vendôme James Stanhope Strength 20,000–24,000 16,000–18,000 (4,000 present) Casualties 1,000 dead 600 dead 3,400 wounded or captured The Battle of Brihuega took place on December 8, 1710 in the War of the... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ... Marquis and duc de Villars, Marshal of France by Hyacinthe Rigaud. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Map of France after the death of Louis XIV
Map of France after the death of Louis XIV

The death of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, who had succeeded his father Leopold I in 1705, made the prospect of an empire as large as that of Charles V being ruled by the Archduke Charles dangerously possible. This was, to Great Britain, as undesirable as a union of France and Spain. Image File history File links Philippe_Buache_Carte_de_France_divisee_suivant_les_quatre_departements_de_Messieurs_les_secretaires_dEtat_07710637. ... Image File history File links Philippe_Buache_Carte_de_France_divisee_suivant_les_quatre_departements_de_Messieurs_les_secretaires_dEtat_07710637. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...


Road to and conclusion of peace

Thus, preliminaries were signed between Great Britain and France in the pursuit of peace. Louis XIV and Philip V eventually made peace with Great Britain and the United Provinces in 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht. Peace with the Emperor and the Holy Roman Empire came with the Treaty of Rastatt and that of Baden in 1714 respectively. The crucial interval between Utrecht and Rastatt-Baden allowed Louis XIV to capture Landau and Freiburg, permitting him to negotiate from a comparatively better position, if not from one of strength, with the Emperor and the Empire. The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ... The Treaty of Rastatt, in March 7, 1714, was essentially part of the Treaty of Utrecht. ... The Treaty of Baden was the treaty that ended hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire, who had been at war with one another since the War of the Spanish Succession. ...


The general settlement recognised Philip V as King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish colonies. Spain's territory in the Low Countries and Italy were partitioned between Austria and Savoy, while Gibraltar and Minorca were retained by Great Britain.


Louis XIV, furthermore, agreed to end his support for the Old Pretender's claims to the throne of Great Britain. France was also obliged to cede the colonies and possessions of Newfoundland, Rupert's Land and Acadia, while retaining Île-Saint-Jean (now Prince Edward Island) and Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island), in the Americas to Great Britain; however, most of those continental territories lost in the devastating defeats in the Low Countries were returned to her, despite Allied persistence and pressure to the contrary, and she also received further territories to which she had a claim such as the principality of Orange, as well as the Ubaye Valley, which covered the passes through the Alps from Italy. Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the trading territory. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... Orange (Provençal Occitan: Aurenja in classical norm or Aurenjo in Mistralian norm) is a town and commune in the département of Vaucluse, in the south of France. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The grandiose schemes of the Allies to curb and diminish French power in Europe came to naught. Moreover, France was shown to be able to protect her allies with the rehabilitation and restoration of the Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian II Emanuel, to his lands, titles and dignities.


Death

Drugstore of Louis XIV, with details. Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
Drugstore of Louis XIV, with details. Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.

Louis XIV died on September 1, 1715 of gangrene, a few days before his seventy-seventh birthday. Almost all of Louis XIV's legitimate children died during childhood. The only one to survive to adulthood, his eldest son, Louis de France, known as "Le Grand Dauphin", predeceased Louis XIV in 1711, leaving three children. The eldest of these children, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, died in 1712, soon to be followed by Bourgogne's eldest son, Louis, duc de Bretagne. Thus Louis XIV's five-year-old great-grandson Louis, duc d'Anjou, the younger son of the duc de Bourgogne, and Dauphin upon the death of his grandfather, father and elder brother, succeeded to the throne and was to reign as Louis XV of France. The Muséum national dHistoire naturelle (MNHN) is the French national museum of natural history. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. ... Louis as Duke of Brittany Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Brittany (8 January 1707–8 March 1712) was the second son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ...


It was to this young child that Louis XIV was alleged, according to Philippe de Courcillon, marquis de Dangeau in his memoirs, to have said, in the manner of baroque piety, "Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects". This same Dangeau noted of his death that "he yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle extinguishing". Louis died while saying the words of the psalm "Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina (O Lord, make haste to help me)". Philippe de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau (born September 21, 1638 in Chartres; died September 9, 1720) was a French officer. ...

