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Encyclopedia > Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur

Born December 27, 1822(1822-12-27)
Dole, Franche-Comté, France
Died September 28, 1895 (aged 72)
Marnes-la-Coquette, 92, France
Signature

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. His experiments supported the germ theory of disease, also reducing mortality from puerperal fever (childbed), and he created the first vaccine for rabies. He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness - this process came to be called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch. He also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the asymmetry of crystals.[1] He is buried beneath the Institut Pasteur, an incredibly rare honor in France, where being buried in a cemetery is mandatory save for the fewer than 300 "Great Men" who are entombed in the Panthéon. Image File history File links Louis_Pasteur. ... A Microbiologist is a biologist that studies the field of microbiology. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... View of Dole Dole is a commune in the Jura département in France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Marnes-la-Coquette is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. ... Hauts-de-Seine is a département in France. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... A Microbiologist is a biologist that studies the field of microbiology. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... Puerperal fever (from the latin puer, child), also called childbed fever or puerperal sepsis, is a serious form of septicaemia contracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth or abortion. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Ferdinand Julius Cohn (January 24, 1828 Breslau, Silesia, Prussia (now Wroclaw, Poland) - June 25, 1898 Breslau) was a biologist. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ...

Contents

Early life and biography

Louis Jean Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822 in Dole in the Jura region of France and grew up in the town of Arbois.[1] There he later had his house and laboratory, which is a Pasteur museum today. His father, Jean Pasteur (1791-1864), was a poorly educated tanner[1] and a decorated Sergeant-Major of the Grande Armee. Louis's aptitude was recognized by his college headmaster, who recommended that the young man apply for the École Normale Supérieure, which accepted him. After serving briefly as professor of physics at Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at Strasbourg University,[2] where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector in 1849. They were married on May 29, 1849 and together they had five children, only two of whom survived to adulthood. Throughout his life, Louis Pasteur remained an ardent Catholic. A well-known quotation illustrating this is attributed to him: "The more I know, the more nearly is my faith that of the Breton peasant. Could I but know all I would have the faith of a Breton peasant's wife."[3] December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... View of Dole Dole is a commune in the Jura département in France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Jura is a department in the east of France named after the Jura mountains (not be confused with the Swiss canton of Jura). ... Arbois is a French town and commune with a population of 4,000 located in the Jura département. ... This article is about making hides into leather. ... It has been suggested that Company Sergeant Major be merged into this article or section. ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Ulm) is a prestigious French grande école, possibly the most prestigious. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The University Palace in Strasbourg, and a monument to one of the universitys students, Johann Wolfgang Goethe The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is divided into three separate institutions. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... See Adult. ... For the Wikipedia quotation templates, see Category:Quotation templates. ...


Work on chirality and the polarization of light

Pasteur separated the left and right crystal shapes from each other to form two piles of crystals: in solution one form rotated light to the left, the other to the right, while an equal mixture of the two forms canceled each other's rotation. Hence, the mixture does not rotate polarized light.
Pasteur separated the left and right crystal shapes from each other to form two piles of crystals: in solution one form rotated light to the left, the other to the right, while an equal mixture of the two forms canceled each other's rotation. Hence, the mixture does not rotate polarized light.

In Pasteur's early works as a chemist, he resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid (1849). A solution of this compound derived from living things (specifically, wine lees) rotated the plane of polarization of light passing through it. The mystery was that tartaric acid derived by chemical synthesis had no such effect, even though its chemical reactions were identical and its elemental composition was the same.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ... Lees refers to deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of fining, to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and aging. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ...


Upon examination of the minuscule crystals of Sodium ammonium tartrate, Pasteur noticed that the crystals came in two asymmetric forms that were mirror images of one another. Tediously sorting the crystals by hand gave two forms of the compound: solutions of one form rotated polarized light clockwise, while the other form rotated light counterclockwise. An equal mix of the two had no polarizing effect on the light. Pasteur correctly deduced the molecule in question was asymmetric and could exist in two different forms that resemble one another as would left- and right-hand gloves, and that the biological source of the compound provided purely the one type.[4] This was the first time anyone had demonstrated chiral molecules. For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ...


