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Encyclopedia > Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé
Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé
Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé

Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 - November 11, 1686). His military prowess won him the nickname "The Great Condé" (le Grand Condé). Picture of Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Condé. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... Prince of Condé is a title in French peerage, attributed for the first time to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events The League of Augsburg is founded. ...

Contents


Early life

Louis was born in Paris, the son of Henry II of Bourbon, and Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency. As a boy, under his father's careful supervision, he studied diligently at the Jesuits' College at Bourges, and at seventeen, in the absence of his father, he governed Burgundy. The duc d'Enghien, as he was styled during his father's lifetime, took part with distinction in the campaigns of 1640 and 1641 in northern France while still under twenty years of age. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Henry II of Bourbon (September 1, 1588 – December 26, 1646) became Prince of Condé shortly after his birth, following the death of his father Henry I in battle. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The vaulted nave of Bourges Cathedral Bourges (pop. ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic tribes, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ...


During the youth of Enghien all power in France was in the hands of Cardinal Richelieu; even the princes of the blood had to yield to him; and Henry of Condé tried with the rest to win the cardinal's favour. Enghien was forced to conform. He was already deeply in love with Mlle Marthe du Vigean, who in return was passionately devoted to him, but, in order to flatter the cardinal, he was forced by his father, at the age of twenty, to give his hand to Richelieu's niece, Claire Clémence de MailléBrézé, a child of thirteen. He was present with Richelieu during the dangerous plot of Cinq Mars, and afterwards fought in the siege of Perpignan (1642). Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... Henri Coiffier de Ruz , Marquis of Cinq-Mars (1620 - September 12, 1642) was a favourite of King Louis XIII of France who led the last and most nearly successful of the many conspiracies against the kings powerful first minister, the Cardinal Richelieu. ... Location within France Perpignan ( Catalan Perpinyà) is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital city) of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France, and was the capital of the former province of Roussillon (French Catalonia). ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ...


Success at Rocroi

In 1643 Enghien was appointed to command against the Spaniards in northern France. He was opposed by experienced generals, and the veterans of the Spanish army were held to be the finest soldiers in Europe; on the other hand, the strength of the French army was placed at his command, and under him were the best generals of the service. The great Battle of Rocroi (May 19) put an end to the supremacy of the Spanish army and inaugurated the long period of French military predominance. Enghien himself conceived and directed the decisive attack, and at the age of twenty-two won his place amongst the great generals of modern times. After a campaign of uninterrupted success, Enghien returned to Paris in triumph, and tried to forget his enforced and hateful marriage with a series of affiars. In 1644 he was sent with reinforcements into Germany to the assistance of Turenne, who was hard pressed, and took command of the whole army. The battle of Freiburg (August) was desperately contested, but in the end the French army won a great victory over the Bavarians and Imperialists commanded by Count Mercy. As after Rocroi, numerous fortresses opened their gates to the duke. The next winter Enghien spent, like every other winter during the war, amid the gaieties of Paris. The summer campaign of 1645 opened with the defeat of Turenne by Mercy, but this was retrieved in the brilliant victory of Nardlingen, in which Mercy was killed, and Enghien himself received several serious wounds. The capture of Philippsburg was the most important of his other achievements during this campaign. In 1646 Enghien served under the duke of Orleans in Flanders, and when, after the capture of Mardyck, Orleans returned to Paris, Enghien, left in command, captured Dunkirk (October 11). The Battle of Rocroi, fought May 19, 1643, was a victory of the French army under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, at that time Duke of Enghien, against the Spanish army under General Francisco de Melo. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) was Marshal of France. ... The Battle of Freiburg, also called the Three Day Battle, took place on August 3, August 5 and August 9, 1644 as part of the Thirty Years War. ... With an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Philippsburg is a small town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. ... Flanders - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in Leap years). ...


The Fronde

It was in this year that the old prince of Condé died. The enormous power that fell into the hands of his successor was naturally looked upon with serious alarm by the regent and her minister. Condé's birth and military renown placed him at the head of the French nobility; but, added to that, the family of which he was chief was both enormously rich and master of a large part of France. Condé himself held Burgundy, Berry and the marches of Lorraine, as well as other less important territory; his brother Conti held Champagne, his brother-in-law, Longueville, Normandy. The government, therefore, was determined to allow no increase of his already overgrown authority, and Mazarin made an attempt, which for the moment proved successful, both to find him employment and to tarnish his fame as a general. He was sent to lead the revolted Catalans. Ill supported, he was unable to achieve anything, and, being forced to raise the siege of Lleida, he returned home in bitter indignation. In 1648, however, he received the command in the important field of the Low Countries; and at Lens (August 19) a battle took place, which, beginning with a panic in his own regiment, was retrieved by Condé's coolness and bravery, and ended in a victory that fully restored his prestige. A regent is an acting governor. ... Berry was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements on March 4, 1790. ... Capital Metz Area 23,547 km² Regional President Jean-Pierre Masseret Population  - 2005 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 2,310,376 98/km² Arrondissements 19 Cantons 157 Communes 2,337 Départements Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Moselle Vosges You may also want: Lorraine, Quebec Lorraine, Ontario Lorraine (German: Lothringen) is a... Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti (1629 - 1666) was the second son of Henry II, Prince of Condé, and brother of Louis, the great Condé and Anne Genevieve, Duchess of Longueville. ... Champagne is one of the traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... Longueville is the name of several places: Longueville, New South Wales is a suburb of Sydney Australia. ... Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... La Seu Vella, the Romanesque-Gothic old Cathedral of Lleida La Seu Vella Lleida (Catalan: Lleida, Spanish: Lérida) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain. ... The Low Countries are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine and Meuse rivers— usually used in modern context to mean the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (an alternate modern term, more often used today, is Benelux). ... The Battle of Lens (August 20, French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé against the Spanish army under Archduke Leopold in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


In September of the same year Condé was recalled to court, for the regent Anne of Austria required his support. Influenced by the fact of his royal birth and by his arrogant scorn for the bourgeois, Condé lent himself to the court party, and finally, after much hesitation, he consented to lead the army which was to reduce Paris. Anne of Austria Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 _ January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ...