Louis XIV with Louis le Grand Dauphin, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, and Louis, duc de Bretagne
Louis XIV with Louis le Grand Dauphin, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, and Louis, duc de Bretagne

Louis XIV sought to restrict the power of his nephew, Philippe II d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans, who as closest surviving legitimate relative in France would become Regent for the prospective Louis XV. Louis XIV instead preferred to transfer some power to his illegitimate son by Madame de Montespan, Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine and created a regency council like that established by Louis XIII in anticipation of Louis XIV's own minority. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x1224, 238 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x1224, 238 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France ... Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, 1695 Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine ( March 31, 1670 - May 14, 1736) was an illegitimate son of the French King Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan (1640-1707). ...


Louis XIV's will provided that the duc du Maine would act as the guardian of Louis XV, superintendent of the young king's education and Commander of the Royal Guards.


The duc d'Orléans, however, ensured the annulment of Louis XIV's will in Parlement, bribing the Parlementaires to do so with the return of their privileges which Louis had so tirelessly abolished. The duc du Maine was stripped of the title Prince du Sang (Prince of the Blood [Royal]), which had been given him and his brother, Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse, by Louis (This act has been viewed by some as the king's attempt to break the constitution of ancien régime France, that is to say, the customary laws of the kingdom. On the other hand, it is also possible that this was simply the case of a dying man giving in to his wife and son), and of the command of the Royal Guards, but retained his position as superintendent, while the duc d'Orléans ruled as sole Regent. Toulouse, by remaining aloof from these court intrigues, managed to retain his privileges, unlike his brother. Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, Comte de Toulouse (June 6, 1678 – December 1, 1737) was the third son of Louis XIV and Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ...


His body lies in the Saint Denis Basilica in Saint Denis, a suburb of Paris. He had reigned for 72 years, making it the longest reign in the recorded history of Europe. West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ...


Legacy

Louis XIV placed a member of the House of France on the throne of Spain, effectively ending the centuries-old threat and menace that had arisen from that quarter of Europe since the days of Charles V. The House of Bourbon retained the Crown of Spain for the remainder of the eighteenth century, but experienced overthrow and restoration several times after 1808. Nonetheless, to this day, the Spanish monarch is descended from Louis XIV. For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ...


His numerous wars effectively bankrupted the State (though it must also be said that France was able to recover in a matter of years), forcing him to levy higher taxes on the peasants and incurring large State debts from various financiers as the nobility and clergy had exemption from paying these taxes and contributing to public funds. Yet, it must be emphasized that it was the State and not the country which was impoverished. The wealth and prosperity of France, as a whole, could be noted in the writings of the social and political thinker and commentator Montesquieu in his satirical epistolary novel, Lettres Persanes. While the work mocks and ridicules French political, cultural and social life, it also portrays and describes the wealth, elegance and opulence of France between the end of the War of the Spanish Succession and Louis XIV's death. Montesquieu redirects here. ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Persian Letters Persian Letters is a satirical story of two Persian brothers, Usbek and Rica, traveling through France by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu. ...

Growth of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715)
Growth of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715)

On the whole, nevertheless, Louis XIV strengthened the power of the Crown relative to the traditional feudal elites, marking the beginning of the era of the modern State, and placed France in the predominant and preeminent position in Europe, giving her ten new provinces and an overseas empire, as well as cultural and linguistic influence all over Europe. Even with several great European alliances opposing him, he continued to triumph and to increase French territory, power and influence. As a result of these military victories as well as cultural accomplishments, Europe would admire France and her culture, food, way-of-life, etc.; the French language would become the lingua franca for the entire European elite as faraway as Romanov Russia; various German princelings would seek to copy his mode of life and living to their great expense. Europe of the Enlightenment would look to Louis XIV's reign as an example of enlightened rule and strive to emulate him in all things as much as possible. For his vigorous promotion of French national greatness, Louis became known as the "Sun King" or "The Great Monarch". Image File history File links France_1552-1798. ... Image File history File links France_1552-1798. ...


