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Encyclopedia > Louis IX of France
Louis IX
King of France (more...)
Representation of Saint Louis considered to be true to life - Early 14th century statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France
Reign 8 November 122625 August 1270
Coronation 29 November 1226, Reims
Full name Known as Saint Louis
Titles Count of Artois (122637)
Born 25 April 1215(1215-04-25)
Poissy, France
Died 25 August 1270 (aged 55)
Tunis, North Africa
Buried Saint Denis Basilica
Predecessor Louis VIII
Successor Philip III
Consort Marguerite of Provence (122195)
Issue Isabelle, Queen of Navarre (124171)
Philip III (1245-85)
Jean Tristan, Count of Valois (125070)
Pierre, Count of Perche and Alençon (125184)
Blanche, Crown Princess of Castille (12531323)
Marguerite, Duchess of Brabant (125471)
Robert, Count of Clermont (12561317)
Agnes, Duchess of Burgundy (12601327)
Royal House House of Capet
Father Louis VIII of France
Mother Blanche of Castile
French Monarchy
Direct Capetians
Louis IX
   Philip III
   Robert, Count of Clermont
  Agnes, Duchess of Burgundy

Louis IX (25 April 121525 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. He was also Count of Artois (as Louis II) from 1226 to 1237. Born at Poissy, near Paris, he was a member of the House of Capet and the son of King Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile. He is the only canonised king of France and consequently there are many places named after him. He established the Parlement of Paris. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Eure is a département in the north of France named after the Eure River. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... The County of Artois was a Carolingian county, established by the counts Odalric and Ecfrid of Artois, then integrated into the County of Flanders, first by Baldwin II of Flanders around 898, then by Arnulf I of Flanders. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... Poissy is a commune of the Yvelines département in France, located 20km from Paris, with a population (1999) of 36,000. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Marguerite Berenger of Provence (St. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Robert of France (1256 – February 7, 1317) was made Count of Clermont in 1268. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... Agnes of France (c. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Self-designed File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Robert of France (1256 – February 7, 1317) was made Count of Clermont in 1268. ... Agnes of France (c. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Coat of arms of the County of Artois The counts of Artois (French: Comtes dArtois, Dutch: Graven van Artesië) were the rulers over the County of Artois from the 9th century until the abolition of the countship by the French revolutionaries in 1790. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Poissy is a commune of the Yvelines département in France, located 20km from Paris, with a population (1999) of 36,000. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... ... Parlements in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ...

Contents

Sources

Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous biography of Louis, Life of Saint Louis. Joinville was a close friend, confidant, and counsellor to the king, and also participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis' life that ended with his canonization in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. Jean de Joinville (1224 - December 24, 1317) was one of the great chroniclers of medieval France. ... Jean de Joinville (1224 - December 24, 1317) was one of the great chroniclers of medieval France. ... Icon of St. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ...


Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Pathus' biography, which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above. While several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the king's death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a religious service in an unknown location during World War II. US Navy Chaplain Kenneth Medve conducts Catholic Mass onboard the Ronald Reagan (2006) A chaplain is typically a priest, ordained deacon or other member of the clergy serving a group of... Guillaume de Chartres (Guillielmus de Carnoto, Willemus de Carnoto), Prince of the Cistercian Principality of Seborga, was a grand master of the Knights Templar 1210 – 26 August 1218. ...


Early life

Louis was eleven years old when his father died on November 8, 1226. He was crowned king the same year in the cathedral at Reims. is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ...


Assumption of power

Because of Louis's youth, his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled France as regent during his minority. No date is given for Louis's assumption of the throne as king in his own right. His contemporaries viewed his reign as co-rule between the king and his mother, though historians generally view the year 1234 as the year in which Louis ruled as king with his mother assuming a more advisory role. She continued as an important counsellor to the king until her death in 1252. On May 27, 1234 Louis married Marguerite de Provence (1221December 21, 1295), the sister of Eleanor, the wife of Henry III of England. Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... This article is about the year 1234. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1234. ... Marguerite Berenger of Provence (St. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Chūkyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Eleanor of Provence (c 1223 – 26 June 1291) was Queen Consort of King Henry III of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ...


