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Encyclopedia > Louis Sullivan
Louis Henri Sullivan

Born September 3, 1856
Flag of the United States Boston, Massachusetts
Died April 14, 1924
Flag of the United States Chicago
Occupation Architect

Louis Henri Sullivan (September 3, 1856April 14, 1924) was an American architect, called the "father of modernism." He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, and was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright. Picture has fallen into the public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “Boston” redirects here. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... Chicago architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ...

Contents

Biography

Louis Sullivan[1] was born to an Irish-born father and a Swiss-born mother, both of whom had emigrated to the United States in the late 1840s. He grew up living with his grandparents in South Reading(now Wakefield), Massachusetts. Louis spent most of his childhood learning about nature while on his grandparent’s farm. While attending high school Sullivan met Moses Woolson, whose teachings made a lasting impression on him, and nurtured him until his death. After graduating from high school, Sullivan studied architecture briefly at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Learning that he could both graduate from high school a year early and pass up the first two years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by passing a series of examinations, Sullivan entered MIT at the age of sixteen. After one year of study, he moved to Philadelphia and talked himself into a job with architect Frank Furness. “MIT” redirects here. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Frank Heyling Furness (November 12, 1839 - June 27, 1912) was a noted American architect. ...


The Depression of 1873 dried up much of Furness’s work, and he was forced to let Sullivan go. At that point Sullivan moved on to Chicago in 1873 to take part in the building boom following the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. He worked for William LeBaron Jenney, the architect often credited with erecting the first steel-frame building. After less than a year with Jenney, Sullivan moved to Paris and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts for a year. Renaissance art inspired Sullivan’s mind, and he was influenced to direct his architecture to emulating Michelangelo's spirit of creation rather than replicating the styles of earlier periods. He returned to Chicago, not yet 18 years old. He began work for the firm of Joseph S. Johnston & John Edelman as a draftsman. Johnston & Edleman were commissioned for interior design of the Moody Tabernacle, which was completed by Sullivan.[1] In 1879 Dankmar Adler hired Sullivan; a year later, he became a partner in the firm. This marked the beginning of Sullivan's most productive years. And it was at this firm that Sullivan would deeply influence a young designer named Frank Lloyd Wright, who came to embrace Sullivan's designs and principles as the inspiration for his own work. The Long Depression (1873 – 1896) affected much of the world from the early 1870s until the mid-1890s and was contemporary with the Second Industrial Revolution. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Artists rendering of the fire, by John R Chapin, originally printed in Harpers Weekly The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Home Insurance Building in Chicago built in 1885 Image:Second Leiter Building. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... École des Beaux-Arts (IPA ) refers to several art schools in France. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... Dankmar Adler (born July 3, 1844 in Germany; died April 16, 1900 in Chicago, Illinois, USA) was a German American architect of Jewish belief. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ...

Prudential Building, also known as the Guaranty Building, Buffalo, New York, 1894
Prudential Building, also known as the Guaranty Building, Buffalo, New York, 1894

With a string of triumphs such as the 1889 Auditorium Building in Chicago (where Adler and Sullivan reserved the top floor of the tower for their own atelier), the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis and the 1899 Carson Pirie Scott Department Store on State Street in Chicago, Louis Sullivan was the first architect to fully imagine and realize a rich architectural vocabulary for a revolutionary new kind of building: the steel high-rise. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x1024, 134 KB)Louis Sullivans Prudential Building, Buffalo, New York This image is from HABS/HAER, the Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record collection at the Library of Congress. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x1024, 134 KB)Louis Sullivans Prudential Building, Buffalo, New York This image is from HABS/HAER, the Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record collection at the Library of Congress. ... Prudential (Guaranty) Building. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... This article is about the state. ... See also: 1888 in architecture, other events of 1889, 1890 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ... The Auditorium Building in Chicago The Auditorium Building in Chicago, Illinois is one of the best-known designs of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. ... See also: 1890 in architecture, other events of 1891, 1892 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ... Wainwright Building The Wainwright Building is a 10-story red-brick landmark office building in downtown St. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... See also: 1898 in architecture, other events of 1899, 1900 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ... Carson Pirie Scott, downtown Chicago The Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building is a landmark department store building at State Street and Madison, Chicago, Illinois. ...


