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Encyclopedia > Louis Riel
Louis Riel

Born October 22, 1844(1844-10-22)
Red River Colony, Rupert's Land
Died November 16, 1885 (aged 41)
Regina, District of Assiniboia
Spouse Marguerite Monet dit Bellehumeur (1881–1885)
Children Jean-Louis,
Marie-Angélique
Parents Louis Riel Sr.
Julie Lagimodière

Louis Riel (22 October 184416 November 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies.[1] He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government and its first post-Confederation Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. Riel sought to preserve Métis rights and culture as their homelands in the Northwest came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence. He is regarded by many as a Canadian folk hero today. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on 300,000 km² of land granted to him by the Hudsons Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. ... This article is about the trading territory. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Floreat Regina (Let Regina Flourish) Location of Regina in the SE quadrant of Saskatchewan Coordinates: , Country Province District Municipality of Sherwood Established 1882 Government  - City Mayor Pat Fiacco  - Governing body Regina City Council  - MPs Dave Batters Ralph Goodale Tom Lukiwski Andrew Scheer  - MLAs Ron Harper Bill Hutchinson Warren... The District of Assiniboia was a regional administrative district of Canadas Northwest Territories. ... Louis Riel Sr. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, mixed-bloods, Countryborn (or Anglo-Métis), are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... System of government Canada is a constitutional monarchy as a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ... A folk hero is type of hero, real or mythological. ...


The first resistance was the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870.[2] The provisional government established by Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which the modern province of Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation.[3] Riel was forced into exile in the United States as a result of the controversial execution of Thomas Scott during the rebellion.[4] Despite this, he is frequently referred to as the "Father of Manitoba".[5] While a fugitive, he was elected three times to the Canadian House of Commons, although he never assumed his seat. During these years, he was frustrated by having to remain in exile despite his growing belief that he was a divinely chosen leader and prophet, a belief which would later resurface and influence his actions. He married in 1881 while in exile in Montana, and fathered two children. The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are the names given to the events surrounding the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Thomas Scott Thomas Scott (c. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... Divine Right is a comic book created by Jim Lee and published by Wildstorm. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Riel returned to what is now the province of Saskatchewan to represent Métis grievances to the Canadian government. This resistance escalated into a military confrontation known as the North-West Rebellion of 1885. It ended in his arrest, trial, and execution on a charge of high treason. Riel was viewed sympathetically in francophone regions of Canada, and his execution had a lasting influence on relations between the province of Quebec and English-speaking Canada. Whether seen as a Father of Confederation or a traitor, he remains one of the most complex, controversial, and ultimately tragic figures in the history of Canada.[6] For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... wwwww Combatants Dominion of Canada • Métis Provisional Government •Cree–Assiniboine Natives Commanders Leif Crozier Frederick Middleton William Otter Thomas Bland Strange Sam Steele Big Bear Fine-Day Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Wandering Spirit The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a... The Treason Act 1351 is an Act of the English Parliament which attempted to codify all existing forms of Treason. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ...

Contents

Early life

Louis Riel, age 14
Louis Riel, age 14

The Red River Settlement was a community in Rupert's Land nominally administered by the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), and largely inhabited by First Nations tribes and the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed Cree, Ojibwa, Saulteaux, French Canadian, Scottish, and English descent.[7] Louis Riel was born there in 1844, near modern Winnipeg, Manitoba, to Louis Riel Sr. and Julie Lagimodière. Louis Riel, age 14, prior to his departure to Montreal in 1858. ... Louis Riel, age 14, prior to his departure to Montreal in 1858. ... The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on 300,000 km² of land granted to him by the Hudsons Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. ... This article is about the trading territory. ... Hbc redirects here. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... This article is about the native North American people. ... The Saulteaux are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, Canada. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ... Louis Riel Sr. ...


Riel was the eldest of eleven children in a locally well-respected French Canadian-Métis family.[8] His father had gained prominence in this community by organizing a group that supported Guillaume Sayer, a Métis imprisoned for challenging the HBC's historical trade monopoly.[9] Sayer's eventual release as a result of agitations by Louis Sr.'s group effectively ended the monopoly, and the name Riel was therefore well known in the Red River area. His mother was the daughter of Jean-Baptiste Lagimodière and Marie-Anne Gaboury, one of the earliest white families to settle in the Red River Settlement in 1812. The Riels were noted for their devout Catholicism and strong family ties.[10] Pierre Guillaume Sayer (c. ... Jean-Baptiste Lagimodière (25 December 1778 – 7 September 1855) was a French Canadian trapper employed in the fur trade by the Hudsons Bay Company in Ruperts Land. ... Meeting of Marie-Anne and Jean-Baptiste Lagimodière with First Nations people, c. ... Whites redirects here. ...


Riel was first educated by Roman Catholic priests at St. Boniface. At age 13 he came to the attention of Alexandre Taché, the suffragan Bishop of St. Boniface, who was eagerly promoting the priesthood for talented young Métis. In 1858 Taché arranged for Riel to attend the Petit Séminaire of the Collège de Montréal in Montreal, Quebec under the direction of the Sulpician order.[11] Descriptions of him at the time indicate that he was a fine scholar of languages, science, and philosophy, but exhibited a frequent and unpredictable moodiness.[12] Catholic Church redirects here. ... St. ... Alexandre-Antonin Taché circa 1890 Alexandre-Antonin Taché (23 July 1823 – 22 June 1894) was a Roman catholic priest, missionary of the Oblate order, author and the first Archbishop of Saint Boniface, Manitoba. ... A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop. ... The Collège de Montréal is a secondary school for students attending grades 7–11 located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Society of Saint-Sulpice (Latin: ) is a Catholic Society of Apostolic Life. ...


Following news of his father's premature death in 1864, Riel lost interest in the priesthood and he withdrew from the college in March 1865. For a time he continued his studies as a day student in the convent of the Grey Nuns, but was soon asked to leave following breaches of discipline. He remained in Montreal over a year, living at the home of his aunt, Lucie Riel. Impoverished by the death of his father, Riel took employment as a law clerk in the Montreal office of Rodolphe Laflamme.[13] During this time he was involved in a failed romance with a young woman named Marie-Julie Guernon.[14] This progressed to the point of Riel having signed a contract of marriage, but his fiancée's family opposed her involvement with a Métis, and the engagement was soon broken. Compounding this disappointment, Riel found legal work unpleasant, and by early 1866 he had resolved to leave Quebec.[15] Some of his friends said later that he worked odd jobs in Chicago, Illinois while staying with poet Louis-Honoré Fréchette, and wrote poems himself in the manner of Lamartine; also that he was then for a time employed as a clerk in St. Paul, Minnesota prior to returning to the Red River Settlement on July 26, 1868.[16] This religion article needs to be wikified. ... Rodolphe Laflamme Toussaint-Antoine-Rodolphe Laflamme (15 May 1827 – 7 December 1893), was a French-Canadian lawyer, professor of law and politician. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Louis-Honoré Fréchette Louis-Honoré Fréchette, (November 16, 1839 – May 31, 1908), poet, playwright, and short story writer born in Lévis, Québec, Canada. ... Alphonse de Lamartine (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician. ... State capitol building in Saint Paul Saint Paul is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Minnesota in the United States of America. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Red River Rebellion

Main article: Red River Rebellion

The majority population of the Red River had historically been Métis and First Nation people. But upon his return, Riel found that religious, nationalistic, and racial tensions were exacerbated by an influx of Anglophone Protestant settlers from Ontario. The political situation was also uncertain, as ongoing negotiations for the transfer of Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company to Canada had not addressed the political terms of transfer. Finally, despite warnings to the Macdonald government from Bishop Taché[17] and the HBC governor William Mactavish that any such activity would precipitate unrest, the Canadian minister of public works, William McDougall, ordered a survey of the area. The arrival on August 20, 1869 of a survey party headed by Colonel John Stoughton Dennis[18] increased anxiety among the Métis. The Métis did not possess title to their land, which was in any case laid out according to the seigneurial system rather than in English-style square lots.[19] The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are the names given to the events surrounding the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... William Mactavish, circa 1860s William Mactavish or McTavish (29 March 1815 – 23 July 1870) was a Scottish-born representative of the Hudsons Bay Company, who acted as governor of Ruperts Land and Assiniboia prior to the transfer of Ruperts Land to Canada and the creation of the... William McDougall William McDougall, C.B. (January 25, 1822 – May 29, 1905) was a Canadian lawyer, politician and one of the Fathers of Confederation. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... John Stoughton Dennis, circa 1914 Colonel John Stoughton Dennis (19 October 1820 – 7 July 1885) was a Canadian surveyor, officer of the Canadian militia, and civil servant noted for his role in precipitating the Red River Rebellion by his 1869 surveys of the Red River Settlement. ... The seigneurial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land distribution used in the colonies of New France. ...