While, the duc de Saint-Simon, who did not like Louis XIV as he had not been given what he thought was his due, offered the following assessment: "There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it ... His vanity, which was perpetually nourished–for even preachers used to praise him to his face from the pulpit–was the cause of the aggrandisement of his Ministers", even the German philosopher Leibniz, who was a Protestant and had no cause for flattery, could call him "one of the greatest kings that ever was". Even Napoleon, hardly a friend of the Bourbons, described Louis XIV as "the only king of France worthy of the name" and "a great king."[17] Voltaire, the apostle of the Enlightenment, compared him to Augustus and called his reign an "eternally memorable age", dubbing "the Age of Louis XIV" "Le Grand Siècle" (the "Great Century"). Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (January 16, 1675 - March 2, 1755), French soldier, diplomatist and writer of memoirs, was born at Versailles. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


Style and arms

Louis XIV had the formal style: "Louis XIV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". He bore the arms Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) impaling Gules on a chain in cross saltire and orle Or an emerald Proper (for Navarre). A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


Depictions of Louis XIV in entertainment

Louis XIV features in the d'Artagnan Romances by Alexandre Dumas. The plot of the last of the three Romances, The Vicomte de Bragelonne, involves a fictional twin brother of Louis XIV who tries to displace the King. In The Iron Mask, a 1929 movie based on The Vicomte de Bragelonne, William Blakewell portrayed Louis XIV and his twin. Louis Hayward played the twins in the 1939 film The Man in the Iron Mask, Richard Chamberlain portrayed them in 1977, and Leonardo DiCaprio did the same in a 1998 remake of the 1939 film. The dArtagnan Romances are a set of three novels by Alexandre Dumas telling the story of the musketeer dArtagnan from his humble beginnings in Gascony to his death as a marshal of France in the siege of Maastricht in 1673. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... The Vicomte de Bragelonne: Ten Years Later (Le Vicomte de Bragelonne ou Dix ans plus tard) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... The Man in the Iron Mask was a prisoner believed to have been held in the Bastille prison from an unknown date to his death on November 19, 1703. ... Louis Hayward, born Seafield Grant, (March 19, 1909-February 21, 1985), was a British actor born in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... The Man in the Iron Mask is a 1939 film adaption of the last section of the novel The Vicomte de Bragelonne by Alexandre Dumas, which is itself based on the French legend of The Man in the Iron Mask. ... “Richard Chamberlain” redirects here. ... Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974[1]) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated, SAG Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor who garnered world wide fame for his role as Jack Dawson in Titanic (1997). ... The Man in the Iron Mask (1998) is a film directed by Randall Wallace, and is an unofficial sequel to The Three Musketeers. ...


Louis XIV also appears as a character in the movie Vatel. In the movie, the Prince de Condé invites him to his château at Chantilly and tries to impress him in order to earn a commission as a general in the war against the Netherlands. In charge of the exhausting mission of receiving the royal guest is the master steward, Vatel, played by Gérard Depardieu. François Vatel (1631–April 1671) is famous for supposedly having invented whipped cream for an extravagant banquet for 2,000 people in honor of Louis XIV. At this same banquet, in April 1671, the consumate perfectionist Vatel was so distrought about the lateness of the fish meal (and other mishaps... Prince of Condé is a title in French peerage, attributed for the first time to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ... François Vatel (1631–April 1671) is famous for supposedly having invented whipped cream for an extravagant banquet for 2,000 people in honor of Louis XIV. At this same banquet, in April 1671, the consumate perfectionist Vatel was so distrought about the lateness of the fish meal (and other mishaps... Gérard Xavier Marcel Depardieu, CQ (born 27 December 1948,  ) is an Academy Award-nominated French actor. ...


The Moon and the Sun, a 1997 Nebula Award-winning science fiction novel by Vonda N. McIntyre, is set in the court of Louis XIV in the late 17th century. Louis XIV himself appears as a character in the Baroque Cycle trilogy by Neal Stephenson. The Nebula is an award given each year by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), for the best science fiction/fantasy fiction published in the United States during the two previous years (see rolling eligibility below). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Vonda N. McIntyre {born 1948) is an American science fiction writer. ... The Baroque Cycle is a series of books written by Neal Stephenson and published in 2003 and 2004. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ...


Roberto Rossellini directed "La presa del potere da parte di Luigi XIV" in 1967 while, more recently in 2005 debuted the musical based on the life of Louis XIV, "Le Roi Soleil", starring Emmanuel Moire. Louis XIV also appears as a character in the film Le Roi Danse, which depicts the life of Lully and his relationship with Louis. Roberto Rossellini (May 8, 1906 - June 3, 1977), was an Italian film director. ... Le Roi Soleil is a successful French musical by Kamel Ouali, produced by Dove Attia and Albert Cohen, about the life of Louis XIV (played by Emmanuel Moire). ... Emmanuel Moire is a French singer born in Mans on June 16th 1979. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ...