Sullivan and the Steel High-Rise

Prior to the late 19th century, the weight of a multistory building had to be supported principally by the strength of its walls. The taller the building, the more strain this placed on the lower sections of the building; since there were clear engineering limits to the weight such "load-bearing" walls could sustain, large designs meant massively thick walls on the ground floors, and definite limits on the building's height.


The development of cheap, versatile steel in the second half of the 19th century changed those rules. By assembling a framework of steel girders, architects and builders could suddenly create tall, slender buildings with a strong and relatively delicate steel skeleton. The rest of the building's elements - the walls, floors, ceilings, and windows - were suspended from the steel, which carried the weight. This new way of constructing buildings, so-called "column-frame" construction, pushed them up rather than out. The steel weight-bearing frame allowed not just taller buildings, but permitted much larger windows, which meant more daylight reaching interior spaces. Interior walls became thinner, which created more usable floor space.


Chicago's Monadnock Building (which was not designed by Sullivan) literally straddles this remarkable moment of transition: the northern half of the building, finished in 1891, is of load-bearing construction, while the southern half, finished only two years later, is column-frame. (While experiments in this new technology were taking place in many cities, Chicago was the crucial laboratory. Industrial capital and civic pride drove a surge of new construction throughout the city's downtown in the wake of the 1871 fire.) The Monadnock Building is a historic skyscraper in the Loop district of downtown Chicago, Illinois. ...


The technical limits of weight-bearing masonry had always imposed formal as well as structural constraints; those constraints were suddenly gone. None of the historical precedents were any help, and this new freedom created a kind of technical and stylistic crisis.


Sullivan was the first to cope with that crisis. He addressed it by embracing the changes that came with the steel frame, creating a grammar of form for the high rise (base, shaft, and pediment), simplifying the appearance of the building by breaking away from historical styles, using his own intricate flora designs, in vertical bands, to draw the eye upwards and emphasize the building's verticality, and relating the shape of the building to its specific purpose. All this was revolutionary, appealingly honest, and commercially successful.


Louis Sullivan is credited with coining the phrase "form follows function," which would become the great battle-cry of modernist architects. This credo, which placed the demands of practical use above aesthetics, would later be taken by influential designers to imply that decorative elements, which architects call "ornament," were superfluous in modern buildings. But Sullivan himself neither thought nor designed along such dogmatic lines during the peak of his career. Indeed, while his buildings could be spare and crisp in their principal masses, he often punctuated their plain surfaces with eruptions of lush Art Nouveau and something like Celtic Revival decorations, usually cast in iron or terra cotta, and ranging from organic forms like vines and ivy, to more geometric designs, and interlace, inspired by his Irish design heritage. Terra cotta is lighter and easier to work with than stone masonry. Sullivan used it in his architecture because it had a malleability that was appropriate for his ornament. Probably the most famous example is the writhing green ironwork that covers the entrance canopies of the Carson Pirie Scott store on South State Street. These ornaments, often executed by the talented younger draftsman in Sullivan's employ, would eventually become Sullivan's trademark; to students of architecture, they are his instantly-recognizable signature. Form follows function is a principle associated with Modern architecture and industrial design in the 20th Century, which states that the shape of a building or object should be predicated on its intended purpose. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ...


Another signature element of Sullivan's work is the massive, semi-circular arch. Sullivan employed such arches throuighout his career - in shaping entrances, in framing windows, or as interior design.


All of these elements can be found in Sullivan's widely-admired breakthrough work, the Guaranty Building which he designed while partnered with Adler. The 1895 office building in Buffalo, New York was visibly divided into three "zones" of design: a plain, wide-windowed base for the ground-level shops; the main office block, with vertical ribbons of masonry rising unimpeded across nine upper floors to emphasize the building's height; and an ornamented cornice perforated by round windows at the roof level, where the building's mechanical units (like the elevator motors) were housed. The cornice crawls with Sullivan's trademark Art Nouveau vines; each ground-floor entrance is topped by a semi-circular arch. Prudential (Guaranty) Building. ...