Riel emerges as a leader

In late August, Riel denounced the survey in a speech, and on October 11, 1869, the survey's work was disrupted by a group of Métis that included Riel. This group organized itself as the "Métis National Committee" on October 16, with Riel as secretary and John Bruce as president.[20] When summoned by the HBC-controlled Council of Assiniboia to explain his actions, Riel declared that any attempt by Canada to assume authority would be contested unless Ottawa had first negotiated terms with the Métis. Nevertheless, the non-bilingual McDougall was appointed the lieutenant governor-designate, and attempted to enter the settlement on November 2. McDougall's party was turned back near the American border, and on the same day, Métis led by Riel seized Fort Garry.[21] is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Bruce c. ... The Council of Assiniboia was from 1821 until 1870 the appointed administrative body of Ruperts Land. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Upper Fort Garry in the early 1870s Fort Garry also known as Upper Fort Garry was a Hudsons Bay Company trading post at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in what is now downtown Winnipeg. ...


On November 6, Riel invited Anglophones to attend a convention alongside Métis representatives to discuss a course of action, and on December 1 he proposed to this convention a list of rights to be demanded as a condition of union. Much of the settlement came to accept the Métis point of view, but a passionately pro-Canadian minority began organizing in opposition. Loosely constituted as the Canadian Party, this group was led by John Christian Schultz,[22] Charles Mair,[23] Colonel John Stoughton Dennis,[24] and a more reticent Major Charles Boulton.[25] McDougall attempted to assert his authority by authorizing Dennis to raise a contingent of armed men, but the Anglophone settlers largely ignored this call to arms. Schultz, however, attracted approximately fifty recruits and fortified his house and store. Riel ordered Schultz's home surrounded, and the outnumbered Canadians soon surrendered and were imprisoned in Upper Fort Garry. is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Party was a group founded by John Christian Schultz in 1869, in the Red River settlement (which later became the Canadian province of Manitoba). ... John Christian Schultz Sir John Christian Schultz, KCMG (January 1, 1840 – April 13, 1896) was a Manitoba politician. ... Charles Mair Charles Mair (1838 or 1840 – 1927) was a Canadian poet and fervent nationalist noted for his organisation of the Canada First movement and his role opposing the provisional government of Louis Riel during the Red River Rebellion of 1869 – 1870 and during the North-West Rebellion of 1885. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Lieutenant Colonel Charles A. Boulton, 1885. ... Upper Fort Garry in the early 1870s Fort Garry also known as Upper Fort Garry was a Hudsons Bay Company trading post at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in what is now downtown Winnipeg. ...


Provisional government

The Métis provisional government
The Métis provisional government

Hearing of the unrest, Ottawa sent three emissaries to the Red River, including HBC representative Donald Alexander Smith.[26] While they were en route, the Métis National Committee declared a provisional government on December 8, with Riel becoming its president on December 27.[27] Meetings between Riel and the Ottawa delegation took place on January 5 and 6, 1870, but when these proved fruitless, Smith chose to present his case in a public forum. Smith assured large audiences of the Government's goodwill in meetings on January 19 and January 20, leading Riel to propose the formation of a new convention split evenly between French and English settlers to consider Smith's instructions. On February 7, a new list of rights was presented to the Ottawa delegation, and Smith and Riel agreed to send representatives to Ottawa to engage in direct negotiations on that basis.[28] Councillors of the provisional government of the Métis Nation put in place during the Red River Rebellion of 1869 – 1870, Manitoba (Front row, L-R): Robert OLone, Paul Proulx (Centre row, L-R): Pierre Poitras, John Bruce, Louis Riel, William Bernard ODonoghue, François Dauphinais (Rear row, L-R... Councillors of the provisional government of the Métis Nation put in place during the Red River Rebellion of 1869 – 1870, Manitoba (Front row, L-R): Robert OLone, Paul Proulx (Centre row, L-R): Pierre Poitras, John Bruce, Louis Riel, William Bernard ODonoghue, François Dauphinais (Rear row, L-R... Hbc redirects here. ... Donald Alexander Smith Donald Alexander Smith (August 6, 1820 – January 21, 1914) was a Scottish born Canadian fur trader, financier, railroad baron and politician. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Canadian resistance and the execution of Scott

Despite the apparent progress on the political front, the Canadian party continued to plot against the provisional government. However, they suffered a setback on February 17, when forty eight men, including Boulton and Thomas Scott, were apprehended near Fort Garry. is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Scott Thomas Scott (c. ...

The execution of Thomas Scott
The execution of Thomas Scott

Boulton was tried by a tribunal headed by Ambroise-Dydime Lépine and sentenced to death for his interference with the provisional government.[29] He was pardoned, but Scott interpreted this as weakness on the part of the Métis, whom he regarded with open contempt. After Scott repeatedly quarreled with his guards, they insisted that he be tried for insubordination. At his trial, he was found guilty of defying the authority of the provisional government and was sentenced to death. Riel was repeatedly entreated to commute the sentence, but Donald Smith reported that Riel responded to his pleas by saying: The execution of Thomas Scott, 4 March 1870. ... The execution of Thomas Scott, 4 March 1870. ... Ambroise-Dydime Lépine Ambroise-Dydime Lépine (18 March 1840 – 8 June 1923) was a military leader of the Métis under the command of Louis Riel during the Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ...

I have done three good things since I have commenced: I have spared Boulton's life at your instance, I pardoned Gaddy, and now I shall shoot Scott.[30]

Scott was executed by firing squad on March 4.[31] Riel's motivations for allowing the execution have been the cause of much speculation, but his own justification was that he felt it necessary to demonstrate to the Canadians that the Métis must be taken seriously. The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Creation of Manitoba and the Wolseley expedition

The delegates representing the provisional government departed for Ottawa in March. Although they initially met with legal difficulties arising from the execution of Scott, they were soon able to enter into direct talks with Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier.[32] An agreement enshrining the demands in the list of rights was quickly reached, and this formed the basis for the Manitoba Act[33] of May 12, 1870, which formally admitted Manitoba into the Canadian confederation. However, the negotiators were unable to secure a general amnesty for the provisional government. Hon. ... The Manitoba Act was an Act of the Parliament of Canada, and was given Royal Assent on May 12, 1870. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As a means of exercising Canadian authority in the settlement and dissuading American expansionists, a Canadian military expedition under Colonel Garnet Wolseley was dispatched to the Red River.[34] Although the government described it as an "errand of peace", Riel learned that Canadian militia elements in the expedition meant to lynch him, and he fled as the expedition approached the Red River. The arrival of the expedition on August 20 marked the effective end of the Red River Rebellion. This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... Field Marshal Lord Wolseley The Wolseley Expedition was a troop movement authorized by Sir John A. Macdonald to confront Louis Riel and the Métis in 1870, during the Red River Rebellion, at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... 1882 caricature from Punch Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley of Cairo, (June 4, 1833 - March 26, 1913) was a British field marshal. ... From the founding of new France until the establishment of a professional Canadian army the colonial militia played an extremely important role in the defence of Canada. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Intervening years

Amnesty question

It was not until September 2, 1870 that the new lieutenant-governor Adams George Archibald arrived and set about the establishment of civil government.[35] In the absence of an amnesty, and with the Canadian militia beating and intimidating his sympathisers, Riel fled to the safety of the St. Joseph's mission across the border in the Dakota Territory. However the results of the first provincial election in December 1870 were promising for Riel, as many of his supporters came to power. Nevertheless, stress and financial troubles precipitated a serious illness—perhaps a harbinger of his future mental afflictions—that prevented his return to Manitoba until May 1871. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Adams George Archibald The Honourable Sir Adams George Archibald, KCB , PC (May 3, 1814 – December 14, 1892) was a Canadian lawyer and politician, and a father of Confederation. ... Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ...

