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Encyclopedia > Louis XI of France
Louis XI the Prudent
King of France (more...)
Reign 22 July 146130 August 1483
Coronation 15 August 1461, Reims
Titles Dauphin de Viennois: as Dauphin of France (3 July 1423 / 17 July 142922 July 1461);
as King of France (22 July 14611466,
146630 June 1470)
Born 3 July 1423
Bourges, Cher, France
Died 30 August 1483
Plessis-lez-Tours, France
Buried Notre-Dame de Cléry Basilica, Orléans
Predecessor Charles VII
Successor Charles VIII
Consort Margaret of Scotland (142445)
Charlotte of Savoy (144383)
Issue Anne, Duchess of Bourbon (14611522)
Joan of France, Duchess of Berry (14641505)
Charles VIII (147098)
Royal House Valois Dynasty
Father Charles VII (140361)
Mother Marie of Anjou (140463)

Louis XI (July 3, 1423August 30, 1483), called the Prudent (French: le Prudent) and the Universal Spider (Old French: l'universelle aragne) or the Spider King, was the King of France from 146183. He was the son of Charles VII of France and Mary of Anjou, a member of the House of Valois, grandson of Charles VI and Isabeau de Bavière and one of the most successful kings of France in terms of uniting the country. His 22-year reign was marked by political machinations, spinning a spider's web of plot and intrigue which earned him his nickname. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... Bourges is a town and commune in central France that is located on the Yèvre river. ... Cheryl Sarkisian LaPierre (better known as Cher) (born on May 20, 1946)[1] is an American actress, singer, songwriter, author and entertainer. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Orléans (Latin, meaning golden) is a city and commune in north-central France, about 130 km (80 miles) southwest of Paris. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Margaret Margaret Stewart (French: ) (Perth, Scotland 1424 – August 16, 1445 in Chalons Surmarne, Marne, France) was a princess of the Kingdom of Scotland and Dauphine of France by her marriage to the future Louis XI of France. ... August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... Charlotte de Savoie (1445-1483), daughter of Louis, duke of Savoy (also known as Louis I), and Anne of Chypre-Lusignan, married dauphin Louis de France (future Louis XI), on November 14, 1451, who, in spite of her virtues, neglected her (for example, upon his succession to the throne of... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Anne de Beaujeu Anne of France (or Anne of Beaujeu) (Genappe, April 1461 – 14 November 1522, Chantelle), was the daughter of Louis XI, King of France and his second queen consort, Charlotte of Savoy. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Jeanne de France (1464 - 4 February 1505) was Duchess of Berry, and 1473-1498 duchess consort of Orleans. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Marie of Anjou, Queen of France Marie of Anjou (1404–1463) was the daughter of Louis II of Anjou, King of Naples, titular King of Sicily, and Yolande of Aragon, Queen of Aragon, herself daughter of John I of Aragon. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Categories: People stubs | Queen consorts ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Isabeau de Bavière (also Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt) (about 1369 – September 24, 1435) was a Queen Consort of France (1385 - 1422) after marrying Charles VI of France, a member of the Valois Dynasty, on July 17, 1385. ...


His scheming and love for intrigue made him many enemies, in particular those who bore the name "Charles":

Ironically, he was to be succeded by a man named Charles. Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... For other people of the same name, see Charles, Duke of Berry. ... Charles the Bold, a posthumous portrait by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


Louis is known to have been shrewd and often vicious. But, in curbing the power of the dukes, he re-established the power of the monarchy, and ensured the survival of the French nation itself. For all his diabolical qualities, he used them to create tremendous good for his country.