Because of Sullivan's remarkable accomplishments in design and construction at such a critical point in architectural history, he has sometimes been described as the "father" of the American skyscraper. In truth, many architects had been building skyscrapers before or simultaneously with Sullivan. Chicago itself was replete with extraordinary designers and builders in the late years of the 19th century, including Dankmar Adler, Daniel Burnham, and John Wellborn Root. Root was one of the builders of the Monadnock Building (see above). That and another Root design, the Masonic Temple Tower (both in Chicago), are cited by many as the originators of skyscraper aesthetics of bearing wall and column-frame construction respectively. Daniel H. Burnham. ... John Wellborn Root (January 10, 1850 - January 15, 1891) was a significant U.S. architect who worked out of Chicago with Daniel Burnham. ...


It may be that Sullivan's prominence in skyscraper history can be credited not only to his brilliance, but in some degree to the myth-making skills of his disciple, Frank Lloyd Wright, and to the impact of Sullivan's own book, The Autobiography of an Idea. He may also owe some of his legend to the tragic tint of his later years, which lend this great innovator's story a poignancy which has captured the imagination of student and historian alike.


Later Career and Decline

In 1890 Sullivan was one of the ten architects, five from the Eastern US and five from the Western US, chosen to build a major structure for the "White City", the World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893. Sullivan's massive Transportation Building and huge arched "Golden Door" stood out as the only forward-looking design in a sea of Beaux-Arts historical copies, and the only gorgeously multicolored facade in the White City. Sullivan and fair director Daniel Burnham were vocal about their displeasure with each other. Sullivan was later (1922) to claim that the fair set the course of American architecture back "for half a century from its date, if not longer." (Autobiography of an Idea, p. 325) His was the only building to receive extensive recognition outside America, receiving three medals from the Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs the following year. One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... See also: 1892 in architecture, other events of 1893, 1894 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... Daniel H. Burnham. ...


Adler and Sullivan broke their partnership after the Guaranty Building. By both temperament and connections, Adler had always been the one who brought in new business to the partnership, and after the rupture Sullivan went into a twenty-year-long financial and emotional decline, beset by a shortage of commissions, chronic financial problems and alcoholism. He obtained a few commissions for small-town Midwestern banks (see below), wrote books, and in 1922 appeared as a critic of Raymond Hood's winning entry for the Tribune Tower competition, a steel-frame tower dressed in Gothic stonework that Sullivan found a shameful piece of historicism. He and his former understudy Frank Lloyd Wright reconciled in time for Wright to help fund Sullivan's funeral after he died, poor and alone, in a Chicago hotel room on April 14, 1924. A modest headstone marks his final resting spot in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago's Uptown neighborhood. Only yards away from his resting-place, some of Chicago's lesser-known but much wealthier dead are entombed in handsome and distinctive tombs designed by Sullivan himself. A monument (shown) was later erected in Sullivan's honor, a few feet from his headstone. Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Raymond M. Hood (March 29, 1881 - August 14, 1934) was an early-mid twentieth century architect who worked in the Art Deco style. ... The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gothic Revival architecture. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Graceland Cemetery is a large Victorian-era cemetery located in the north side community area of Uptown, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. Established in 1860, its main entrance is at Clark and Irving Park. ... Skyline of Uptown, looking northeast Uptown is a diverse neighborhood located north of Chicagos downtown. ...

Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Sullivan's legacy is contradictory. He is the first modernist. His stripped-down, technology-driven, forward-looking designs clearly anticipate the issues and solutions of Modernism. In his last years, Sullivan seemed willing to abandon ornament altogether in favor of honest massing. But to experience Sullivan's built work is to experience the irresistible appeal of his incredible designs, the vertical bands on the Wainwright Building, the burst of welcoming Art Nouveau ironwork on the corner entrance of the Carson Pirie Scott store, the (lost) terra cotta griffins and porthole windows on the Union Trust building, the white angels of the Bayard Building. Except for some designs by his long time draftsman George Grant Elmslie, and the occasional tribute to Sullivan such as Schmidt, Garden & Martin's First National Bank in Pueblo, Colorado (built across the street from Adler and Sullivan's Pueblo Opera House), his style is unique. A visit to the preserved Chicago Stock Exchange trading floor, now at The Art Institute of Chicago, is proof of the immediate and visceral power of the ornament that he used so selectively. Original drawings and other archival materials from Sullivan are held by The Art Institute of Chicago and by the Drawings and Archives Department in the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University. Fragments of Sullivan buildings are also held in many fine art and design museums around the world. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (703x1003, 607 KB) photos by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 19:28, 11 November 2006 (UTC). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (703x1003, 607 KB) photos by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 19:28, 11 November 2006 (UTC). ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... The Bayard-Condict Building, originally known simply as the Bayard Building, is one of the many works of architect Louis Sullivan. ... George Grant Elmslie (February 20, 1871 - April 23, 1952) was an American, though born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Prairie School architect whose work is mostly found in the Midwestern United States. ... The City of Pueblo (IPA: //) is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Pueblo County, Colorado, USA. Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... On the western edge of Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois, is the Art Institute of Chicago, one of the premier art museums and schools in the United States, known especially for the extensive collection of impressionist and American art in its museum. ... On the western edge of Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois, is the Art Institute of Chicago, one of the premier art museums and schools in the United States, known especially for the extensive collection of impressionist and American art in its museum. ... The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library is part of Columbia Universitys library system. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