Pasteur's doctoral thesis on crystallography attracted the attention of M. Puillet and he helped Pasteur garner a position of professor of chemistry at the Faculté (College) of Strasbourg.[2] Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


In 1854, he was named Dean of the new Faculty of Sciences in Lille. In 1856, he was made administrator and director of scientific studies of the École Normale Supérieure.[2] For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Ulm) is a prestigious French grande école, possibly the most prestigious. ...


Germ theory

Louis demonstrated that the fermentation process is caused by the growth of microorganisms, and that the growth of microorganisms in nutrient broths is not due to spontaneous generation[5]but rather to biogenesis (Omne vivum ex ovo). For other uses, see Fermentation. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... Biogenesis is the process of lifeforms producing other lifeforms, e. ... Omne vivum ex ovo is Latin for All live [is] from [an] egg. This is a foundational concept of modern biology. ...

Bottle "en Col de cygne" used by Pasteur
Bottle "en Col de cygne" used by Pasteur

He exposed boiled broths to air in vessels that contained a filter to prevent all particles from passing through to the growth medium, and even in vessels with no filter at all, with air being admitted via a long tortuous tube that would not allow dust particles to pass. Nothing grew in the broths; therefore, the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than spontaneously generated within the broth. This was one of the last and most important experiments disproving the theory of spontaneous generation. The experiment also supported germ theory.[5] Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ...


While Pasteur was not the first to propose germ theory (Girolamo Fracastoro, Agostino Bassi, Friedrich Henle and others had suggested it earlier), he developed it and conducted experiments that clearly indicated its correctness and managed to convince most of Europe it was true.[6] Today he is often regarded as the father of germ theory and bacteriology, together with Robert Koch.[6][7] The germ theory of disease states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms, and that microorganisms grow by reproduction, rather than being spontaneously generated. ... Girolamo Fracastoro (Fracastorius) (1478‑1553) was an Italian physician, scholar and poet. ... Agostino Bassi. ... Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (b. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ...


Pasteur's research also showed that some microorganisms contaminated fermenting beverages. With this established, he invented a process in which liquids such as milk were heated to kill most bacteria and molds already present within them.[8] He and Claude Bernard completed the first test on April 20, 1862. This process was soon afterwards known as pasteurisation (or "pasteurization" in America).[8] For the 17th Century Roman Catholic priest who popularized the Memorare, see Father Claude Bernard. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Pasteurization is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ...


Beverage contamination led Pasteur to conclude that microorganisms infected animals and humans as well. He proposed preventing the entry of microorganisms into the human body, leading Joseph Lister to develop antiseptic methods in surgery.[6] A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


In 1865, two parasitic diseases called pébrine and flacherie were killing great numbers of silkworms at Alais (now Alès). Pasteur worked several years proving it was a microbe attacking silkworm eggs which caused the disease, and that eliminating this microbe within silkworm nurseries would eradicate the disease.[9][8] Pebrine is a disease of silkworms, which is caused by a Nosema bombycis. ... Flacherie is a disease of silkworms, caused by silkworms eating infected or contaminated mulberry leaves. ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Alias. ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ...


Pasteur also discovered anaerobiosis, whereby some microorganisms can develop and live without air or oxygen, called the Pasteur effect.[10] An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Pasteur effect is an inhibiting effect of oxygen on fermentation process. ...


Immunology and vaccination

Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera. During this work, a culture of the responsible bacteria had spoiled and failed to induce the disease in some chickens he was infecting with the disease. Upon reusing these healthy chickens, Pasteur discovered that he could not infect them, even with fresh bacteria; the weakened bacteria had caused the chickens to become immune to the disease, even though they had only caused mild symptoms.[11][12] Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ...