Contents

Biography

Early life

He was born at Bourges, Cher in 1423, during the period when the English held northern France. His father Charles the Dauphin (or "crown prince") held only the centre and south. Louis was the grandson of the strong-willed Yolande of Aragon, the princess who was the driving force in saving France from the English. Louis despised his father, regarding him as a weakling. His marriage on June 24, 1436 to Margaret of Scotland, daughter of James I, King of Scots, was forced upon him and did not help their relationship. Bourges is a town and commune in central France that is located on the Yèvre river. ... Cher is a département in the center of France. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... Yolande of Aragon (also known as Jolantha de Aragon and Violant dAragó) was born in Barcelona in 1383, the daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar (who was a granddaughter of John II of France (and niece of Charles V of France and Louis... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... Margaret of Scotland (1424, Perth, Scotland, Perthshire, Scotland - August 16, 1445, Chalons Surmarne, Marne, France )was a Princess of the Kingdom of Scotland and Dauphine of France by her marriage to the future Louis XI of France. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain...


In 1440 Louis was part of the uprising known as the Praguerie, which sought to control Charles and install Louis as Regent. The uprising failed and Louis was forced to submit to the King, who forgave him. Louis continued soldiering. In 1444 he led an army of "ecorcheurs" against the Swiss at the Battle of Birse and was impressed by their military might. For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... The Praguerie was a revolt of the French nobility against King Charles VII in 1440. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Ecorcheurs (lit. ...


Louis still loathed Charles, however, and on the 27 September 1446 he was ordered out of court and sent to his own province of Dauphiné, where he was ordered to establish order. Despite frequent summons by the King, the two would never meet again. In Dauphiné, Louis ruled as King in all but name, continuing his intrigues against his father. On February 14, 1451, Louis, 27, married again, without Charles' consent, after his previous wife's death in 1445. It was a strategic marriage to the eight-year-old Charlotte of Savoy. is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... Flag of the Dauphiné Dauphiné (Occitan : Daufinat, Arpitan : Dôfenâ, archaic English: ), usually referred to as the Dauphiné, is a former province in southeastern France, roughly corresponding to the present departments of the Isère (Isera), Drôme (Drôma), and Hautes-Alpes (Hiôtas-Arpes). ... Insert non-formatted text here{| style=float:right; |- | paul is so hot sophie loves him |- | |} is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... Charlotte de Savoie (1445-1483), daughter of Louis, duke of Savoy (also known as Louis I), and Anne of Chypre-Lusignan, married dauphin Louis de France (future Louis XI), on November 14, 1451, who, in spite of her virtues, neglected her (for example, upon his succession to the throne of...


Finally in August 1456, Charles sent an army to Dauphiné. Louis fled to Burgundy where he was granted refuge by Duke Philip the Good and his son Charles the Bold and settled in the castle of Genappe. King Charles was furious when Philip refused to hand Louis over; he knew the man and warned that the Duke was "giving shelter to a fox who will eat his chickens". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ... Genappe is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. ...

French Monarchy-
Capetian Dynasty,
House of Valois

Philip VI
Children
   John II
John II
Children
   Charles V
   Louis I of Anjou
   John, Duke of Berry
   Philip the Bold
Charles V
Children
   Charles VI
   Louis, Duke of Orléans
Charles VI
Children
   Isabella of Valois
   Catherine of Valois
   Charles VII
Charles VII
Children
   Louis XI
   Charles, Duke of Berry
Louis XI
Children
   Charles VIII
Charles VIII

In 1461 Louis learned that his father was dying. He thus hurried to Reims to be crowned in case his brother, Charles, Duke de Berry, beat him to it. The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Louis I of Anjou (July 23, 1339, Château de Vincennes, – September 20, 1384, Biselia) was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. ... John of Valois, the Magnificent, (November 30, 1340 – March 15, 1416) was Duke of Berry and Auvergne and Count of Poitiers and Montpensier. ... See: Philip III of France (1245-1285, king of France 1270-1285) Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (1363-1404, regent of France 1380-1388) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Louis de Valois (March 13, 1372 – November 23, 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Isabella of Valois (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was a Princess of France, daughter of King Charles VI and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. ... Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... For other people of the same name, see Charles, Duke of Berry. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Look up Brother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Brother may have the following meanings, in addition to and derived from its main one of male sibling; see Family. a male friend or acquaintance, in some cultures shortened to Bro or Brah a peer, male or female (though such usage is... For other people of the same name, see Charles, Duke of Berry. ...