Louis Riel circa 1875
Louis Riel circa 1875

The settlement now faced another threat, this time from cross-border Fenian raids coordinated by his former associate William Bernard O'Donoghue.[36] While the threat proved overstated, Archibald proclaimed a general call to arms on October 4. Companies of armed horsemen were raised, including one led by Riel. When Archibald reviewed the troops in St. Boniface, he made the significant gesture of publicly shaking Riel's hand, signaling that a rapprochement had been effected. But this was not to be—when this news reached Ontario, Mair and members of the Canada First movement whipped up a significant resurgence of anti-Riel (and anti-Archibald) sentiment. With Federal elections coming in 1872, Macdonald could ill afford further rift in Quebec-Ontario relations. He therefore quietly arranged for Taché to offer Riel what amounted to a bribe of $1,000 to enter voluntary exile. This was supplemented by an additional £600 from Smith for the care of Riel's family. Riel accepted, arriving in St. Paul on March 2, 1872. However, by late June Riel was back in Manitoba and was soon convinced to run as a member of parliament for the electoral district of Provencher. However, following the early September defeat of Cartier in his home riding in Quebec, Riel stood aside so that Cartier—on record as being in favour of amnesty for Riel—might secure a seat. Cartier won by acclamation, but Riel's hopes for a swift resolution to the amnesty question were dashed following Cartier's death on May 20, 1873. In the ensuing by-election in October 1873, Riel ran unopposed as an Independent, although he had once again fled, a warrant having been issued for his arrest in September. Lépine was not so lucky; he was captured and faced trial. Riel made his way to Montreal and, fearing arrest or assassination, vacillated as to whether he should attempt to take up his seat in the House of CommonsEdward Blake, the Premier of Ontario, had announced a bounty of $5,000 for his arrest.[37] Famously, Riel was the only Member of Parliament who was not present for the great Pacific Scandal debate of 1873 that led to the resignation of the Macdonald government in November. Liberal leader Alexander Mackenzie became the interim prime minister, and a general election was held in January 1874. Although the Liberals under Mackenzie formed the new government, Riel easily retained his seat. Formally, Riel had to sign a register book at least once upon being elected, and he did so under disguise in late January. He was nevertheless stricken from the rolls following a motion supported by Schultz, who had become the member for the electoral district of Lisgar.[38] Download high resolution version (443x640, 52 KB)Louis Riel circa 1875 Credit: Library and Archives Canada / PA-139073 Retrieved from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (443x640, 52 KB)Louis Riel circa 1875 Credit: Library and Archives Canada / PA-139073 Retrieved from http://www. ... The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish nationalist organization based in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. ... W.B. ODonoghue in 1870 William Bernard ODonoghue (1843 – 16 March 1878) was an Irish-American noted as having been the treasurer in the provisional government established by Louis Riel at the Red River Settlement during the Red River Rebellion of 1869 – 1870. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canada First movement was organized in Toronto in the 1870s to promote the creation of a Canadian nationality in the new country. ... . This coin features a red-coloured poppy embedded in the centre of a maple leaf above a banner reading Remember - Souvenir. The mint claims that this is the first colour coin in circulation in the world. ... GBP redirects here. ... State capitol building in Saint Paul Saint Paul is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Minnesota in the United States of America. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Provencher is the name of a federal electoral district in Manitoba, Canada. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... Dominick Edward Blake, PC, QC (October 13, 1833 – March 1, 1912), (known as Edward Blake) was Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1871 to 1872 and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1880 to 1887. ... The Premier of Ontario is the first minister for the Canadian province of Ontario. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Pacific scandal involves the allegations of bribes being taken by Canadas Conservative government of Sir John A. Macdonald. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Lisgar was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Manitoba. ...


Undeterred, Riel prevailed once again in the resulting by-election, and although once again expelled, his symbolic point had been made and public opinion in Quebec was strongly tipped in his favour.


Exile and mental illness

During this period, Riel had been staying with priests of the Oblate order in Plattsburgh, New York who introduced him to Father Fabien Martin dit Barnabé in the nearby village of Keeseville. It was here that he received news of Lépine's fate: following his trial for the murder of Scott, which had begun on October 13, 1874, Lépine was found guilty and sentenced to death. This sparked outrage in the sympathetic Quebec press, and calls for amnesty for both Lépine and Riel were renewed. This presented a severe political difficulty for Mackenzie, who was hopelessly caught between the demands of Quebec and Ontario. However, a solution was forthcoming when, acting on his own initiative, the Governor General Lord Dufferin commuted Lépine's sentence in January 1875. This opened the door for Mackenzie to secure from parliament an amnesty for Riel, on that the condition that he remain in exile for five years.[6] Plattsburgh is a town in Clinton County, New York, USA. The population was 11,190 at the 2000 census. ... This article is about the state. ... Keeseville is a village in both Clinton County, New York and in Essex County, New York in the USA. The population was 1,850 at the 2000 census. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Lord Dufferin as a young man Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (21 June 1826–12 February 1902) was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. ...


During his time of exile, he was primarily concerned with religious rather than political matters. Spurred on by a sympathetic Roman Catholic priest in Quebec, he was increasingly influenced by his belief that he was a divinely chosen leader of the Métis. Modern biographers have speculated that he may have suffered from the psychological condition megalomania.[39] His mental state deteriorated, and following a violent outburst he was taken to Montreal, where he was under the care of his uncle, John Lee, for a few months. But after Riel disrupted a religious service, Lee arranged to have him committed in an asylum in Longue-Pointe on March 6, 1876 under the assumed name "Louis R. David".[6] While he suffered from sporadic irrational outbursts, he continued his religious writing, composing theological tracts with an admixture of Christian and Judaic ideas. He consequently began calling himself Louis "David" Riel, prophet of the new world, and he would pray (standing) for hours, having servants help him to hold his arms in the shape of a cross. Nevertheless, he slowly recovered, and was released from the asylum on January 23, 1878[40] with an admonition to lead a quiet life. He returned for a time to Keeseville, where he became involved in a passionate romance with Evelina Martin dit Barnabé,[28] sister of his friend, the oblate father Fabien Barnabé. But with insufficient means to propose marriage, Riel returned to the west, hoping that she might follow. However, she decided that she would be unsuited to prairie life, and their correspondence soon ended. This article needs cleanup. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... This article is about the psychopathological condition. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Seal of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Montana and family life

Jean-Louis and Marie-Angélique Riel, children of Louis Riel
Jean-Louis and Marie-Angélique Riel, children of Louis Riel

In the fall of 1878, Riel returned to St. Paul, and briefly visited his friends and family. This was a time of rapid change for the Métis of the Red River—the buffalo on which they depended were becoming increasingly scarce, the influx of settlers was ever-increasing, and lots of land were sold to unscrupulous land speculators. Like other Red River Métis who had left Manitoba, Riel headed further west in order to start a new life. Travelling to the Montana Territory, he became a trader and interpreter in the area surrounding Fort Benton. Observing rampant alcoholism and its detrimental impact on the Native American and Métis people, he engaged in an unsuccessful attempt to curtail the whisky trade. In 1881, he married Marguerite Monet dit Bellehumeur (1861–1886),[41] a young Métis, "in the fashion of the country" on April 28, an arrangement that was solemnized on March 9, 1882. They were to have three children: Jean-Louis (1882–1908); Marie-Angélique (1883–1897); and a boy who was born and died on October 21, 1885, less than one month before Riel was hanged. Image File history File links Jean-LouisAndAngeliqueRiel. ... Image File history File links Jean-LouisAndAngeliqueRiel. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... The Montana Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1864 and 1889. ... Fort Benton is a city located in Chouteau County, Montana. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Riel soon became involved in the politics of Montana, and in 1882, actively campaigned on behalf of the Republican Party. He brought a suit against a Democrat for rigging a vote, but was then himself accused of fraudulently inducing British subjects to take part in the election. In response, Riel applied for United States citizenship and was naturalized on March 16, 1883.[42] With two young children, he had by 1884 settled down and was teaching school at the St. Peter's Jesuit mission in the Sun River district of Montana. GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The Sun River (also called the Medicine River) is a tributary of the Missouri River in the Great Plains, approximately 130 mi (209 km) long, in Montana in the United States. ...


The North-West Rebellion

Main article: North-West Rebellion

wwwww Combatants Dominion of Canada • Métis Provisional Government •Cree–Assiniboine Natives Commanders Leif Crozier Frederick Middleton William Otter Thomas Bland Strange Sam Steele Big Bear Fine-Day Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Wandering Spirit The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a...