Louis was the elder brother of Charles I of Sicily (122785), whom he created count of Anjou, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. The horrific fate of that dynasty in Sicily as a result of the Sicilian Vespers evidently did not tarnish Louis's credentials for sainthood. Statue of Charles I of Anjou by Arnolfo di Cambio, Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ...


Crusading

Louis brought an end to the Albigensian Crusade in 1229 after signing an agreement with Count Raymond VII of Toulouse that cleared his father of wrong-doing. Raymond VI had been suspected of murdering a preacher on a mission to convert the Cathars. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... Raymond VII of Saint-Gilles (July, 1197 - September 27, 1249) was count of Toulouse, duke of Narbonne and marquis of Provence. ... Raymond VI of Toulouse (October 27, 1156 – August 2, 1222) was count of Toulouse and marquis of Provence from 1194 to 1222. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ...


Louis's piety and kindness towards the poor was much celebrated. He went on crusade twice, in 1248 (Seventh Crusade) and then in 1270 (Eighth Crusade). Both crusades were complete disasters; after initial success in his first attempt, Louis's army of 15,000 men was met by overwhelming resistance from the Egyptian army and people. Eventually, on April 13, 1250, Louis was defeated and taken prisoner in Mansoura, Egypt. Louis and his companions were then released in return for the surrender of the French army and a large ransom of 400,000 livres tournois (at the time France's annual revenue was only about 250,000 livres tournois). Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Al Mansurah (Arabic المنصورة) is considered to be Egypts third largest city after Cairo, and Alexandria . ...


Following his release from Egyptian captivity, Louis spent four years in the crusader Kingdoms of Acre, Caesarea, and Jaffe. Louis used his wealth to assist the crusaders in rebuilding their defenses and conducting diplomacy with the Islamic powers of Syria and Egypt. Upon his departure from Middle East Louis left a significant garrison in the city of Acre for its defense against Islamic attacks. The historic presence of this French garrison in the Middle East was later used as a justification for the French Mandate following the end of the First World War.


Relations with the Mongols

Statue of Louis IX at the Sainte Chapelle, Paris.
Statue of Louis IX at the Sainte Chapelle, Paris.

Saint Louis had several epistolar exchanges with Mongol rulers of the period, and organized the dispatch of ambassadors to them. Contacts started in 1248, with Mongolian envoys bearing a letter from Eljigidei, the Mongol ruler of Armenia and Persia, offering a military alliance:[1] when Louis disembarked in Cyprus in preparation of his first Crusade, he was met in Nicosia with two Nestorians from Mossul named David and Marc, who were envoys of the Mongol ruler Eljigidei. They communicated a proposal to form an alliance with the Mongols against the Ayubids and against the Califat in Baghdad.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2088 × 2689 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2088 × 2689 pixel, file size: 1. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... Eljigidei was a Mongol commander in Persia, fl. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Eljigidei was a Mongol commander in Persia, fl. ... The Middle East, c. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


In response, Louis sent André de Longjumeau, a Dominican priest, as an emissary to the Great Khan Güyük in Mongolia. Unfortunately Güyük died before their arrival at his court however, and his embassy was dismissed by his widow, who gave them gift and a letter to Saint Louis. André de Longjumeau was sent from the island Cyprus to the Mongol realm in Persia. ... Güyük (c. ...


Eljigidei planned an attack on the Muslims in Baghdad in 1248. This advance was, ideally, to be conducted in alliance with Louis, in concert with the Seventh Crusade. However, Güyük's early death, caused by drink, made Eljigidei postpone operations until after the interregnum, and the successful Siege of Baghdad would not take place until 1258. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... For other uses, see Interregnum (disambiguation). ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ...


In 1253, Saint Louis further dispatched to the Mongol court the Franciscan William of Rubruck, who went to visit the Great Khan Möngke in Mongolia. Möngke gave a letter to William in 1254, asking for the submission of Saint Louis.[3] William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born c. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ...