The Entry of Louis XI into Paris. — Facsimile of a Miniature in the "Chroniques" of Monstrelet, Manuscript of the Fifteenth Century (Imperial Library of Paris).
The Entry of Louis XI into Paris. — Facsimile of a Miniature in the "Chroniques" of Monstrelet, Manuscript of the Fifteenth Century (Imperial Library of Paris).

Download high resolution version (1433x1833, 103 KB)The Entry of Louis XI. into Paris. ... Download high resolution version (1433x1833, 103 KB)The Entry of Louis XI. into Paris. ...

Succession as King

Ironically, after being such a thorn in his father's side, Louis pursued many of the same interests as his father had pursued less successfully: limiting the powers of the Dukes and Barons of France. He justified this as sheer Realpolitik: it was now in his best interests, since he was now the king. He suppressed many of his former co-conspirators, who had thought him their friend. He became extremely fiscally prudent, whereas he had previously been lavish and extravagant. He wore rough and simple clothes and mixed with ordinary people and merchants. he loved to suck guys dick in the afternoon with friends. Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed...


A candid account of some of Louis's activities is given by the courtier, Philippe de Commines, in his memoirs of the period. Philippe de Commines (or de Commynes or Philip de Comines) (1447-1511) was a French-speaking Fleming in the courts of Burgundy and France, a diplomat, and a writer, and he has been called the first truly modern writer (Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve) and the first critical and philosophical historian... As a literary genre, a memoir (from the Latin memoria, meaning memory) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ...


Feud with Charles the Bold

Philip the Good was keen to start a Crusade and Louis gave him money in exchange for a number of territories including Picardie and Amiens. But Philip's son, Charles, was angry, feeling that he was being deprived of his inheritance. He joined a rebellion called the League of the Public Weal, led by Louis's brother Charles. Although the rebels were largely unsuccessful in battle, Louis was forced to grant an unfavourable peace as a matter of political expediency. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Amiens Regional President Claude Gewerc (PS) (since 2004) Departments Aisne Oise Somme Arrondissements 13 Cantons 129 Communes 2,292 Statistics Land area1 19,399 km² Population (Ranked 12th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... The League of the Public Weal was an alliance of feudal nobles organized in defiance of the centralized authority of the French King, Louis XI, by his brother, the duke of Berry, and Charles the Bold of Burgundy. ...


Upon becoming Duke in 1467, Charles seriously considered having an independent Kingdom of his own. But he had many problems with his territories, especially with the people of Liege who were constantly rising against him. Louis was their ally. Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich; before 1946, the citys name was written Liége, with the acute accent) is a major city located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. ...


In 1468 Louis and Charles met in Peronne, but in the course of the negotiations they learned that the Liegois had again risen up and killed the Burgundian governor. Charles was furious. Commines and the Duke's other advisors had to calm him down for fear that he might hit the King. Louis was forced into a humiliating treaty, giving up many of the lands he had acquired and witnessing the siege of Liege in which hundreds were massacred. August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Péronne is a commune of the Somme département, in France. ...


But once out of Charles's reach, Louis declared the treaty invalid and set about building up his forces. His aim was to destroy Burgundy once and for all. War broke out in 1472, but Charles's siege of Beauvais and other towns were unsuccessful and he finally sued for peace. Commines rallied to the King's side and was made welcome. February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ...