Grievances in the Saskatchewan territory

Following the Red River Rebellion, Métis travelled west and settled in the Saskatchewan Valley, especially along the south branch of the river in the country surrounding the Saint-Laurent mission (near modern St. Laurent de Grandin, Saskatchewan). But by the 1880s, it had become clear that westward migration was no panacea for the troubles of the Métis and the plains Indians. The rapid collapse of the buffalo herd was causing near starvation among the Plains Cree and Blackfoot First Nations. This was exacerbated by a reduction in government assistance in 1883, and by a general failure of Ottawa to live up to its treaty obligations. The Métis were likewise obliged to give up the hunt and take up agriculture—but this transition was accompanied by complex issues surrounding land claims similar to those that had previously arisen in Manitoba. Moreover, settlers from Europe and the eastern provinces were also moving into the Saskatchewan territories, and they too had complaints related to the administration of the territories. Virtually all parties therefore had grievances, and by 1884 English settlers, Anglo-Métis and Métis communities were holding meetings and petitioning a largely unresponsive government for redress. In the electoral district of Lorne, a meeting of the south branch Métis was held in the village of Batoche on March 24, and thirty representatives voted to ask Riel to return and represent their cause. On May 6 a joint "Settler's Union" meeting was attended by both the Métis and English-speaking representatives from Prince Albert, including William Henry Jackson,[43] an Ontario settler sympathetic to the Métis and known to them as Honoré Jackson, and James Isbister of the Anglo-Métis.[44] It was here resolved to send a delegation to ask Riel's assistance in presenting their grievances to the Canadian government. The name of a geographic area in Saskatchewan, Canada encompassing generally a triangle from North Battleford, to Saskatoon, north to the Saskatchewan River Forks east of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. ... Cree camp near Vermilion, Alberta The Cree form an aboriginal nation of North America. ... For other uses, see Blackfoot (disambiguation). ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... // A community of the Métis people of Canada, the Anglo-Métis, more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of the fur trade; typically of Orkney, Scottish, or English paternal descent and Aboriginal maternal descent. ... Lorne was the first electoral district created in the history of the Northwest Territories. ... Batoche, Saskatchewan is the site of the historic Battle of Batoche, the last battlefield in the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Prince Consort to Queen Victoria Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. ... William Henry Jackson, 1862 William Henry Jackson (April 4, 1843 - June 30, 1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer famous for his images of the American West. ... James Isbister (29 November 1833 – 16 October 1915) was a Canadian Métis leader of the nineteenth century. ...


Return of Riel

The head of the delegation to Riel was Gabriel Dumont,[45] a respected buffalo hunter and leader of the Saint-Laurent Métis who had known Riel in Manitoba. James Isbister[46] was the lone Anglo-Métis delegate. Riel was easily swayed to support their cause—which was perhaps not surprising in view of Riel's continuing conviction that he was the divinely selected leader of the Métis and the prophet of a new form of Christianity. Riel also intended to use the new position of influence to pursue his own land claims in Manitoba. The party departed June 4, and arrived back at Batoche on July 5. Upon his arrival Métis and English settlers alike formed an initially favourable impression of Riel following a series of speeches in which he advocated moderation and a reasoned approach. During June 1884, the Plains Cree leaders Big Bear[47] and Poundmaker[48] were independently formulating their complaints, and subsequently held meetings with Riel. However, the Indians' grievances were quite different from those of the settlers, and nothing was then resolved. Inspired by Riel,[49] Honoré Jackson and representatives of other communities set about drafting a petition,[50] and Jackson on July 28 released a manifesto detailing grievances and the settler's objectives. A joint English-Métis central committee with Jackson acting as secretary worked to reconcile proposals from different communities. In the interim, Riel's support began to waver. As Riel's religious pronouncements became increasingly removed from Roman Catholicism, the clergy began to distance themselves, and father Alexis André cautioned Riel against mixing religion and politics. Also, in response to bribes by territorial lieutenant-governor and Indian commissioner Edgar Dewdney,[51] local English-language newspapers adopted an editorial stance critical of Riel.[28] Nevertheless, the work continued, and on December 16 Riel forwarded the committee's petition to the government, along with the suggestion that delegates be sent to Ottawa to engage in direct negotiation. Receipt of the petition was acknowledged by Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, Macdonald's Secretary of State, although Macdonald himself would later deny having ever seen it.[28] This article is about the 19th century Métis. ... James Isbister (29 November 1833 – 16 October 1915) was a Canadian Métis leader of the nineteenth century. ... // A community of the Métis people of Canada, the Anglo-Métis, more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of the fur trade; typically of Orkney, Scottish, or English paternal descent and Aboriginal maternal descent. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chief Mistahimaskwa, 1885 Big Bear or Mistahimaskwa (c. ... Pitikwahanapiwiyin (or Poundmaker) (1842-1886) was a visionary Plains Cree chief known as a peacemaker and defender of his people. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fr. ... A Lieutenant Governor or Lieutenant-Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... Edgar Dewdney (1835 to August 8, 1916) was a Canadian politician originally born in Devonshire, England. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Sir Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, PC (9 November 1840 – 13 June 1898), born in Sainte-Thérèse, Quebec, was a French-Canadian lawyer and politician. ...


Break with the church

While Riel awaited news from Ottawa he considered returning to Montana, but had by February resolved to stay. In the absence of a productive course of action, Riel began to engage in obsessive prayer, and was, in fact, experiencing a significant relapse of his mental agitations. This led to a deterioration in his relationship with the Catholic hierarchy, as he publicly espoused an increasingly heretical doctrine. On February 11, 1885, a response to the petition was received. The government proposed to take a census of the North-West Territories, and to form a commission to investigate grievances. This angered the Métis, who interpreted this as a mere delaying tactic—a faction emerged that favoured taking up arms at once. This was not supported by the Church, the majority of the English-speaking community, or, indeed, by the Métis faction supporting local leader Charles Nolin.[52] But Riel, undoubtedly influenced by his messianic delusions,[53] became increasingly supportive of this course of action. In the church at Saint-Laurent on March 15, Riel disrupted a sermon to argue for this position, following which he was barred from receiving the sacraments, and increasingly frequently discussed his "divine revelations". But disenchanted with the status quo, and swayed by Riel's charisma and eloquent rhetoric, Métis remained loyal to Riel, despite his proclamations that Bishop Ignace Bourget[54] should be accepted as pope, and that "Rome has fallen". Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Nolin Charles Nolin (1837 – 28 January 1907) was a Métis farmer and political organiser noted for his role in the North-West Rebellion of 1885. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Archbishop Bourget in 1882 Ignace Bourget (30 October 1799 – 8 June 1885) was a French-Canadian Roman Catholic priest and Archbishop of Montreal, known for his sympathy for the rebels during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, for his re-introduction of the Jesuit order to Canada in 1842, and... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Open rebellion

On March 18 it became known that the North West Mounted Police garrison at Battleford was being reinforced. Although only 100 men had been sent in response to warnings from father Alexis André and NWMP superintendent L.N.F. Crozier, a rumour soon began to circulate that 500 heavily armed troops were advancing on the territory. Métis patience was exhausted, and Riel's followers seized arms, took hostages, and cut the telegraph lines between Batoche and Battleford. The Provisional Government of Saskatchewan was declared at Batoche on March 19, with Riel[55] as the political and spiritual leader and with Dumont assuming responsibility for military affairs. Riel formed a council called the Exovedate[56] (a neologism meaning "those who have left the flock"), and sent representatives to court Poundmaker and Big Bear. On March 21, Riel's emissaries demanded that Crozier surrender Fort Carlton, but this was refused. The situation was becoming critical, and on March 23 Dewdney sent a telegraph to Macdonald indicating that military intervention might be necessary. Scouting near Duck Lake on March 26, a force led by Gabriel Dumont unexpectedly chanced upon a party from Fort Carlton. In the ensuing Battle of Duck Lake, the police were routed, and the Indians also rose up once the news became known. The die was cast for a violent outcome, and the North-West Rebellion was begun in earnest. is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or Mounties; French, Gendarmerie royale du Canada, GRC) is both the federal police force and the national police of Canada. ... Fr. ... Media:Example. ... The Provisional Government of Saskatchewan was the name given by Louis Riel to the independent state he declared during the Northwest Rebellion of 1885 in what is today the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Exovedate is the named coined by Métis leader Louis Riel and given by him to his council during the North-West Rebellion in Canada. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Carlton was a Hudsons Bay Company fur trade post during much of the 19th century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Duck Lake is the name given to the skirmish between Métis warriors of Saskatchewan and Canadian government forces that signaled the beginning of the North-West Rebellion on March 26, 1885. ... wwwww Combatants Dominion of Canada • Métis Provisional Government •Cree–Assiniboine Natives Commanders Leif Crozier Frederick Middleton William Otter Thomas Bland Strange Sam Steele Big Bear Fine-Day Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Wandering Spirit The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a...