Full military collaboration would take place in 1259-1260 when the Frank knights of the ruler of Antioch Bohemond VI and his father-in-law Hetoum I allied with the Mongols under Hulagu to conquer Muslim Syria, taking together the city of Alep, and later Damas.[4] Contacts would further develop under Philip the Fair, leading to a military cooperation between Christian powers and the Mongols against the Mamluks. This article is about the country. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Coat of Arms of Bohemond VI of Antioch. ... Hetoum I (Armenian: Õ€Õ¥Õ©Õ¸Ö‚Õ´ Ô±) ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1226 to 1270. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Damas is one of the secondary characters in Jak 3. ... Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...

See also: Franco-Mongol alliance

Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ...

Patron of arts and arbiter of Europe

Wooden statue of Saint Louis (perhaps a copy of the statue at the church of Mainneville?)

Louis' patronage of the arts drove much innovation in Gothic art and architecture, and the style of his court radiated throughout Europe by both the purchase of art objects from Parisian masters for export and by the marriage of the king's daughters and female relatives to foreign husbands and their subsequent introduction of Parisian models elsewhere. Louis' personal chapel, the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, was copied more than once by his descendants elsewhere. Louis most likely ordered the production of the Morgan Bible, a masterpiece of medieval painting. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Israelites are repulsed from Hai (fol. ...


Saint Louis ruled during the so-called "golden century of Saint Louis", when the kingdom of France was at its height in Europe, both politically and economically. The king of France was regarded as a primus inter pares among the kings and rulers of Europe. He commanded the largest army, and ruled the largest and most wealthy kingdom of Europe, a kingdom which was the European center of arts and intellectual thought (La Sorbonne) at the time. For many, King Louis IX embodied the whole of Christendom in his person. His reputation of saintliness and fairness was already well established while he was alive, and on many occasions he was chosen as an arbiter in the quarrels opposing the rulers of Europe. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


The prestige and respect felt in Europe for King Louis IX was due more to the attraction that his benevolent personality created rather than to military domination. For his contemporaries, he was the quintessential example of the Christian prince.


Religious zeal

Later depiction of Louis IX
Later depiction of Louis IX
King Louis IX washing the feet of the poor.

The perception of Louis IX as the exemplary Christian prince was reinforced by his religious zeal. Saint Louis was a devout Catholic, and he built the Sainte Chapelle ("Holy Chapel"), located within the royal palace complex (now the Paris Hall of Justice), on the Île de la Cité in the centre of Paris. The Sainte Chapelle, a perfect example of the Rayonnant style of Gothic architecture, was erected as a shrine for the Crown of Thorns and a fragment of the True Cross, precious relics of the Passion of Jesus. Louis purchased these in 123941 from Emperor Baldwin II of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, for the exorbitant sum of 135,000 livres (the chapel, on the other hand, cost only 60,000 livres to build). This purchase should be understood in the context of the extreme religious fervor that existed in Europe in the 13th century. The purchase contributed greatly to reinforcing the central position of the king of France in western Christendom, as well as to increasing the renown of Paris, then the largest city of western Europe. During a time when cities and rulers vied for relics, trying to increase their reputation and fame, Louis IX had succeeded in securing the most prized of all relics in his capital. The purchase was thus not only an act of devotion, but also a political gesture: the French monarchy was trying to establish the kingdom of France as the "new Jerusalem." Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (463 × 655 pixel, file size: 84 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Louis IX ou Saint-Louis Bibliothèque Nationale de France +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (463 × 655 pixel, file size: 84 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Louis IX ou Saint-Louis Bibliothèque Nationale de France +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... The Paris Hall of Justice (Palais de Justice de Paris) is located in the Île de la Cité in central Paris, France. ... Notre Dame de Paris on ÃŽle de la Cité from upstream (the east) The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), in the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Jesus Carrying the Cross as portrayed by El Greco - Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 1580 In Christianity, the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his crucifixion. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... // Events Births June 17 - King Edward I of England (died 1307) December 17 - Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (died 1256) Peter III of Aragon (died 1285) John II, Duke of Brittany (died 1305) Ippen, Japanese monk (died 1289) Deaths March 3 - Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (born 1187) March... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Baldwin II (1217—1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Louis IX took very seriously his mission as "lieutenant of God on Earth," with which he had been invested when he had been crowned in Rheims. Thus, in order to fulfill his duty, he conducted two crusades, and even though they were unsuccessful, they contributed to his prestige. Contemporaries would not have understood if the king of France did not lead a crusade to the Holy Land. In order to finance his first crusade Louis ordered the expulsion of all Jews engaged in usury. This action enabled Louis to confiscate the property of expelled Jews for use in his crusade. However, he did not eliminate the debts incurred by Christians. One-third of the debt was forgiven, but the other two-thirds was to be remitted to the royal treasury. Louis also ordered, at the urging of Pope Gregory IX, the burning of some 12,000 copies of the Talmud in Paris in 1243. Such legislation against the Talmud, not uncommon in the history of Christendom, was due to medieval courts' concerns that its production and circulation might weaken the faith of Christian individuals and threaten the Christian basis of society, the protection of which was the duty of any Christian monarch.[5] Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ...