Dealings with England

Meanwhile England was going through its own civil conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Louis had an interest in this conflict since Charles the Bold was allied with the Yorkists who opposed King Henry VI. When the Earl of Warwick fell out with Edward IV, whom he had placed on the throne, Louis granted him refuge in France. He then encouraged Warwick to form an alliance with his bitter enemy Margaret of Anjou in order to restore her husband Henry VI to the throne. The plan worked and Edward was forced into exile, but he later returned and Warwick the Kingmaker was killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... The House of York was a dynasty of English kings. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury (22 November 1428 – April 14, 1471), is known as Warwick the Kingmaker. Warwick was the richest man in England outside of the Royal Family. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite dAnjou, March 23, 1429 – August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and led the Lancastrian contingent, in the Wars of the Roses. ... Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428—April 14, 1471), was also known as Warwick the Kingmaker. ... The Battle of Barnet, which took place on April 14, 1471, was a decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, near the town of Barnet, 10 miles north of London. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ...


Now the undisputed master of England, Edward invaded France in 1475, but Louis was able to negotiate the Treaty of Picquigny by which the English army left France in return for a large sum of money. The English renounced their claim to French lands such as Normandy and the Hundred Years War could be said to be finally over. Louis bragged that although his father had driven the English out by force of arms, he'd driven them out by force of pâté, venison and good wine. 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... The Treaty of Picquigny was negotiated in 1475 between England and France. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Various pâtés and terrines Salmon terrine, with a cream and herb sauce A slice of Bloc de foie gras Pâté (French pronunciation: ; RP pronunciation: ; General American pronunciation ) is a form of spreadable paste, usually made from meat (although vegetarian variants exist), and often served with toast as... Leg of venison on apple sauce with dumplings and vegetables Venison is meat of the family Cervidae. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ...


Settling with Charles the Bold

Louis XI
Louis XI

Louis still had to take care of the Duke of Burgundy and for this he employed the Swiss, whose military might was renowned and which he had admired at Brise. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x655, 78 KB) Louis XI Bibliothèque Nationale de France File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of French monarchs ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x655, 78 KB) Louis XI Bibliothèque Nationale de France File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of French monarchs ...


War broke out between Charles and the Swiss, but it was a disastrous campaign for the Duke and he was finally killed at the Battle of Nancy on January 5, 1477. Despite the disasters of 1476 Charles the Bold, [[Duke of Burgundy]], remained confident that 1477 would bring an upturn in the fortunes of his beloved Burgundy. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ...


Louis had destroyed his sworn enemy. Other lords who still favoured the feudal system gave in to his authority. Others like Jacques d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours were executed. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Jacques dArmagnac, duke of Nemours (c. ...


Legacy

Louis then started developing the Kingdom. He encouraged trade fairs and the building and maintenance of roads. He is seen as one of the first modern Kings of France, taking it out of the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Louis XI was very superstitious. He surrounded himself with astrologers. Interested in science, he once pardoned a man sentenced to death on condition that he serve as a guinea pig in a gallstone operation. Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Binomial name Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia, originally indigenous to the Andes. ...


By war, by cunning and with sheer guile, Louis XI overcame France's feudal lords, and at the time of his death in the chateau at Plessis-lez-Tours, he had united France and laid the foundations of a strong monarchy. He was however a secretive, isolated and reclusive man and few mourned his passing.


Louis XI died in August of 1483 and was interred in the Notre-Dame de Cléry Basilica [1] in Cléry-Sant-André in the Arrondissement of Orléans. His wife Charlotte died a few months later and is interred with him. Louis XI was succeeded by his son, Charles VIII, who was thirteen, and his eldest daughter Anne of France became Regent. The arrondissement of Orléans is an arrondissement of France, located in the Loiret département, of the Centre région. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Anne de Beaujeu Anne of France (or Anne of Beaujeu) (Genappe, April 1461 – 14 November 1522, Chantelle), was the daughter of Louis XI, King of France and his second queen consort, Charlotte of Savoy. ...


Walter Scott's posthumous attack on Louis XI

Louis XI's undermining of the Feudal system and of the "knightly code of Chivalry" rooted in that system earned him the uncompromising posthumous enmity of the 19th-century Romantic writer Sir Walter Scott. Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ...