Robert Michael Sheehan plays the role of fifteen-year-old Louis XIV in television series Young Blades. Robert Michael Sheehan (born January 7, 1988) is an Irish actor who is best known for playing King Louis XIV in Young Blades. ... Young Blades is an historical fantasy television series that aired on PAX (now i) from January to June of 2005, lasting only thirteen episodes before cancellation. ...


A rock band, Louis XIV, is named after him, while David Stewart of the Eurythmics dressed in the fashion of Louis XIV's day in the video to There Must Be an Angel in 1985. Elton John also dressed up for his 50th birthday party in like manner. The costume reportedly cost 80,000 dollars. The band Louis XIV Louis XIV is a quartet Indie rock group from San Diego, California, formed in April 2003. ... David Stewart (Maryland), U.S.(Maryland) politician David John Stewart, British politician David Stewart (Mayanist), scholar of the Maya civilization See also: Dave Stewart This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the approach to music education, see Eurhythmics. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ...


Louis XIV is also a board game (source: http://www.boardgamegeek.com/game/13642).


"Sun King" is a song on the The Beatles album Abbey Road. Sun King is a song by The Beatles that appeared on the Abbey Road album. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Back cover The back cover of the original 1969 UK LP. Note that Her Majesty is not listed, unlike later reissues and the compact disc version—originally making it a hidden track. ...


In Civilization IV, Louis XIV is a leader for the French Empire. He is industrious and creative. Sid Meiers Civilization IV (Civilization IV or Civ4) is a turn-based strategy computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meiers studio Firaxis Games. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...


In Encyclopedia, a television series created by HBO and geared towards educating children, there was a catchy song about Louis XIV the Sun King.


Ancestors

Charles de Bourbon duc de Vendôme (June 2, 1489 – 1537) was a French nobleman of the court of Francis I of France. ... Antoine de Bourbon (1560) Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562), was head of the House of Bourbon from 1537 to 1562, and King-consort of Navarre from 1555 to 1562. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Coat of arms of Henry II. Henry II (April 18, 1503 - May 25, 1555), was the eldest son of Jean dAlbret (d. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 - June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Marguerite of Navarre (April 11, 1492 - December 21, 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angouleme and Margaret of Navarre, was the queen consort of King Henry II of Navarre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Francesco I of Tuscany. ... Eleonora di Toledo Eleonora di Toledo (1522– December 17, 1562) was a Spanish noblewoman who was Duchess of Florence from 1539. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary (July 23, 1503 - January 27, 1547) was queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Queen-consort of the Romans and heiress of Bohemia and Hungary. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Image:Isabel of Portugal (Karl V.).jpg Isabel of Portugal, Queen of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, by Titian. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain Anna of Austria (Cigales, Valladolid, November 1, 1549 - Badajoz, October 26, 1580), was Queen of Spain and Portugal. ... Maria of Spain (Madrid, June 21, 1528 - Villa Monte, February 26, 1603) was the oldest daughter of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. ... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... Charles II of Austria, (Vienna June 3, 1540 – Graz July 10, 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia) from the House of Habsburg from 1564. ... Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary (July 23, 1503 - January 27, 1547) was queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Queen-consort of the Romans and heiress of Bohemia and Hungary. ... Philip III of Spain Margaret of Austria, 1609, by Bartolomé González y Serrano Margaret of Austria (December 25, 1584-October 3, 1611), Queen of Spain and Portugal, was the daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria, and the sister of the Emperor Ferdinand II... Albert V, Duke of Bavaria (29 February 1528 - 24 October 1579), (German: ), was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. ... Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551-1608) was daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. ... Anna of Austria (Prague, July 7, 1528 - München, October 16, 1590) was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503-1547). ...