Tunique and cilice of Louis IX. Treasure of Notre-Dame de Paris.
Tunique and cilice of Louis IX. Treasure of Notre-Dame de Paris.

In addition to Louis's legislation against Jews and usury, he expanded the scope of the Inquisition in France. The area most affected by this expansion was southern France where the Cathar heresy had been strongest. The rate of these confiscations reached its highest levels in the years prior to his first crusade, and slowed upon his return to France in 1254. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 645 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1194 × 1110 pixel, file size: 249 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 645 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1194 × 1110 pixel, file size: 249 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... It has been suggested that hairshirt be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ... This article is about the Inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ...


In all these deeds, Louis IX tried to fulfill the duty of France, which was seen as "the eldest daughter of the Church" (la fille aînée de l'Église), a tradition of protector of the Church going back to the Franks and Charlemagne, who had been crowned by the Pope in Rome in 800. Indeed, the official Latin title of the kings of France was Rex Francorum, i.e. "king of the Franks," and the kings of France were also known by the title "most Christian king" (Rex Christianissimus). The relationship between France and the papacy was at its peak in the 12th and 13th centuries, and most of the crusades were actually called by the popes from French soil. Eventually, in 1309, Pope Clement V even left Rome and relocated to the French city of Avignon, beginning the era known as the Avignon Papacy (or, more disparagingly, the "Babylonian captivity"). This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ...


Ancestors

Louis IX's ancestors in three generations
Louis IX of France Father:
Louis VIII of France
Paternal Grandfather:
Philip II of France
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Louis VII of France
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Adèle of Champagne
Paternal Grandmother:
Isabelle of Hainaut
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Margaret I, Countess of Flanders
Mother:
Blanche of Castile
Maternal Grandfather:
Alfonso VIII of Castile
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Sancho III of Castile
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Blanca of Navarre
Maternal Grandmother:
Leonora of England
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Henry II of England
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Eleanor of Aquitaine

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Adèle de Champagne (c. ... Isabelle of Hainaut (1170 - 1190) was queen consort of France. ... Baldwin V of Hainaut (1150-December 17, 1195) was count of Hainaut (1120?_1195), count of Flanders as Baldwin VIII (1191-1195) and margrave of Namur as Baldwin I (1189-1195). ... Margaret I of Alsace (died November 15, 1194) was countess of Flanders from 1191 to her death. ... Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... Alfonso VIII, centre, and Queen Eleanor, left. ... Sancho III of Castile (1134 – August 30, 1158), called el Deseado (The Desired), was King of Castile for one year, from 1157 to 1158. ... Blanca of Navarre (aft. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor dAquitaine in French), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1] –April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ...