Scott's foreword to the novel Quentin Durward constitutes a bitter attack on the French king, three and a half centuries dead at the time of writing (1831). Scott wrote that "Among those who were the first to ridicule and abandon the self-denying principles in which the young knight was instructed, and to which he was so carefully trained up, Louis XI was the chief. That Sovereign was of a character so purely selfish — so guiltless of entertaining any purpose unconnected with his ambition, covetousness and desire of selfish enjoyment — that he seems almost an incarnation of the devil himself, permitted to do his utmost to corrupt our ideas of honour at the very source." Quentin Durward is a historical novel written by Walter Scott in 1823. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Later in the same essay, Scott compared Louis XI to Goethe's Mephistopheles. It must be noted of course that Scott was a romantic whose novels tend to show a more ideal view of the Middle Ages than was really the case. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø t&#601;]) (August 28, 1749&#8211;March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Mephistopheles flying over Wittenberg, in a lithograph by Eugène Delacroix. ...

Louis XI
Louis XI

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Issue

Louis's marriage with Charlotte of Savoy would not be consummated until she was fourteen. Their children included:

Events January 24 - Matthias I Corvinus becomes king of Hungary Foundation of Magdalen College, University of Oxford George of Podebrady becomes king of Bohemia Pope Pius II becomes pope Turks sack the Acropolis Births February 15 - Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (d. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Anne de Beaujeu Anne of France (or Anne of Beaujeu) (Genappe, April 1461 – 14 November 1522, Chantelle), was the daughter of Louis XI, King of France and his second queen consort, Charlotte of Savoy. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Jeanne of France (b. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ...

Ancestors

Louis XI's ancestors in three generations
Louis XI of France Father:
Charles VII of France
Paternal Grandfather:
Charles VI of France
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Charles V of France
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Joanna of Bourbon
Paternal Grandmother:
Isabeau of Bavaria
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Taddaea Visconti
Mother:
Marie of Anjou
Maternal Grandfather:
Louis II of Naples
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Louis I of Naples
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Marie of Blois
Maternal Grandmother:
Yolande of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John I of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Yolande of Bar

Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Jeanne de Bourbon (Vincennes, February 3, 1338 – February 6, 1378, Paris) was the Queen consort of France, due to her marriage to King Charles V. Jeanne was the daughter of Peter I, Duke of Bourbon and Isabelle de Valois, a half-sister of Philip VI of France as the daughter... Isabeau de Bavière (also Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt; ca. ... Duke Stephen III of Bavaria (German, in full: Stephan III der Kneißl, Herzog von Bayern; 1337 — September 26, 1413, Niederschönfeld) was a Duke of Bavaria since 1375. ... Marie of Anjou, Queen of France Marie of Anjou (1404–1463) was the daughter of Louis II of Anjou, King of Naples, titular King of Sicily, and Yolande of Aragon, Queen of Aragon, herself daughter of John I of Aragon. ... The Angevin French prince, Louis II of Anjou (1377–1417) was the rival of Ladislas as King of Naples. ... Louis I of Anjou (July 23, 1339, Château de Vincennes, – September 20, 1384, Biselia) was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. ... Yolande of Aragon (also known as Jolantha de Aragon and Violant dAragó) was born in Barcelona in 1383, the daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar (who was a granddaughter of John II of France (and niece of Charles V of France and Louis... Template:House of Aragón John I (December 27, 1350 – May 19, 1396), called the Hunter (Juan el Cazador in Castilian, Chuan lo Cazataire in Aragonese and Joan el Descurat in Catalan) or the Lover of Elegance (el Amador de la gentileza in Castilian and lAmador de la Gentilesa...