Issue

Louise Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc, duchesse de La Vallière [1] [2] (August 6, 1644 – June 7, 1710) was a French courtesan, the mistress to Louis XIV of France from 1661 to 1667. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Louis Armand I of Conti. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... The title Admiral of France is one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, the naval equivalent of Marshal of France. ... Françoise de Rochechouart de Mortemart before her marriage Portrait of Madame de Montespans first son, the Marquis dAntin, 1710 by Hyacinthe Rigaud Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, marquise de Montespan [1] (October 5, 1641 – May 27, 1707), known more commonly as Madame de... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, 1695 Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine ( March 31, 1670 - May 14, 1736) was an illegitimate son of the French King Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan (1640-1707). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... La Maison du Roi (House of the King) is a French Army Household Cavalry regiment. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... For other uses, see Galley (disambiguation). ... The Grand Master of Artillery or Grand Maître de lartillerie was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France during the Ancien Régime. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Louis III of Bourbon (November 10, 1668 – March 4, 1710) was Prince of Condé for a short period of time, following the death of his father Henry III in 1709. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 23, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... Régence is the French word for (and root of the English word) regency (see that article). ... Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, Comte de Toulouse (June 6, 1678 – December 1, 1737) was the third son of Louis XIV and Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... The title Admiral of France is one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, the naval equivalent of Marshal of France. ... Aquitaine (or Guyenne or Guienne) now forms a région in south-western France along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... The Grand Veneur de France or Grand Hunstman of France was a position in the Kings Household in France during the Ancien Régime. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Art and architecture in France in the early 17th century are generally referred to as Baroque. ... The term Gallican Church usually refers to the Roman Catholic Church in France from the time of the Declaration of the Clergy of France (1682) to that of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) during the French Revolution. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death. ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Louis XIV. Catholic Encyclopedia (2007). Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  2. ^ Louis XIV. MSN Encata (2008). Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  3. ^ (French) Marquis de Dangeau. Mémoire sur la mort de Louis XIV (on page 24). Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  4. ^ François Bluche (translated by Mark Greengrass (1990). Louis XIV. New York: Franklin Watts, p. 11. 
  5. ^ (French) Henri Bremond. La Provence mystique au XVIIe siècle. Paris: Plon-Nourrit, 1908. pp. 381, 382.
  6. ^ (French) René Laurentin. Le Vœu de Louis XIII. Paris: FX de Guibert, 1988. pp. 62, 63.
  7. ^ (French) September 5, 1638 - The birth of the future "Sun King" and This happened on ... August 15 - The feast of Assumption, the website Herodote.net. Retrieved on 2008-02-19;
    Louis XIV. MSN Encata (2008). Retrieved on 2008-01-20.
  8. ^ Genealogist C. Carretier calculated Louis XIV's ancestry to the eighth generation, with his blood being approximately 28% French, 36% Spanish, 11% German and 8% Italian, the rest being Slavic, English, Savoyard and Lorrainer. ((French) Carretier, Christian (1980). Les Cinq Cents Douze Quartiers de Louis XIV. Angers-Paris. )
  9. ^ Dunlop, Ian (2001). Louis XIV. Pimlico London, p.48
  10. ^ Lavisse, Ernest (1911). Histoire de France illustrée..., vol. VII (1st and 2nd parts) and vol. VIII (1st part). Paris
  11. ^ a b c Columbia Encyclopedia (2007). Louis XIV, king of France. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  12. ^ (French) Contrat de mariage entre Louis XIV, roi de France, et Marie-Thérèse, infante d'Espagne (Ile des Faisans). Base Choiseul, Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France (1659).
  13. ^ The Meeting of Eastern and Western ArtPage 98 by Michael Sullivan (1989) ISBN 0520212363 [1]
  14. ^ Barnes, Linda L. (2005) Needles, Herbs, Gods, and Ghosts: China, Healing, and the West to 1848 Harvard University Press ISBN 0674018729, p.85
  15. ^ Mungello, David E. (2005) The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500-1800 Rowman & Littlefield ISBN 074253815X, p.125
  16. ^ a b Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon. Historical Memoirs of the Duc de Saint-Simon, volume 1 1691-1709: The Court of Louis XIV.
  17. ^ Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon’s Notes on English History made on the Eve of the French Revolution, illustrated from Contemporary Historians and referenced from the findings of Later Research by Henry Foljambe Hall. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1905, 258.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Philippe de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau (born September 21, 1638 in Chartres; died September 9, 1720) was a French officer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Henri Bremond (31 July 1865-17 August 1933) was a French literary scholar, sometime Jesuit, and Catholic philosopher, one of the theological modernists. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Acton, J. E. E., 1st Baron. (1906). Lectures on Modern History. London: Macmillan and Co.
  • Beik, William. "The Absolutism of Louis XIV as Social Collaboration: Review Article", Past and Present, no. 188 (Aug 2005), pp. 195–224.
  • Bluche, François, Louis XIV, Paris: Hachette Littératures, 1986. (English translation by Mark Greengrass; published in 1990 by Franklin Watts.)
  • Burke, Peter En kung blir till (Swedish translation of The fabrication of a king, 1992)
  • Cambridge Modern History vol 5 The Age of Louis XIV (1908)]
  • Carretier, Christian, "Les cinq cent douze quartiers de Louis XIV", Angers-Paris, 1980
  • Church, William F. (ed.). The Greatness of Louis XIV. London: D.C. Heath and Company, 1972.
  • Cronin, Vincent. Louis XIV. London: HarperCollins, 1996 (ISBN 0-00-272072-8).
  • Dunlop, Ian. Louis XIV. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000 (hardcover, ISBN 0-312-26196-9).
  • Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-297-82997-1); New York: Nan A. Talese, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-385-50984-7).
  • Goyau, G. (1910). "Louis XIV". The Catholic Encyclopedia. (Volume IX). New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Holt, Mack P., "Louis XIV." The New Book of Knowledge. Scholastic Library Publishing, 2005.
  • Jordan, David. The King's Trial: Louis XVI vs. the French Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-520-23697-1).
  • Lynn, John A., "The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667-1714", New York: Longman, 1999
  • Steingrad, E. (2004). "Louis XIV."
  • Thompson, Ian. The Sun King's Garden: Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre And the Creation of the Gardens of Versailles. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-58234-631-3).
    • Reviewed by Peter Parker in the Telegraph, October 1, 2006.
    • Reviewed by John Adamson in the Telegraph, 2006.
  • Wolf, J. B. (1968). Louis XIV. New York: Norton.