Louis Riel imprisoned in Middleton's camp at Batoche, May 16, 1885
Louis Riel imprisoned in Middleton's camp at Batoche, May 16, 1885

Riel had counted on the Canadian government being unable to effectively respond to another uprising in the distant North-West Territories, thereby forcing them to accept political negotiation. This was essentially the same strategy that had worked to such great effect during the 1870 rebellion. But in that instance, the first troops did not arrive until three months after Riel seized control. However, Riel had completely overlooked the significance of the nascent Canadian Pacific Railway. Despite major gaps in railway construction, the first Canadian regular and militia units, under the command of Major-General Frederick Dobson Middleton, arrived in Duck Lake less than two weeks after Riel had made his demands. Knowing that he could not defeat the Canadians in direct confrontation, Dumont had hoped to force the Canadians to negotiate by engaging in a long-drawn out campaign of guerrilla warfare; Dumont realised a modest success along these lines at the Battle of Fish Creek on April 24, 1885.[57] Riel, however, insisted on concentrating forces at Batoche in order to defend his "city of God". The outcome of the ensuing Battle of Batoche which took place from May 9May 12[58] was never in doubt, and on May 15 a disheveled Riel surrendered to Canadian forces. Although Big Bear's forces managed to hold out until the Battle of Loon Lake on June 3,[59] the rebellion was a dismal failure for Métis and Indian alike, with most surrendering or fleeing. Louis Riel imprisoned in the camp of Major-General Frederick Dobson Middleton after his surrender following the Battle of Batoche in May, 1885. ... Louis Riel imprisoned in the camp of Major-General Frederick Dobson Middleton after his surrender following the Battle of Batoche in May, 1885. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Sir Frederick D. Middleton Sir Frederick Dobson Middleton (November 4, 1825 - January 25, 1898) was a British general noted for his service throughout the Empire and particularly in the North-West Rebellion. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Combatants Métis Dominion of Canada Commanders Gabriel Dumont Frederick Middleton Strength 200 900 Casualties 4 dead 10 dead 45 wounded The Battle of Fish Creek, fought April 24, 1885 at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan, was a major Métis victory over the Dominion forces attempting to quell Louis Riels... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Métis Dominion of Canada Commanders Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Frederick Middleton Bowen van Straubenzie Strength 250 916 Casualties 51 dead, wounded, or captured 8 dead 22 wounded The Battle of Batoche was the decisive Canadian victory over the Métis resistance that led to the surrender of Louis... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chief Mistahimaskwa, 1885 Big Bear or Mistahimaskwa (c. ... The Battle of Loon Lake concluded the North-West Rebellion on June 3, 1885. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Trial for treason

Main article: Trial of Louis Riel

Several individuals closely tied to the government requested that the trial be held in Winnipeg in July 1885. There are historians who contend that the trial was moved to Regina due to concerns with the possibility of an ethnically mixed and sympathetic jury. Tom Flanagan states that an amendment of the North-West Territories Act (which dropped the provision that trials with crimes punishable by death should be tried in Manitoba) meant that the trial could be convened within the North-West Territories and did not have to be held in Winnipeg. Court House during the trial The Trial of Louis Riel was arguably the most famous trial in the history of Canada. ... For other persons named Thomas Flanagan, see Thomas Flanagan (disambiguation). ...

Louis Riel testifies at his trial
Louis Riel testifies at his trial

Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald ordered the trial to be convened in Regina, where Riel was tried before a jury of six English and Scottish Protestants, all from the area surrounding the city. The trial began on July 28, 1885, and lasted only five days.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Floreat Regina (Let Regina Flourish) Location of Regina in the SE quadrant of Saskatchewan Coordinates: , Country Province District Municipality of Sherwood Established 1882 Government  - City Mayor Pat Fiacco  - Governing body Regina City Council  - MPs Dave Batters Ralph Goodale Tom Lukiwski Andrew Scheer  - MLAs Ron Harper Bill Hutchinson Warren... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Riel delivered two long speeches during his trial, defending his own actions and affirming the rights of the Métis people. He rejected his lawyer's attempt to argue that he was not guilty by reason of insanity, asserting, In criminal trials, the insanity defenses are possible defenses by excuse, by which defendants argue that they should not be held criminally liable for breaking the law, as they were legally insane at the time of the commission of alleged crimes. ...

Life, without the dignity of an intelligent being, is not worth having.[60]

The jury found him guilty but recommended mercy; nonetheless, Judge Hugh Richardson sentenced him to death, with the date of his execution initially set for September 18, 1885.[39] Fifty years later one of the jurors, Edwin Brooks, said that Riel was tried for treason but hanged for the execution of Thomas Scott. The Honourable Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Richardson Hugh Richardson (21 July 1826 – 15 July 1913) was a stipendiary magistrate for the Saskatchewan district of the North-West Territories. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Execution

Boulton writes in his memoirs that, as the date of his execution approached, Riel regretted his opposition to the defence of insanity and vainly attempted to provide evidence that he was not sane. Requests for a retrial and an appeal to the Privy Council in England were denied. Sir John A. Macdonald, who was instrumental in upholding Riel's sentence, is famously quoted as saying: Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...

He shall hang though every dog in Quebec bark in his favour.[61]

Prior to his execution, Riel was reconciled with the Catholic church, and assigned Father André as his spiritual advisor. He was also given writing materials so that he could employ his time in prison to write a book. Louis Riel was hanged for treason on November 16, 1885.[62] This article is about death by hanging. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Riel's tombstone at the St. Boniface Cathedral
Riel's tombstone at the St. Boniface Cathedral

Boulton writes of Riel's final moments, Download high resolution version (1488x1984, 1812 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1488x1984, 1812 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

… Père André, after explaining to Riel that the end was at hand, asked him if he was at peace with men. Riel answered "Yes." The next question was, "Do you forgive all your enemies?" "Yes." Riel then asked him if he might speak. Father André advised him not to do so. He then received the kiss of peace from both the priests, and Father André exclaimed in French, "Alors, allez au ciel!" meaning "so, to heaven!"

 … [Riel's] last words were to say good-bye to Dr. Jukes and thank him for his kindness, and just before the white cap was pulled over his face he said, "Remerciez, Madame Forget." meaning "thank, Ms. Forget".


The cap was pulled down, and while he was praying the trap was pulled. Death was not instantaneous. Louis Riel's pulse ceased four minutes after the trap-door fell and during that time the rope around his neck slowly strangled and choked him to death. The body was to have been interred inside the gallows' enclosure, and the grave was commenced, but an order came from the Lieutenant-Governor to hand the body over to Sheriff Chapleau which was accordingly done that night.[63]

Following the execution, Riel's body was returned to his mother's home in St. Vital, where it lay in state. On December 12, 1885, his remains were laid in the churchyard of the Saint-Boniface Cathedral following the performance of a requiem mass. St. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Boniface Cathedral Saint Boniface Cathedral forms an important architectural feature of Saint Boniface, Manitoba, especially in the eyes of the Franco-Manitoban community. ... A requiem is a Roman Catholic mass performed in commemoration of the dead, also known in Latin as the Missa pro Defunctis. ...


Legacy

Political

The Saskatchewan Métis' requested land grants were all provided by the government by the end of 1887, and the government resurveyed the Métis river lots in accordance with their wishes. The Métis did not understand the long term value of their new land, however, and it was soon bought by speculators who later turned huge profits from it. Riel's worst fears were realised—following the failed rebellion, the French language and Roman Catholic religion faced increasing marginalisation in both Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as exemplified by the controversy surrounding the Manitoba Schools Question. The Métis themselves were increasingly forced to live on undesirable land or in the shadow of Indian reserves (as they did not themselves have treaty status). Saskatchewan did not attain provincehood until 1905. The Manitoba Schools Question was a political crisis in Manitoba and more generally in Canada in the late 19th century involving publicly funded separate schools for French and English and the deeper question of whether French would survive as a language or a culture in Western Canada. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ...


Riel's execution and Macdonald's refusal to commute his sentence caused lasting upset in Quebec, and led to a fundamental alteration in the Canadian political order. In Quebec, Honoré Mercier[64] exploited discontent over Riel's execution to reconstitute the Parti National. This party, which promoted Quebec nationalism, won a majority in the 1886 Quebec election by winning a number of seats formerly controlled by the Quebec Conservative Party. The federal election of 1887 likewise saw significant gains by the federal Liberals, again at the expense of the Conservatives. This led to the victory of the Liberal party under Sir Wilfrid Laurier in the federal election of 1896, which in turn set the stage for the domination of Canadian federal politics by the Liberal party in the 20th century. That Riel's name still has resonance in Canadian politics was evidenced on November 16, 1994, when Suzanne Tremblay, a Bloc Québécois member of parliament, introduced private members' bill C-228, "An Act to revoke the conviction of Louis David Riel".[65] The unsuccessful bill was widely perceived in English Canada as an attempt to arouse support for Quebec nationalism prior to the 1995 referendum on Quebec sovereignty.[66] Honoré-Mercier is the name of a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada. ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... (Redirected from 1886 Quebec election) In the Quebec general election on October 14, 1886, the Parti libéral du Québec under Honoré Mercier won a majority of seats against the Parti conservateur du Québec under John Jones Ross. ... The Parti conservateur du Québec (in English: Conservative Party of Quebec) was a political party in Quebec, Canada. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1887 election The Canadian federal election of 1887 was held on February 22, 1887 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Laurier redirects here. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1896 election The Canadian federal election of 1896 was held on June 23, 1896 to elect members of the 8th Parliament of the Canadian House of Commons. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Suzanne Tremblay (born January 24, 1937) is a politician from Quebec, Canada, and a member of the Bloc Québécois, a federal political party that promotes the independence of Quebec from Canada. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ... Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ...