Preservation

During the postwar era of urban renewal, Sullivan's works fell into disfavor, and many were demolished. In the 70's growing public concern for these buildings finally resulted in many being saved. The most vocal voice was Richard Nickel, who even held one-man protests of demolitions. Nickel and others sometimes rescued decorative elements from condemned buildings, sneaking in during demolition. This practice led to Nickel's death inside Sullivan's Stock Exchange building, when a floor above him collapsed. 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicagos now demolished Cabrini-Green housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts. ... Richard Nickel (1928-1972) was a photographer and historian who, during the 1960s and 1970s, attempted to preserve the work of Louis Sullivan as well as other 19th Century American architects (most from the Prairie School) by photographing their buildings, protesting their demolition, and (if the latter didnt work...


Selected projects

Transportation Building, Chicago 1893-94

Buildings through 1895 are by Adler & Sullivan. Columbian Gallery – A Portfolio of Photographs of the World’s Fair, The Werner Company, Chicago 1894 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Columbian Gallery – A Portfolio of Photographs of the World’s Fair, The Werner Company, Chicago 1894 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Wainwright Tomb
Wainwright Tomb
  • Union Trust Building (now 705 Olive), St. Louis (1893; street-level ornament heavily altered 1924)
  • Guaranty Building (formerly Prudential Building), Buffalo (1894)
  • Bayard Building, (now Bayard-Condict Building), 65–69 Bleecker Street, New York City (1898). Sullivan's only building in New York, with a glazed terra cotta curtain wall expressing the steel structure behind it.
  • Carson Pirie Scott store, Chicago (1899)
  • Van Allen Building, Clinton, Iowa (1914)
  • Krause Music Store, Chicago (final commission 1922)

Graceland Cemetery is a large Victorian-era cemetery located in the north side community area of Uptown, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. Established in 1860, its main entrance is at Clark and Irving Park. ... The Auditorium Building in Chicago The Auditorium Building in Chicago, Illinois is one of the best-known designs of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. ... Front entrance The Carrie Eliza Getty Tomb, located in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, Illinois, was commissioned in 1890 by the lumber magnate, Henry Harrison Getty, for his wife, Carrie Eliza. ... Wainwright Building The Wainwright Building is a 10-story red-brick landmark office building in downtown St. ... Bellefontaine Cemetery (established in 1849) and the Roman Catholic Calvary Cemetery (established in 1857) in St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (990 × 660 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Einar einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 02:56, 22 December 2006 (UTC) of Louis Sullivans Wainright Mausoleum in St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (990 × 660 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Einar einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 02:56, 22 December 2006 (UTC) of Louis Sullivans Wainright Mausoleum in St. ... Prudential (Guaranty) Building. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... The Bayard-Condict Building, originally known simply as the Bayard Building, is one of the many works of architect Louis Sullivan. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Elmslea Chambers in Goulburn, New South Wales, Australia - built in 1933, it was one of the first buildings in Australia to use coloured polychrome terracotta in its façade which features a fine relief of birds, flowers, leaves and typical Art Deco sunbursts under the windows. ... Carson Pirie Scott, downtown Chicago The Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building is a landmark department store building at State Street and Madison, Chicago, Illinois. ... The Van Allen Building, A National Historic Landmark The Van Allen Building is a four story building in Clinton, Iowa designed by Louis Sullivan and commissioned by John Delbert Van Allen (October 5, 1850-December 30, 1928). ... View of downtown Clinton looking north Downtown Clinton closeup Alliant Energy Field Clinton Municipal Pool & Tennis Courts Mississippi Belle II Casino & Clinton Showboat Theater Clinton is a city in Clinton County, Iowa, United States. ... The Krause Music Store, the last commission by architect Louis Sullivan, is a two-story building located at 4611 N. Lincoln Avenue in the Lincoln Square business district of Chicago. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...