Peter Burke (born 1937) is a British historian. ... Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Chronology Louis XIV
  • List of films dedicated to Louis XIV and period [2] Of particular interest: Documentary on Versailles—The Visit.
  • Full text of marriage contract (PDF), France National Archives transcription (French)
  • "Le siècle de Louis XIV" by Voltaire, 1751
Louis XIV of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: September 5 1638 Died: September 1 1715
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis XIII
King of France and Navarre
May 14, 1643September 1, 1715
Succeeded by
Louis XV
French royalty
Preceded by
Louis XIII
Dauphin of France
September 5, 1638May 14, 1643
Succeeded by
Louis
"le Grand Dauphin"
Persondata
NAME Louis XIV of France
ALTERNATIVE NAMES The Sun King, Louis the Great
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of France and of Navarre
DATE OF BIRTH September 5, 1638(1638-09-05)
PLACE OF BIRTH Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
DATE OF DEATH September 1, 1715
PLACE OF DEATH Château de Versailles, Versailles, France

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008–August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Philip I (23 May 1053 – 29 July 1108) was King of France from 1060 to his death. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Philip V (17 November 1293 – 3 January 1322), called the Tall (French: le Long), was King of France and Navarre (as Philip II) and Count of Champagne from 1316 to his death, and the second to last of the House of Capet. ... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Louis XI (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), called the Prudent (French: ) and the Universal Spider (Old French: luniverselle aragne) or the Spider King, was the King of France from 1461−83. ... Charles VIII, called the Affable (French: ; 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Louis XII (b. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of... Philippe I, Duc dOrléans, the founder of the House of Orléans Philip II dOrléans - the Regent of France for the young Louis XV. Louis dOrléans, Duke of Orléans, the 3d Duke Louis Philippe I called le Gros or the Fat Philippe Égalit... Louis-Philippe I, King of the French (October 6, 1773 – August 26, 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ...


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Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Louis XIV of France (601 words)
Louis XIV (the Sun King) (September 5, 1638 - September 1, 1715) reigned as king of France from May 14, 1643 to September 1, 1715.
King Louis XIV died on September 1, 1715 and is buried in Saint Denis Basilica.
According to the French historian Alexis de Tocqueville, Louis XIV's weakening of the nobility coupled with his oppression of the peasantry contributed to the political, social and economic instabilities that eventually led to the French Revolution.
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