Riel reconsidered

The formerly widespread perception of Louis Riel as an insane traitor, especially outside of the Métis and French Canadian community, weakened considerably since the late 20th century. Riel is regarded as a heroic freedom fighter who stood up for his people in the face of a racist government, and those who question his sanity still view him as an essentially honourable figure. Riel nevertheless presents an enigma, although as historian J.M.S. Careless has observed, it is possible that Riel was both a murderer and a hero. It is also possible that his rash decision to execute Scott drastically altered the history of his people. For example, shortly after the Red River Rebellion the Canadian government began a programme that speculators and other non-Métis exploited to dispossess the Métis of their land; had Scott not been executed, the government might well have supervised the program more rigorously, given the prior good relations between Canada and the Métis. Métis scholars have noted that Riel is a more important figure to non-Métis than to Métis, perhaps because he is often the only Métis figure most non-Métis are aware of. Scholars such as Thomas Flanagan have pointed out certain parallels between Riel's following during the North-West Rebellion and millenarian cults. Others have embraced his image as a revolutionary—in the 1960s, the Quebec terrorist group, the Front de libération du Québec, went so far as to adopt the name "Louis Riel" for one of its terrorist cells. French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... James Maurice Stockford Careless (February 17, 1919 - ) is a Canadian historian from the University of Toronto. ... Thomas Eugene Flanagan is an American-born writer and professor of political science at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. ... Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... The Front de libération du Québec (Québec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, and sometimes referred to as Front de libération Québécois was a left-wing terrorist group in Canada responsible for more than 200 bombings and the deaths of at least five... A covert cell structure is a method for organizing undercover or unconventional fighters against a large and well-established organization. ...


Bill C-213 or Louis Riel Day Act and Bill C-417 Louis Riel Act are the more notable acts which have gone through parliament.[67] Bill C-297 to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel was introduced to the House of Commons October 21 and November 22, 1996, however the motion lacked unanimous consent from the House and was dropped.[68] Bill C-213[69] or the Louis Riel Day Act of 1997 attempted to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel for high treason and establish a National Day in his honour on November 16.[70] Bill C-417[71] or the Louis Riel Act which also had a first reading in parliament to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel, and establish July 15 as Louis Riel Day was tabled.[72]

Bills pertaining to Louis Riel[73]
Bill Parliament Session First Reading Year
C-216 38 1 Oct 2004
C-411 37 1 January 2001
C-324 37 2 Sept 2002
S-35 37 1 January 2001
C-324 37 3 Feb 2004
C-297 Nov 2006
C-258 May 2006
C-288 March 1995
C-417 June 1998
C-380 35 2 March 1997
C-258 36 1 1997
C-257 36 2 1999

On February 18th, 2008, The province of Manitoba officially recognized the first Louis Riel Day as a general provincial holiday. It will now fall on the third Monday of February each year in the Province of Manitoba. [74] The initial seat distribution of the 38th Canadian Parliament Paul Martin was Prime Minister during the 38th Canadian Parliament. ... 37th Parliament * - formerly a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ** - formerly a member of the Canadian Alliance Party Categories: Canadian parliaments ... 37th Parliament * - formerly a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ** - formerly a member of the Canadian Alliance Party Categories: Canadian parliaments ... 37th Parliament * - formerly a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ** - formerly a member of the Canadian Alliance Party Categories: Canadian parliaments ... 37th Parliament * - formerly a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ** - formerly a member of the Canadian Alliance Party Categories: Canadian parliaments ... The 35th Canadian parliament was in session from 1993 until 1997. ... The initial seat distribution of the 36th Canadian Parliament Jean Chrétien was Prime Minister during the 36th Canadian Parliament( and is also a pedafile). ... The initial seat distribution of the 36th Canadian Parliament Jean Chrétien was Prime Minister during the 36th Canadian Parliament( and is also a pedafile). ...


Commemorations

"Tortured" Louis Riel statue at the Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface
"Tortured" Louis Riel statue at the Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface

A resolution was passed by parliament citing that Louis Riel was the Founder of Manitoba on 10 March 1992.[75] Two statues of Riel are located in Winnipeg.[76] One of the Winnipeg statues, the work of architect Étienne Gaboury and sculptor Marcien Lemay, depicts Riel as a naked and tortured figure. It was unveiled in 1970 and stood in the grounds of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for 23 years. After much outcry (especially from the Métis community) that the statue was an undignified misrepresentation, the statue was removed and placed at the Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface. It was replaced in 1994 with a statue designed by Miguel Joyal depicting Riel as a dignified statesman. A statue of Riel on the grounds of the Saskatchewan legislative building in Regina was installed and later removed for similar reasons. The unveiling ceremony was on 16 May 1996, in Winnipeg.[75] Download high resolution version (1488x1984, 1632 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1488x1984, 1632 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Étienne Gaboury (born Étienne-Joseph Gaboury on April 24, 1930 in Swan Lake, Manitoba) is a Canadian architect from Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba is located in central Winnipeg, at the meeting point of the Wolseley and Fort Rouge ridings. ... Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface The Collège Universitaire de Saint-Boniface, or CUSB, is a university college affiliated with the University of Manitoba and located in Saint Boniface, Manitoba. ... Statue of Louis Riel by Miguel Joyal in Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

Statue of Louis Riel by Miguel Joyal in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Statue of Louis Riel by Miguel Joyal in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

In numerous communities in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and even in Ontario, Riel is commemorated in the names of streets, schools, and other buildings (such as the Louis Riel School Division in Winnipeg). The student centre and campus pub at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon are named after Riel.[77] Highway 11, stretching from Regina to just south of Prince Albert, has been named Louis Riel Trail by the province; the roadway passes near locations of the 1885 rebellion.[78] One of the student residences at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia is named Louis Riel House. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 324 KB)Statue of Louis Riel File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 324 KB)Statue of Louis Riel File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Lilium University of Saskatchewan - The University of Saskatchewan Centennial Lily by plant breeder Donna Hay. ... Highway 11 in Saskatchewan, Canada, also known as the Louis Riel Trail, connects the provinces three largest cities: Regina, Saskatoon and Prince Albert. ... Simon Fraser University (SFU) is a Canadian university in British Columbia with campuses located on Burnaby Mountain, and in Vancouver and Surrey. ...


On 26 September 2007, Manitoba legislature passed a bill establishing a statutory holiday on the third Monday in February as Louis Riel Day, the same day some other provinces celebrate Family Day, beginning in 2008.[79] The first Louis Riel Day was celebrated on 18 February 2008. This new statutory holiday coincides with the celebration, on February 15–24, of the Festival du Voyageur. is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Family Day is the name of a statutory holiday in Israel and the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Ontario and Saskatchewan, and a public holiday in South Africa. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arts, literature and popular culture

Portrayals of Riel's role in the Red River Rebellion include the 1979 CBC television film Riel and Canadian cartoonist Chester Brown's acclaimed 2003 graphic novel Louis Riel: A Comic-Strip Biography.[80] Radio-Canada redirects here. ... A television movie (also TV movie, TV-movie, made-for-TV movie, etc. ... Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... Chester Brown (born May 16, 1960) is a Canadian independent cartoonist. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ...


An opera about Riel entitled Louis Riel was commissioned for Canada's centennial celebrations in 1967. It was an opera in three acts, written by Harry Somers, with an English and French libretto by Mavor Moore and Jacques Languirand. The Canadian Opera Company produced and performed the first run of the opera in September and October, 1967.[81] For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The Expo 67 site on le Sainte-H ne and le Notre-Dame The Canadian Centennial was a year long celebration held in 1967 when Canada celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation. ... Harry Somers, 1947 Harry Somers, CC (11 September 1925 – 9 March 1999) was the foremost English-Canadian composer of his period. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... James Mavor Moore, C.C., B.A., D.Litt. ... The Canadian Opera Company (COC), located in Toronto, Ontario, is the largest opera company in Canada and the sixth largest in North America. ...