His assistant Charles Chamberland had been instructed to inoculate the chickens after Pasteur went on holiday. Chamberland failed to do this, but instead went on holiday himself. On his return, the month old cultures made the chickens unwell, but instead of the infection being fatal, as it usually was, the chickens recovered completely. Chamberland assumed an error had been made, and wanted to discard the apparently faulty culture when Pasteur stopped him. Pasteur guessed the recovered animals now might be immune to the disease, as were the animals at Eure-et-Loir that had recovered from anthrax.[13] Charles Chamberland was a French microbiologist who worked with Louis Pasteur. ... Eure-et-Loir is a French département, named after the Eure and Loir rivers. ...


In the 1870s, he applied this immunisation method to anthrax, which affected cattle, and aroused interest in combating other diseases. Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Rainbow arching over a paddock of cattle Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...

Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, painting by A. Edelfeldt in 1885.
Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, painting by A. Edelfeldt in 1885.

Pasteur publicly claimed he had made the anthrax vaccine by exposing the bacillus to oxygen. His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint, a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine.[14][4] This method used the oxidizing agent potassium dichromate. Pasteur's oxygen method did eventually produce a vaccine but only after he had been awarded a patent on the production of an anthrax vaccine. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (574x680, 390 KB) from fr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (574x680, 390 KB) from fr. ... Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt (21 July 1854 - 18 August 1905) was a Finland-Swedish painter. ... The new buildings of the library. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint (April 30, 1847 - August 3, 1890) was a French veterinary physician who was born in Vosges. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Veterinarian. ... Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidising agent in various laboratory and industrial applications. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


The notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new; this had been known for a long time for smallpox. Inoculation with smallpox was known to result in far less scarring, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison to the naturally acquired disease. Edward Jenner had also discovered vaccination, using cowpox to give cross-immunity to smallpox (in 1796), and by Pasteur's time this had generally replaced the use of actual smallpox material in inoculation. The difference between smallpox vaccination and cholera and anthrax vaccination was that the weakened form of the latter two disease organisms had been generated artificially, and so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found. This article is about the disease. ... Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of vaccines, to honour Jenner's discovery. Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


The rabies vaccine was initially created by Emile Roux, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur who had been working with a killed vaccine produced by desiccating the spinal cords of infected rabbits. The vaccine had only been tested on eleven dogs before its first human trial.[4][15] Emile Roux Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b. ...


This vaccine was first used on 9-year old Joseph Meister, on July 6, 1885, after the boy was badly mauled by a rabid dog.[4] This was done at some personal risk for Pasteur, since he was not a licensed physician and could have faced prosecution for treating the boy. However, left without treatment, the boy faced almost certain death from rabies. After consulting with colleagues, Pasteur decided to go ahead with the treatment. The treatment proved to be a spectacular success, with Meister avoiding the disease; thus, Pasteur was hailed as a hero and the legal matter was not pursued. The treatment's success laid the foundations for the manufacture of many other vaccines. The first of the Pasteur Institutes was also built on the basis of this achievement.[4] Joseph Meister (February 21, 1876 - June 16, 1940) was the first person to be inoculated against rabies by Louis Pasteur, and the first person to be successfully treated for the disease. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ...


Legal risk was not the only kind Pasteur undertook. In The Story of San Michele, Axel Munthe writes of the rabies vaccine research: The Story of San Michele is a book of memoirs by Swedish physician Axel Munthe (October 31, 1857 - February 11, 1949) first published in 1929 by British publisher John Murray. ... Axel Munthe in the early 1930s Axel Martin Fredrik Munthe (October 31, 1857, Oskarshamn ,Sweden - February 11, 1949, Stockholm) was a Swedish physician and psychiatrist, best known as the author of The Story of San Michele (1929), an autobiographical account of his work and life. ...

Pasteur himself was absolutely fearless. Anxious to secure a sample of saliva straight from the jaws of a rabid dog, I once saw him with the glass tube held between his lips draw a few drops of the deadly saliva from the mouth of a rabid bull-dog, held on the table by two assistants, their hands protected by leather gloves.
Louis Pasteur portrait in his later years.
Louis Pasteur portrait in his later years.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (814x1126, 97 KB) first copy source:w:sv:Bild:Louis Pasteur, foto av Félix Nadar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (814x1126, 97 KB) first copy source:w:sv:Bild:Louis Pasteur, foto av Félix Nadar. ...