Children

  1. Blanche (1240April 29, 1243)
  2. Isabelle (March 2, 1241January 28, 1271), married Theobald V of Champagne
  3. Louis (February 25, 1244 – January 1260)
  4. Philippe III (May 1, 1245October 5, 1285)
  5. Jean (born and died in 1248)
  6. Jean Tristan (1250August 3, 1270), married Yolande of Burgundy
  7. Pierre (125184), Count of Perche and Alençon; Count of Blois and Chartres in right of his wife, Joanne of Châtillon
  8. Blanche (12531323), married Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castille
  9. Marguerite (125471), married John I, Duke of Brabant
  10. Robert, Count of Clermont (1256February 7, 1317). He was the ancestor of King Henry IV of France.
  11. Agnes of France (ca 1260December 19, 1327), married Robert II, Duke of Burgundy

Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Innocent IV was elected pope. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Theobald V of Champagne (c. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1244. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Yolanda of Burgundy (French:Yolande de Bourgogne), (December 1247 - 2 June 1280) was the daughter of Eudes of Burgundy and Maud of Dampierre. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Joanne I of Châtillon (d. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Portrait of John I, Duke of Brabant from the Codex Manesse. ... Robert of France (1256 – February 7, 1317) was made Count of Clermont in 1268. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Agnes of France (c. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Robert II of Burgundy (1248–March 21, 1306) was duke of Burgundy between 1272 and 1306. ...

Death and legacy

Reliquary of Saint Louis (end 13th c.) Basilica of Saint Dominic, Bologna, Italy
Reliquary of Saint Louis (end 13th c.) Basilica of Saint Dominic, Bologna, Italy

During his second crusade, Louis died at Tunis, August 25, 1270, from what was traditionally believed to be bubonic plague but is thought by modern scholars to be dysentery. The local tradition of Sidi Bou Said claims that the future Saint Louis did not die in 1270, but converted to Islam under the name of Sidi Bou Said, died at the end of the 13th century, and was buried as a saint of Islam in Djebel-Marsa. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 585 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (898 × 920 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis IX of... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 585 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (898 × 920 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis IX of... For the band Reliquary, click here. ... The Basilica of San Domenico is one of the major churches in Bologna, Italy. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is the term for tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool), cramping, and frequent, small-volume severe diarrhea associated with blood in the feces. ... A detail from Sidi Bou Said Sidi Bou Said (Arabic: سيدي بو سعيد) is a town in northern Tunisia (it is located only 20 km from the capital of Tunisia, Tunis). ...


Christian tradition states that some of his entrails were buried directly on the spot in Tunisia, where a Tomb of Saint-Louis can still be visited today, whereas other parts of his entrails were sealed in an urn and placed in the Basilica of Monreale, Palermo, where they still remain. His corpse was taken, after a short stay at the Basilica of Saint Dominic in Bologna, to the French royal necropolis at Saint-Denis, resting in Lyon on the way. His tomb at Saint-Denis was a magnificent gilt brass monument designed in the late 14th century. It was melted down during the French Wars of Religion, at which time the body of the king disappeared. Only one finger was rescued and is kept at Saint-Denis. Pope Boniface VIII proclaimed the canonization of Louis in 1297; he is the only French monarch ever to be made a saint. For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of San Domenico is one of the major churches in Bologna, Italy. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... This article is about the French city. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... Icon of St. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ...


Louis IX was succeeded by his son, Philippe III. Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ...


Veneration as a saint

Saint Louis

Louis IX of France was revered as a saint and painted in portraiture well after his death (such portraits may not accurately reflect his appearance). This portrait was painted by El Greco ca 159295.
King of France, Confessor
Born 25 April 1214(1214-04-25)/1215, Poissy, France
Died 25 August 1270 (aged 56), Tunis in what is now Tunisia
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Canonized 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII
Feast 25 August
Attributes Depicted as King of France, generally with a crown, holding a sceptre with a fleur-de-lys on the end, possibly with blue clothing with a spread of white fleur-de-lys (coat of arms of the French monarchy)
Patronage France, French monarchy; hairdressers; passementiers (lacemakers)
Saints Portal

Louis IX is often considered the model of the ideal Christian monarch. Because of the aura of holiness attached to the memory of Louis IX, many Kings of France were called Louis, especially in the Bourbon dynasty (Louis XIII to Louis XVIII). louis ix by el greco This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... Poissy is a commune of the Yvelines département in France, located 20km from Paris, with a population (1999) of 36,000. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Icon of St. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... For the record label, see Scepter Records. ... Fleur de Lys is a Canadian superheroine created in 1984 by Mark Shainblum and Gabriel Morrissette. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... A hairdresser is someone WHO IS EXTREMELY GAY LIKE NEIL AND HIS DREAM JOB IS TO BE A HAIRDRESSSER whose occupation is to cut or style hair, in order to change or maintain a persons image as they desire. ... Lace appliqué and bow at the bust-line of a nightgown. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ...