From the late 1960s until the early 1990s, the city of Saskatoon hosted "Louis Riel Day", a summer celebration that included a relay race that combined running, backpack carrying, canoeing, hill climbing, and horseback riding along the South Saskatchewan River in the city's downtown core. Traditionally, the event also included a cabbage roll eating contest and tug-of-war competition, as well as live musical performances. Although not affiliated with the Saskatoon Exhibition, for years Louis Riel Day was scheduled for the day prior to the start of the fair, and as such came to be considered the Exhibition's unofficial kick-off (the scheduling of the two events was separated in later years). The event was discontinued when major sponsors pulled out. Saskatoon is a city located in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. ... Canoeing is the recreational or sporting activity of paddling a canoe or kayak. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... The South Saskatchewan River flows eastward from the confluence of the Bow and Oldman Rivers near Grassy Lake, Alberta. ... A cabbage roll is a savory food item made with a variety of fillings wrapped in cabbage. ... This article is about the sport. ...


In 1994, a Canadian rock band adopted the name Exovedate, the name given by Riel to his council in 1885. Billy Childish wrote a song entitled "Louis Riel", which has been performed by Thee Headcoats, Thee Headcoatees and Blackhands. This article is about the genre. ... Billy Childish (real name Steven John Hamper) or William Charlie Hamper (born December 1, 1959) is an English artist, author, poet, photographer, film maker, singer and guitarist. ... Thee Headcoats: Art or Arse? EP Thee Headcoats is a band comprised of Billy Childish (real name Steven Hamper), Bruce Brand, and Johnny Johnson. ... Thee Headcoatees was an all-female vocal group which was associated with Billy Childish and the all-male group Thee Headcoats. ...


In 2001, Canadian sketch comedy troupe Royal Canadian Air Farce featured Riel in its send-up of the CBC documentary series Canada: A People's History. Significant parallels were drawn between Riel's actions and those of modern-day Québécois separatists, and the comedian who portrayed Riel was actually made up to look like then-Premier Lucien Bouchard. Royal Canadian Air Farce (usually abbreviated to Air Farce) is a Canadian comedy troupe that starred in an eponymous radio show on CBC radio from 1973 to 1997, and currently star in a top-rated television show, broadcast on CBC Television. ... Lucien Bouchard, PC, B.Sc, LL.B (born December 22, 1938) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ...


On October 22, 2003, the Canadian news channel CBC Newsworld and its French-language equivalent, Réseau de l'information, staged a simulated retrial of Riel.[82] Viewers were invited to enter a verdict on the trial over the internet, and more than 10,000 votes were received—87% of which were "not guilty".[83] The results of this straw poll led to renewed calls for Riel's posthumous pardon. Also on the basis of a public poll, the CBC's Greatest Canadian project ranked Riel as the 11th "Greatest Canadian".[84] is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBC Newsworld is a Canadian English language cable television specialty news channel owned and operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). ... Réseau de linformation (RDI) is a 24 hour Canadian French language cable television news channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Officially launched on April 5, 2004, The Greatest Canadian was a television program series by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to determine who is considered to be the greatest Canadian of all time, at least among those who watched and participated in the program. ...


Texas musician Doug Sahm wrote a song entitled "Louis Riel," which appeared on the album S.D.Q. '98.[85] In the song, Sahm likens the lore surrounding Riel to Davey Crockett's legend in his home state, spinning an abridged tale of Riel's life as a revolutionary, with a measured dose of objectivity sometimes lacking in the folk hero song form: "...but you gotta respect him for what he thought was right... And all around Regina they talk about him still – why did they have to kill Louis Riel?"[86]


Footnotes

  1. ^ Louis Riel. A database of materials held by the University of Saskatchewan Libraries and the University Archives. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  2. ^ a b Ricketts, Bruce (1998–2007). Louis Riel – Martyr, hero or traitor?. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  3. ^ The Heritage Centre. Louis Riel The Provisional Government. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  4. ^ Louis Riel: Riel flees to the U.S.A.. The Heritage Centre. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  5. ^ Ross, Brenda (2007). "Spike by Spike: The Building of the Canadian-Pacific Railroad". The Kudzu Monthly ezine with a distinctive southern perspective. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  6. ^ a b c The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada. (2007). Riel, Louis. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  7. ^ Red River Colony. The Canadian Encyclopedia© (2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  8. ^ University of Manitoba : Archives & Special Collections. Canadian Wartime Experiences. Riel's Parents and Childhood.. University of Manitoba. Archives & Special Collections (1998–2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  9. ^ Parks Canada – Riel House National Historic Site of Canada .... Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  10. ^ Stanley (1963), pp. 13–20
  11. ^ Parks Canada: Riel House National Historic Site of Canada Historic Themes. Government of Canada (January 5, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  12. ^ Stanley (1963), pp. 26–28
  13. ^ Riel, Louis. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  14. ^ The MNO. Métis Nation of Ontario (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  15. ^ Stanley (1963), pg. 33
  16. ^ for this section, see Stanley, Louis Riel, pp. 13–34.
  17. ^ Dorge, Lionel. Manitoba History: Bishop Taché and the Confederation of Manitoba, 1969–1970. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  18. ^ Read, Colin. Manitoba History: The Red River Rebellion and J. S. Dennis .... Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  19. ^ Canada in the Making: The Riel Rebellions. Canadiana.org 2001–2005 (Formerly Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions). Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  20. ^ Reading #9: National Committee of the Métis. Dumont Technical Institute (DTI) Métis Studies Adult 10 course > Module 5: Métis Resistance > Metis Studies 10 (2003). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  21. ^ From Sea to Sea. The Métis Resistance The Execution of Thomas Scott. CBC (2001). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  22. ^ [? John Christian Schultz]. Virtual American Biographies. Evisum Inc. (2000). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  23. ^ Louis Riel. Virtual American Biographies. Evisum Inc. (2000). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  24. ^ Metis culture 1869. The infamous John A. MacDonald, an avid Orangeman of a foreign country, makes plans to annex the independent Metis Nation of the North West.. METIS HISTORY. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  25. ^ Mitchell, Ross (2002–2007). Manitoba Pageant: John Christian Schultz, M.D. – 1840–1896. Manitoba Pageant, January 1960, Volume 5, Number 2. Manitoba Historical Society.. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  26. ^ Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online SMITH, DONALD ALEXANDER, 1st Baron STRATHCONA and MOUNT ROYAL. Library and Archives Canada. University of Toronto (May 2, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  27. ^ Red River Rebellion. The Canadian Encyclopedia (2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  28. ^ a b c d Thomas, Lewis H. (May 2, 2005). Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online RIEL, LOUIS,. Library and Archives Canada. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  29. ^ Bélanger, Claude (2007). The Murder of Thomas Scott. Marianopolis College. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  30. ^ Boulton, Charles Arkoll and Robertson, Heather (1985). I Fought Riel. James Lorimer & Company, page 51. ISBN 0888629354. 
  31. ^ Louis Riel: Thomas Scott. The Heritage Centre. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  32. ^ Maton, William F (2006-02-08). Appendix 5C: Métis Nation Land and Resource Rights*. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  33. ^ Maton, William F. Manitoba Act, 1870. The Solon Law Archive. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  34. ^ PL-1553 Wolseley Expedition—Province of Manitoba. Government of Manitoba. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  35. ^ Bowles, Richard S (2002–2007). MHS Transactions: Adams George Archibald, First Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba. MHS Transactions Series 3, Number 25, 1968–69 season. Manitoba Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  36. ^ Swan, Ruth (2002–2007). Manitoba History: "The Storehouses of the Good God:" "Unequal justice:" The Metis in O'Donoghue's Raid of 1871. Manitoba History, Number 39, Spring / Summer 2000. Manitoba Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  37. ^ Louis Riel (1844–1885): Biography Louis Riel, Métis leader (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  38. ^ Marleau, Robert (2000). House of Commons Procedure and Practice The House of Commons and Its Members – Notes 351–373. Parliament of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  39. ^ a b A Biography of Louis Riel. The Trial of Louis Riel Homepage. University of Missouri Kansas City School Of law. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  40. ^ Hird, The Reverend Ed. The Passion of Louis Riel. March 2004 Deep Cove Crier. St. Simon's Anglican Church. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  41. ^ Musée McCord Museum – Fonds – Louis Riel Collection. McCord Museum of Canadian History. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  42. ^ Louis Riel – Canadian Confederation. Library and Archives Canada (2001-12-14). Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  43. ^ Bushong, Mary Lynn (2007). The Northwest Rebellion. edHelper. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  44. ^ Flanagan, Thomas (2002–2007). Manitoba History: Louis Riel's Land Claims. Louis Riel's Land Claims. Manitoba Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  45. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada. (2007), Dumont, Gabriel, <http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0002444>. Retrieved on 2007-09-24 
  46. ^ University of Toronto, Library and Archives Canada (May 2, 2005), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online ISBISTER, JAMES,, <http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=41590>. Retrieved on 2007-09-23 
  47. ^ Welker, Glenn & The Indigenous Peoples' Literature pages, Big Bear, <http://www.indians.org/welker/bigbear.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-09-23 
  48. ^ Virtual Saskatchewan – Cree Chief Poundmaker. Virtual Saskatchewan (1997–2007)). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  49. ^ Louis Riel to W. Jackson 22 September 1884.: Call No. MSS C555/2/13.7d. Northwest Resistance Database. University of Saskatchewan (2006). Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  50. ^ Jackson, William Henry to Friend? 21 Jan. 1885.: Call No. MSS C555/2/13.9e. Northwest Resistance Database. University of Saskatchewan (2006). Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  51. ^ The Dewdney Trail – Biography. Biography of Edgar Dewdney. Nelson & District Museum, Archives, Art Gallery & Historical Society. All Rights Reserved. (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  52. ^ University of Toronto, Library and Archives Canada (May 2, 2005), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online NOLIN, CHARLES,, <http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=41086&query=charles%20AND%20nolin>. Retrieved on 2007-09-24 
  53. ^ Dumontet, Monique, Essay 16 Controversy in the Commemoration of Louis Riel, University of Western Ontario, <http://www.uwo.ca/english/canadianpoetry/architexts/mnemographia_canadensis_2/essay_16.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-11-15 
  54. ^ Was Riel mentally ill? – Rethinking Riel – CBC Archives. CBC (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  55. ^ Louis Riel: A Brief Chronology (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  56. ^ Why did the 1885 Resistance Happen? The 1885 Resistance did not ... (PDF). Virtual Museum. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  57. ^ The Battle of Fish Creek (April 23, 1885) The Battle at Fish Creek ... (PDF). Virtual Museum. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
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  60. ^ Final Statement of Louis Riel at his trial in Regina, 1885. Louis Riel Trial Homepage. University of Missouri Kansas City School of Law. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  61. ^ Bélanger, Claude (2007). North-West Rebellion – Canadian History. Marianopolis College. L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
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  63. ^ Boulton (1886), Chapter 19
  64. ^ Lindsay, Lionel. Louis-Honore Mercier. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  65. ^ BILL C-288 (First Reading). House Publications. Parliament Government of Canada (1994). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  66. ^ Act to Revoke the Conviction of Louis Riel BILL C-288 (First Reading). Debates of the House of Commons of Canada 35th Parliament – 1st and 2nd Sessions. University of Missouri Kansas City School of Law Famous Trials (1994). Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  67. ^ Bill Re-Introduced. LEGISINFO – The Library of Parliament's research tool for finding information on legislation. The House of Commons of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
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  69. ^ BILL C-213. Parliament Canada. The House of Commons of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  70. ^ BILL C-213 first reading. Parliament Canada. The House of Commons of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  71. ^ BILL C-417 first reading. Parliament Canada. The House of Commons of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
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  79. ^ "Manitoba's new holiday: Louis Riel Day Day", Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2007-09-25. Retrieved on 2007-11-16. 
  80. ^ Biography of Louis Riel: Excerpts from a comic-strip biography. The Trial of Louis Riel Homepage. University of Missouri Kansas City School of Law. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  81. ^ Music Division Archival Guide—Somers, Harry, 1925–1999. Collections Canada. Library Archives Canada (2003-08-11). Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  82. ^ Strange, Carolyn (2006). Crime, Media, Culture. Hybrid history and the retrial of the painful past. Sage Publications Australian National University. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  83. ^ CSHC: Celebratory Opening FOOTNOTES 2. Media and Public History: Canada: A People's History. Centre for the Study of Historical Consciousness (2002). Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  84. ^ CBC.ca – The Greatest Canadian – Top 100 – 11 to 100. Meet Some Great Canadians. CBC (2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  85. ^ Discography
  86. ^ Album reviewby Eugene Chadbourne