Allegations of deception

In 1995, the centennial of the death of Louis Pasteur, the New York Times ran an article titled "Pasteur's Deceptions". After having thouroughly read Pasteur's lab notes the science historian Gerald L. Geison declared that Pasteur had given a misleading account of the experiment on anthrax vaccine at Pouilly-le-Fort[16]. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Gerald L. Geison, historian, born in Savanna, Ill. ...


Honours and Final Days

Pasteur won the Leeuwenhoek medal, microbiology's highest honor, in 1895.[17] The Leeuwenhoek Medal, in 1877 by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, (KNAW), in honor of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, is granted every ten years to the scientist judged to have made the most significant contribution to microbiology during the preceding decade. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


He was a Grand Croix of the Legion of Honor–one of only 75 in all of France. He died in 1895, near Paris, from complications of a series of strokes that had started in 1868[4]. He died while listening to the story of St Vincent de Paul, whom he admired and sought to emulate.[3][18] He was buried in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, but his remains were reinterred in a crypt in the Institut Pasteur, Paris, where he is remembered for his life-saving work.[4] Both Institut Pasteur and Université Louis Pasteur were named after him. Pasteur was ranked #12 in the 1978 edition of Michael H. Hart's controversial book, The 100: A Ranking Of The Most Influential Persons in History. However, Pasteur was promoted to no. 11, replacing Karl Marx in the 1992 revised edition of the book.[6] Medal for the officer class, decorated with a rosette Napoleon wearing the Grand Cross The President of France is the Grand Master of the Legion. ... ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... The Université Louis Pasteur, also known as Strasbourg I or ULP is a large university in Strasbourg, Alsace, France. ... Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...

Statements

In his triumphal lecture at the Sorbonne in 1864, Pasteur said "Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple experiment" (referring to his swan-neck flask experiment wherein he proved that fermenting microorganisms would not form in a flask containing fermentable juice until an entry path was created for them).[4][19][20]


See also

The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Infection control and health care epidemiology is the discipline con setting. ... The Story of Louis Pasteur is a 1935 biographical film. ... Louis Pasteur Fundamental Middle School is a school in Orangevale, California. ...

References

Biographies
  • Debré, P.; E. Forster (1998). Louis Pasteur. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5808-9. 
  • Geison, Gerald L. (1995). The private science of Louis Pasteur. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03442-7. 
  • Tiner, John Hudson (1990). Louis Pasteur: Founder of Modern Medicine. Fenton, MI: Mott Media. ISBN 0-88062-159-1. 
  •   "Louis Pasteur". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
Influence on medicine and society
  • Latour, Bruno (1988). The Pasteurization of France. Boston: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-65761-6. 
  • Ullmann, Agnes (2007). "Pasteur–Koch: Distinctive Ways of Thinking about Infectious Diseases". Microbe 2 (8): 383-387. American Society for Microbiology. 
  • Miller, George (1901). A Text-book of Bacteriology. Wood, pp.278-279. Retrieved on 2007-12-02. 
Footnotes
  1. ^ a b c d Catholic Ency. paragraph 1
  2. ^ a b c Catholic Ency. par. 2
  3. ^ a b Catholic Ency. par. 9
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h David V. Cohn (December 18, 2006). Pasteur. Retrieved on 2007-12-02. “"Fortunately, Pasteur's colleagues Chamberlain [sic] and Roux followed up the results of a research physician Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint who reported a year earlier that carbolic-acid/heated anthrax serum would immunize against anthrax. These results were difficult to reproduce and discarded although, as it turned out, Toussaint was on the right track. This led Pasteur and his assistants to substitute an anthrax vaccine prepared not dissimilar to that of Toussaint and different that Pasteur had announced".”
  5. ^ a b Catholic Ency. par. 3
  6. ^ a b c d Hart, Michael H. (1992). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel Press, pp.60-61. ISBN 0806513500. 
  7. ^ Ullmann 383
  8. ^ a b c Ullmann 384
  9. ^ Catholic Ency. par. 4
  10. ^ The Pasteur Effect. Cornell University (June 10, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  11. ^ Catholic Ency. par. 5
  12. ^ Ullmann 385
  13. ^ Miller 278-279
  14. ^ Adrien Loir (1938). Le mouvement sanitaire, 18, 160. 
  15. ^ Catholic Ency. par. 6
  16. ^ See Gerald Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur, Princeton University Press, 1995. ISBN 069101552X.
  17. ^ Microbe Magazine: Awards: Leeuwenhoek Medal
  18. ^ "Louis Pasteur" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia..
  19. ^ Fox, Sidney W.; Klaus Dose (1972). Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life. W.H Freeman and Company, San Francisco, pp. 4.171. ISBN 0824766199. 
  20. ^ Oparin, Aleksandr I. (1953). Origin of Life. Dover Publications, New York, p.196. ISBN 0486602133. 