The Congregation of the Sisters of Saint Louis is a Roman Catholic religious order founded in 1842 and named in his honour. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Places named after Saint Louis

The cities of Saint Louis, Missouri, Saint-Louis du Sénégal in Senegal, Saint-Louis in Alsace, as well as Lake Saint-Louis in Quebec, and the Mission San Luis Rey de Francia in California are among the many places named after the king. Nickname: Gateway City, Gateway to the West, or Mound City Motto: Official website: http://stlouis. ... Saint-Louis or Saint-Louis du Sénégal (locally called Ndar in the Wolof language) is a city (pop. ... Saint-Louis is a town and commune of the Haut-Rhin département, in Alsace, France. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Location map of Lake St-Louis. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Mission San Luís Rey de Francia, circa 1910. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


The Cathedral Saint-Louis in Versailles, Basilica of St. Louis, King of France in St. Louis, Missouri, the Cathedral-Basilica of St. Louis in St. Louis, Missouri, and the French royal Order of Saint Louis (16931790 and 181430) were also created after the king. The Saint Louis Cathedral in New Orleans is also named after the king. This article is about the city of Versailles. ... The Basilica, better known as the Old Cathedral, located near the Gateway Arch, visible on the right. ... Cathedral Basilica The Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis, generally known as the St. ... Image:Medaille-Saint Louis. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... St. ...


Many places in Brazil called São Luís in Portuguese are named after Saint Louis. São Luís is the capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. ...


Sidi Bou Said in Tunisia is said to have been named for this very Catholic French king [3]. Tunisian legend tells the story of King Louis falling in love with a Berber princess, changing his name to Abou Said ibn Khalef ibn Yahia Ettamini el Beji (nicknamed "Sidi Bou Said") for which a quaint town on the Tunisian coast is named. He became, according to this legend, an Islamic saint. A detail from Sidi Bou Said Sidi Bou Said (Arabic: سيدي بو سعيد) is a town in northern Tunisia (it is located only 20 km from the capital of Tunisia, Tunis). ...


Famous portraits

A portrait of St. Louis hangs in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives. The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ...


Saint Louis is also portrayed on a frieze depicting a timeline of important lawgivers throughout world history in the Courtroom at the Supreme Court of the United States. Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... A courtroom is the actual enclosed space in which a judge regularly holds court. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym...


External links

Saints Portal

Image File history File links Gloriole. ...

Bibliography

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Louis IX of France

Joinville, Jean de, The History of St. Louis (Trans. Joan Evans). Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


References

  1. ^ The Crisis in the Holy Land in 1260 Peter Jackson The English Historical Review, Vol. 95, No. 376 (Jul., 1980), pp. 481-513 [1]
  2. ^ "Histoire des Croisades", Rene Grousset, p.523, ISBN 226202569X
  3. ^ J. Richard, 1970, p. 202., Encyclopedia Iranica, [2]
  4. ^ "Histoire des Croisades", René Grousset, p581, ISBN 226202569X
  5. ^ Gigot, Francis E. (1910), "Judaism", The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. VIII, New York: Robert Appleton Company, <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08399a.htm> (retrieved on 2007-08-13)

External links

Louis IX of France
Born: 25 April 1215 Died: 25 August 1270
Preceded by
Louis VIII of France
King of France
8 November 122625 August 1270
Succeeded by
Philip III
Count of Artois
8 November 12261237
Succeeded by
Robert I
Chronology of French monarchs from 987 to 1870
Medieval France
House of Capet