The banks

A portion of the National Farmer's Bank's west face, Owatonna, Minnesota (1908)
A portion of the National Farmer's Bank's west face, Owatonna, Minnesota (1908)

By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, Sullivan's star was well on the descent and for the remainder of his life his output consisted primarily of a series of small bank and commercial buildings in the Midwest. Yet a look at these buildings clearly reveals that Sullivan's muse had not abandoned him. When the director of a bank that was considering hiring him asked Sullivan why they should engage him at a cost higher than the bids received for a conventional Neo-Classic styled building from other architects, Sullivan is reported to have replied, "A thousand architects could design those buildings. Only I can design this one." He got the job. Today these commissions are collectively referred to as Sullivan's "Jewel Boxes." All are still standing. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 630 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by myself, Thomas P. Shearer October 7, 2006 detailing the West elevation of Louis Sullivans National Farmers Bank (Makes a nice wallpaper image). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 630 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by myself, Thomas P. Shearer October 7, 2006 detailing the West elevation of Louis Sullivans National Farmers Bank (Makes a nice wallpaper image). ... The National Farmers Bank of Owatonna, Minnesota is a Prairie School bank designed by Louis Sullivan and George Elmslie. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ...

The National Farmers Bank of Owatonna, Minnesota is a Prairie School bank designed by Louis Sullivan and George Elmslie. ... The Owatonna Power Plant is a city landmark. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... The Peoples Savings Bank, located at 101 3rd Avenue, SW, was a building was designed by Louis Sullivan in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country State County Linn Incorporated 1849 Government  - Mayor Kay Halloran Area  - City 166. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... The Henry Adams Building, located in Algona, Iowa, was designed by Louis Sullivan in 1912. ... Algona is a city in Kossuth County, Iowa, in the United States. ... Merchants National Bank (1914) building is located at 833 Fourth Street in Grinnell, Iowa. ... Merchants National Bank, architect Louis Sullivan. ... The Home Building Association Company building was designed by Louis Sullivan and is located in Newark, Ohio. ... Newark is a city in Licking County, Ohio, 33 miles (53 km) east of Columbus, at the junction of the forks of the Licking River. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Chauncey Village area of West Lafayette West Lafayette (IPA: ) is a city in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, United States, 65 miles (105km) northwest of Indianapolis. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Unusual architecture of the 1918 Thrift Building, home to the Peoples Federal Savings and Loan. ... Sidney is a city in Shelby County, Ohio, United States. ... Columbus is a city in south-central Wisconsin. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked...

Lost Sullivans

Entrance from the 1893 Chicago Stock Exchange building, reinstalled at The Art Institute of Chicago
Entrance from the 1893 Chicago Stock Exchange building, reinstalled at The Art Institute of Chicago
  • Grand Opera House, Chicago. 1880–1927
  • Pueblo Opera House, Pueblo, Colorado. 1890–1922. Destroyed by fire.
  • New Orleans Union Station, 1892. Demolished 1954.
  • Chicago Stock Exchange Building. Adler & Sullivan. 1893–1972
The Trading Room from the Stock Exchange was removed intact prior to the building's demolition and was subsequently restored in the Art Institute of Chicago in 1977; the entryway arch (seen at right) stands outside on the northeast corner of the AIC site.
  • Zion Temple, Chicago. 1884–?
  • Transportation Building, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago. Adler & Sullivan. 1893–94. An exposition building, it was only built to last a year.
  • Louis Sullivan Bungalow, destroyed in Hurricane Katrina. Frank Lloyd Wright also claimed credit for the design.
  • Schiller Building (later Garrick Theater), Chicago. Adler & Sullivan. 1891–1961.
  • Third McVickers Theater, Chicago. Adler & Sullivan. 1883?–1922.
  • Thirty-Ninth Street Passenger Station, Chicago. Adler & Sullivan. 1886–1934.
  • Standard Club, Chicago. Adler & Sullivan. 1888–1910.
  • Pilgrim Baptist Church. Adler & Sullivan. 1891–2006. Destroyed by fire, Jan. 6.
  • Wirt Dexter Building. Adler & Sullivan. 1887–2006. Destroyed by fire, Oct. 24.
  • George Harvey House. Adler & Sullivan. 1888–2006. Destroyed by fire, Nov. 4.