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ...

External links

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The complete work of Pasteur can be freely downloaded on site of BNF (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Gallica) (click on « Télécharger » (right, at the top)), with specific links: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ...

  • (French) Pasteur Œuvre tome 1 – Dissymétrie moléculairePDF
  • (French) Pasteur Œuvre tome 2 – Fermentations et générations dites spontanéesPDF
  • (French) Pasteur Œuvre tome 3 – Etude sur le vinaigre et le vinPDF
  • (French) Pasteur Œuvre tome 4– Etude sur la maladie des vers à soiePDF
  • (French) Pasteur Œuvre tome 5 – Etude sur la bièrePDF
  • (French) Pasteur Œuvre tome 6 - Maladie virulentes. Virus. Vaccins, Prophylaxie de la ragePDF
  • (French) Pasteur – Correspondances (1840-1895)PDF

Different articles published by Pasteur can be free downloaded on site of BNF (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Gallica) in the differents books of « Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences » Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences (free downloaded). “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

Preceded by
Émile Littré
Seat 17
Académie française

1881–1895
Succeeded by
Gaston Paris
Persondata
NAME Pasteur, Louis
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION French microbiologist and chemist
DATE OF BIRTH 27 December 1822(1822-12-27)
PLACE OF BIRTH Dole, Jura, France
DATE OF DEATH 28 September 1895
PLACE OF DEATH Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, Dole
Émile Maximilien Paul Littré (February 1, 1801 - June 2, 1881) was a French lexicographer and philosopher, best known for his Dictionnaire de la langue française, commonly called the Littré. He was born in Paris. ... This is a list of members of the Académie française (French Academy) by seat number. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Bruno Paulin Gaston Paris (August 9, 1839 - March 6, 1903), was a French scholar, the son of Alexis Paulin Paris. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... View of Dole Dole is a commune in the Jura département in France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Jura is a department in the east of France named after the Jura mountains (not be confused with the Swiss canton of Jura). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Cloud or St. ... Hauts-de-Seine is a département in France. ... View of Dole Dole is a commune in the Jura département in France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis Pasteur - MSN Encarta (716 words)
Pasteur was born in Dôle on December 27, 1822, the son of a tanner, and grew up in the small town of Arbois.
Pasteur concluded that organic molecules can exist in one of two forms, called isomers (that is, having the same structure and differing only in mirror images of each other), which he referred to as “left-handed” and “right-handed” forms.
Pasteur concluded that the latter was always the case.
Louis Pasteur (1539 words)
Pasteur was able to show that the worms fed on diseased smeared leaves got the disease, whereas those fed on uncontaminated leaves remained disease free.
Pasteur worked throughout the rest of his life on the various causes of diseases and how these could be prevented by vaccination.
Pasteur is particularly renowned for his work on the vaccine for rabies, a highly contagious infection which attacks the central nervous system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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