Hugues (987-996) • Robert II (996-1031) • Henri I (1031-1060) • Philippe I (1060-1108) • Louis VI (1108-1137) • Louis VII (1137-1180) • Philippe II (1180-1223) • Louis VIII (1223-1226) • Louis IX (1226-1270) • Philippe III (1270-1285) • Philippe IV (1285-1314) • Louis X (1314-1316) • Jean I (1316) • Philippe V (1316-1322) • Charles IV (1322-1328) • Philippe VI (1328-1350) • Jean II (1350-1364) • Charles V (1364-1380) • Charles VI (1380-1422) • Charles VII (1422-1461) • Louis XI (1461-1483) • Charles VIII (1483-1498) The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Coat of arms of the County of Artois The counts of Artois (French: Comtes dArtois, Dutch: Graven van Artesië) were the rulers over the County of Artois from the 9th century until the abolition of the countship by the French revolutionaries in 1790. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Robert I the Good (1216 – February 8, 1250) was Count of Artois. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Events March/April - Pope John XV dies before being being able to coronate Otto III, King of Germany as Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008&#8211;August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... Events May - The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... John I the Posthumous (French: Jean Ier le Posthume) (November 15, 1316 – November 20, 1316) was King of France for the five days he lived. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Philip V (17 November 1293 – 3 January 1322), called the Tall (French: le Long), was King of France and Navarre (as Philip II) and Count of Champagne from 1316 to his death, and the second to last of the House of Capet. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births January 11 - Emperor Komyo of Japan (died 1380) Deaths January 3 - King Philip V of France (born 1293) March 16 - Humphrey de... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Louis XI (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), called the Prudent (French: ) and the Universal Spider (Old French: luniverselle aragne) or the Spider King, was the King of France from 1461−83. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Early Modern France
House of Valois

Louis XII (1498-1515) • François I (1515-1547) • Henri II (1547-1559) • François II (1559-1560) • Charles IX (1560-1574) • Henri III (1574-1589) For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Louis XII (b. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ...

Early Modern France
House of Bourbon

Henri IV (1589-1610) • Louis XIII (1610-1643) • Louis XIV (1643-1715) • Louis XV (1715-1774) • Louis XVI (1774-1792) For the administrative and social structures of early modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

First Republic
First Empire
House of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1804-1814) Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Bourbon Restoration I
House of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1814-1815) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Hundred Days
House of Bonaparte

Napoléon I (1815) • Napoléon II (1815) The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Bourbon Restoration II
House of Bourbon

Louis XVIII (1815-1824) • Charles X (1824-1830) • Louis XIX (1830) • Henri V (1830) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XIX, King of France and of Navarre (Louis-Antoine, duc dAngoulême) (August 6, 1775 – June 3, 1844) was the eldest son of the comte dArtois (later King Charles X of France) and Marie-Thérèse de Savoie. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné dArtois, comte de Chambord (September 29, 1820 – August 24, 1883) technically reigned as Henry V, King of France and Navarre from August 2 to August 9, 1830. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

July Monarchy
House of Orléans

Louis-Philippe (1830-1848) The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Second Republic
Second Empire
House of Bonaparte

Napoléon III (1852-1870) This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Third, Fourth and Fifth Republic
List of French monarchsList of Queens and Empresses of France — History of France
Persondata
NAME Louis IX
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Saint Louis
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of France
DATE OF BIRTH 25 April 1215(1215-04-25)
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH 25 August 1270
PLACE OF DEATH

The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of the women who have been Queens consort or Empresses consort of the realm of France. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ...


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King Louis IX (414 words)
Louis is often described as "one of the greatest of all French kings" because of his many accomplishments which included improving the tax system, simplifying administration, extending the appellate jurisdiction of the crown to all cases, encouraging the use of Roman Law, and building the first French navy.
Louis was considered by his family, friends, French nobles, and religious men and women to be a deeply pious and honorable man. He took a special interest in charitable institutions, regarding his kingly duties as part of his Christian vocation.
Louis was a devoted husband to his wife Margaret, and their 11 children, eight of whom lived to adulthood.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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