Former entrance to the Chicago Stock Exchange designed by Louis Sullivan. ... Former entrance to the Chicago Stock Exchange designed by Louis Sullivan. ... New Orleans Union Station was designed by Louis H. Sullivan for the Illinois Central Railroad. ... The Art Institute of Chicago is a fine art museum located in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Louis Sullivan Bungalow was a vacation home for noted architect Louis Sullivan on the Gulf Coast in Ocean Springs, Mississippi. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... from the Columbia College Bronzeville Project Pilgrim Baptist Church was a historic church located on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. ... The Dexter Building under demolition following the fire. ...

Images

See also

Richard W. Bock (1865-1949) was a American sculptor and associate of Frank Lloyd Wright. ...

References

  1. ^ Hugh Morrison, Louis Sullivan: Prophet of Modern Architecture (New York: Norton, 1998), 2.

Sources

  • Columbian Gallery – A Portfolio of Photographs of the World’s Fair, The Werner Company, Chicago, IL, 1894.
  • Condit, Carl W., The Chicago School of Architecture, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1964.
  • Connely, Willard, Louis Sullivan as He Lived, Horizon Press, Inc., NY, 1960.
  • Engelbrecht, Lloyd C., "Adler and Sullivan’s Pueblo Opera House: City Status for a New Town in the Rockies", The Art Bulletin, Published by the College Art Association of America, June 1985.
  • Gebhard, David, in Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, May 1960.
  • Morrison, Hugh, Louis Sullivan – Prophet of Modern Architecture, W.W. Norton & Co., Inc. New York City, 1963.
  • Sullivan, Louis, The Autobiography of an Idea, Press of the American institute of Architects, Inc., New York City, 1924.
  • Sullivan, Louis, Kindergarten Chats and Other Writings, Dover Publications, Inc., New York City, 1979.
  • Sullivan, Louis H. Louis Sullivan: The Public Papers Ed. Robert Twombly, Chicago University Press, Chicago & London, 1988
  • Thomas, Cohen and Lewis, Frank Furness – The Complete Works, Princeton Architectural Press, New York City, 1991.
  • Twombly, Robert, Louis Sullivan – His Life and Work, Elizabeth Sifton Books, New York City, 1986.
  • Vinci, John, The Art Institute of Chicago: The Stock Exchange Trading Room, The Art Institute of Chicago, 1977.
  • Weingarden, Lauren S. "Louis H. Sullivan: A System of Architectural Ornament" [1924]. Co-published by the Art Institute of Chicago and Ernst Wasmuth Verlag (Germany); distributed by Rizzoli International (U.S.), Wasmuth (Germany), Mardaga (France), 1990.
  • Weingarden, Lauren S. "Louis H. Sullivan: The Banks". Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987.

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Louis Sullivan

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Experience | Chicago: City of the Century | People & Events (772 words)
Louis Henry Sullivan was born in Boston in 1856.
Sullivan was the first to realize that the new function of the walls required a new form.
Sullivan feared that his new architecture, which would eventually be known as the "Chicago School," was set back fifty years with the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893.
Louis Sullivan at The Art Institute of Chicago (1583 words)
Among Sullivan's contributions to the development of modern American architecture was the new aesthetic for the visual organization of tall buildings: a strong base at grade level, top floors capped with an eye-arresting cornice, and the general office floors in the central shaft repeatable ad infinitum.
Sullivan was one of the most prolific architect/critics of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and numerous draft manuscripts and typescripts of his writings are held in this collection.
The Chicago History Museum is leading a citywide celebration of Louis Sullivan beginning on the 150th anniversary of his birth, September 3, 2006, and culminating with an international symposium at the Museum on October 13, 14, and 15, 2006.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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