References

Louis XI of France
House of Valois
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 3 July 1423
Died: 30 August 1483
Preceded by
Charles V of Viennois, 8th Dauphin
Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Valentinois and of Diois
as 'Louis II'

3 July 1423 / 17 July 142922 July 1461
Succeeded by
Himself as King of France
French nobility
Preceded by
Vacant
(Charles, 8th Dauphin)
Dauphin of France
as 'Louis, 9th Dauphin'

3 July 1423 / 17 July 142922 July 1461
Succeeded by
Vacant
(eventually Francis, 10th Dauphin)
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles VII
King of France
22 July 146130 August 1483
Succeeded by
Charles VIII
Preceded by
Himself as Dauphin of France
Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Valentinois and of Diois
as 'Louis II of Viennois'

22 July 14611466
146630 June 1470
Succeeded by
Francis I
Preceded by
Francis I
Succeeded by
Charles VI
Chronology of French monarchs from 987 to 1870
Medieval FranceHouse of Capet

Hugues (987-996) • Robert II (996-1031) • Henri I (1031-1060) • Philippe I (1060-1108) • Louis VI (1108-1137) • Louis VII (1137-1180) • Philippe II (1180-1223) • Louis VIII (1223-1226) • Louis IX (1226-1270) • Philippe III (1270-1285) • Philippe IV (1285-1314) • Louis X (1314-1316) • Jean I (1316) • Philippe V (1316-1322) • Charles IV (1322-1328) • Philippe VI (1328-1350) • Jean II (1350-1364) • Charles V (1364-1380) • Charles VI (1380-1422) • Charles VII (1422-1461) • Louis XI (1461-1483) • Charles VIII (1483-1498) The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of Viennois. ... Count of Valentinois (French: Compte de Valentinois; Italian: Conteggio dei Valentino), is an extinct title in the French peerage. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of Viennois. ... Count of Valentinois (French: Compte de Valentinois; Italian: Conteggio dei Valentino), is an extinct title in the French peerage. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008&#8211;August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Philip V the Tall (French: Philippe V le Long) (1293 - January 3, 1322) was King of France from 1316 to 1322, a member of the Capetian dynasty. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Early Modern FranceHouse of Valois

Louis XII (1498-1515) • François I (1515-1547) • Henri II (1547-1559) • François II (1559-1560) • Charles IX (1560-1574) • Henri III (1574-1589) Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Louis XII (b. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ...

Early Modern FranceHouse of Bourbon

Henri IV (1589-1610) • Louis XIII (1610-1643) • Louis XIV (1643-1715) • Louis XV (1715-1774) • Louis XVI (1774-1792) Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

First Republic
First EmpireHouse of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1804-1814) Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Bourbon Restoration IHouse of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1814-1815) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Hundred DaysHouse of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1815) • Napoléon II (1815) The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Bourbon Restoration IIHouse of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1815-1824) • Charles X (1824-1830) • Louis XIX (1830) • Henri V (1830) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

July MonarchyHouse of Orléans

Louis-Philippe (1830-1848) The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Second Republic
Second EmpireHouse of Bonaparte

Napoléon III (1852-1870) This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon III, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Third Republic
List of French monarchsList of Queens and Empresses of France — History of France

  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis XI of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1555 words)
He was the son of Charles VII of France and Mary of Anjou, a member of the Valois Dynasty, grandson of Charles VI and Isabeau de Bavière and one of the most successful kings of France in terms of uniting the country.
Louis fled to Burgundy where he was granted refuge by Duke Philip the Good and his son Charles the Bold and settled in the castle of Genappe.
Louis XI died in August of 1483 and was interred in the Notre-Dame de Cléry Basilica [1] in Cléry-Sant-André in the Arrondissement of Orléans.
Louis XI - LoveToKnow 1911 (3861 words)
The alliance with Savoy was sealed by the marriage of Louis with Charlotte, daughter of Duke Lodovico, in 1452, in spite of the formal prohibition of Charles VII.
Louis made light of the whole incident in his letters, but it marked the greatest humiliation of his life, and he was only too glad to find a scapegoat in Cardinal Jean Balue, who was accused of having plotted the treason of Peronne.
Louis was the soul of all hostile coalitions, especially urging on the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria, who ruled Tirol and Alsace.
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