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugene Chadbourne (January 4, 1954 in Mount Vernon, NY) is a USA composer, improvisor, guitarist and banjoist. ...

References

  • Barkwell, Lawrence J., Leah Dorion and Darren Prefontaine. Metis Legacy: A Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Winnipeg: Pemmican Publications Inc. and Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute, 2001. ISBN 1-894717-03-1
  • Boulton, Charles A. (1886) Reminiscences of the North-West Rebellions. Toronto. Online text. A first person account of the rebellions.
  • Brown, Chester (2003). Louis Riel: A Comic-strip Biography. Drawn and Quarterly, Montreal. ISBN 1-896597-63-7.  A biography of Riel in the form of a graphic novel.
  • Careless, J.M.S. (1991). Canada: A story of challenge. Stoddart. ISBN 0-7736-7354-7.  A survey of Canadian history.
  • Flanagan, Thomas (1983). Riel and the Rebellion. Western Producer Prairie Books, Saskatoon. ISBN 0-88833-108-8. 
  • Flanagan, Thomas (1992). Louis Riel. Canadian Historical Association, Ottawa. ISBN 0-88798-180-1.  A short work highlighting the complexity of Riel's character. Interpretations are available.
  • Flanagan, Thomas (1979). Louis 'David' Riel: prophet of the new world. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. ISBN 0-88780-118-8.  An influential work suggesting parallels between Riel's following and Millenarianism.
  • George R. D. Goulet (2005). The Trial of Louis Riel, Justice and Mercy Denied. FabJob, Calgary. ISBN 1-894638-70-0.  A critical legal and political analysis of Riel's 1885 high treason trial.
  • Riel, Louis (1985). The collected writings of Louis Riel. ed. George Stanley. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton. ISBN 0-88864-091-9.  Riel's own writings and letters.
  • Siggins, Maggie (1994). Riel: a life of revolution. HarperCollins, Toronto. ISBN 0-00-215792-6.  A sympathetic reevaluation of Riel drawing heavily on his own writings.
  • Stanley, George (1963). Louis Riel. McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Toronto. ISBN 0-07-092961-0.  A standard Riel biography, covering most of the material in this article; source where no other is cited.

Lieutenant Colonel Charles A. Boulton, 1885. ... Chester Brown (born May 16, 1960) is a Canadian independent cartoonist. ... Drawn and Quarterly is a Canadian comic book publishing company, headed by publisher Chris Oliveros, and based in Montréal, Québec. ... James Maurice Stockford Careless (February 17, 1919 - ) is a Canadian historian from the University of Toronto. ... Thomas Eugene Flanagan is an American-born writer and professor of political science at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. ... The Canadian Historical Association (French Société historique du Canada) is a Canadian organization founded in 1922 for the purposes of promoting historical research and scholarship. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... George Richard Donald Goulet is a Canadian Métis author and retired lawyer. ... FabJob Inc. ... The University of Alberta Press (UAP) is a publishing house and a division of the University of Alberta that engages in academic publishing. ... Maggie Siggins Maggie Siggins (1942 – ) is a Canadian journalist and writer. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... The Flag of Canada Col. ... The Mc-Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persondata
NAME Riel, Louis
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Canadian politician
DATE OF BIRTH 22 October 1844
PLACE OF BIRTH Red River Colony, Rupert's Land
DATE OF DEATH 16 November 1885
PLACE OF DEATH Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on 300,000 km² of land granted to him by the Hudsons Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. ... This article is about the trading territory. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Floreat Regina (Let Regina Flourish) Location of Regina in the SE quadrant of Saskatchewan Coordinates: , Country Province District Municipality of Sherwood Established 1882 Government  - City Mayor Pat Fiacco  - Governing body Regina City Council  - MPs Dave Batters Ralph Goodale Tom Lukiwski Andrew Scheer  - MLAs Ron Harper Bill Hutchinson Warren...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis Riel - MSN Encarta (1066 words)
Louis Riel (22 October 1844 16 November 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies...
Louis Riel (1844-1885), leader of the Métis (people of mixed indigenous and European ancestry in Canada), and widely regarded as the founder of the Canadian province of Manitoba.
The eldest of 11 children, Riel was born in the Red River settlement, a farming community within Rupert’s Land, a vast western colony in North America controlled by the Hudson’s Bay Company.
Louis Riel (448 words)
Louis Riel, a leader of his people in their resistance against the Canadian government in the Canadian Northwest, is perhaps the most controversial figure in Canadian historiography.
Riel was the undisputed spiritual and political head of the short-lived 1885 Rebellion.
Riel was increasingly influenced by his belief that he was chosen to lead the Métis people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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