On his side, although his forces were insufficient, the war was carried on with vigour, and after several minor combats their substantial losses and a threatening of scarcity of food made the Parisians weary of the war. The political situation inclined both parties to peace, which was made at Rueil on March 20 (see Fronde). It was not long, however, before Condé became estranged from the court. His pride and ambition earned him universal distrust and dislike, and the personal resentment of Anne in addition to motives of policy caused the sudden arrest of Condé, Conti and Longueville on January 18, 1650. But others, including Turenne and his brother the duc de Bouillon, made their escape. Vigorous attempts for the release of the princes began to be made. The women of the family were now its heroes. The dowager princess claimed from the parlement of Paris the fulfilment of the reformed law of arrest, which forbade imprisonment without trial. The duchess of Longueville entered into negotiations with Spain; and the young princess of Condé, having gathered an army around her, entered Bordeaux and gained the support of the parlement of that town. She, alone among the nobles who took part in the folly of the Fronde, gained respect and sympathy. Faithful to a faithless husband, she came forth from the retirement to which he had condemned her, and gathered an army to fight for him. But the delivery of the princes was brought about in the end by the coming together of the old Fronde (the party of the parlement and of Cardinal de Retz) and the new Fronde (the party of the Condés); and Anne was at last, in February 1651, forced to liberate them from their prison at Le Havre. Soon afterwards, however, another shifting of parties left Condé and the new Fronde isolated. With the court and the old Fronde in alliance against him, Condé found no resource but that of making common cause with the Spaniards who were at war with France. The confused civil war which followed this step (September 1651) was memorable chiefly for the battle of the Faubourg St Antoine, in which Condé and Turenne, two of the leading generals of the age, measured their strength (July 2, 1652), and the army of the prince was only saved by being admitted within the gates of Paris. La Grande Mademoiselle, daughter of the duke of Orleans, persuaded the Parisians to act thus, and turned the cannon of the Bastille on Turenne's army. Thus Condé, who as usual had fought with the most desperate bravery, was saved, and Paris underwent a new siege. This ended in the flight of Condé to the Spanish army (September 1652), and thenceforward, up to the peace, he was in open arms against France, and held high command in the army of Spain. But his now fully developed genius as a commander found little scope in the cumbrous and antiquated system of war practised by the Spaniards, and though he gained a few successes, and manoeuvred with the highest possible skill against Turenne, his disastrous defeat at the Dunes near Dunkirk (June 14, 1658), in which an English contingent of Cromwell's veterans took part on the side of Turenne, led Spain to open negotiations for peace. After the peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, Condé obtained his pardon (January 1660) from Louis, who thought him less dangerous as a subject than as possessor of the independent sovereignty of Luxembourg, which had been offered him by Spain as a reward for his services. March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... For the French feminist newspaper, see La Fronde The Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, followed by the Franco-Spanish War with Spain (1653–1659). ... Ambition could refer to one of the following: Motivation, especially to improve a situation. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ... Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) was Marshal of France. ... Frédéric Maurice de La Tour dAuvergne, duc de Bouillon (1605-1652) was prince of the independent principality of Sedan, and general in the French royal army. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... Anne Genevieve de Bourbon-Condé, Duchess of Longueville (August 28, 1619 - 1679), was the only daughter of Henri II de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, and his wife Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, and the sister of Louis, the great Condé. She was born in the prison of Vincennes, into which her... City motto: Lilia sola regunt lunam undas castra leonem. ... Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz (1614 - August 24, 1679), French churchman and agitator, was born at Montmirail. ... Location within France Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... The Bastille The Bastille was a prison in Paris, known formally as Bastille Saint-Antoine—Number 232, Rue Saint-Antoine. ... The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14, 1658, is also known as the Battle of Dunkirk. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who has plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross from Sweden to Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne September... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...


Rehabilitation

Condé now realized that the period of agitation and party warfare was at an end, and he accepted, and loyally maintained henceforward, the position of a chief subordinate to a masterful sovereign. Even so, some years passed before he was recalled to active employment, and these years he spent on his estate at Chantilly. Here he gathered round him a brilliant company, which included many men of genius such as Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Nicole, Bourdaloue and Bossuet. About this time negotiations between the Poles, Condé and Louis were carried on with a view to the election, at first of Condé's son Enghien, and afterwards of Condé himself, to the throne of Poland. These, after a long series of curious intrigues, were finally closed in 1674 by the veto of Louis XIV and the election of John Sobieski. The prince's retirement, which was only broken by the Polish question and by his personal intercession on behalf of Fouquet in 1664, ended in 1668. In that year he proposed to Louvois, the minister of war, a plan for seizing Franche-Comté, the execution of which was entrusted to him and successfully carried out. He was now completely re-established in the favour of Louis, and with Turenne was the principal French commander in the celebrated campaign of 1672 against the Dutch. At the forcing of the Rhine passage at Tolhuis (June 12), he received a severe wound, after which he commanded in Alsace against the Imperialists. In 1673 he was again engaged in the Low Countries, and in 1674 he fought his last great Battle of Seneffe against the prince of Orange (afterwards William III of England). This battle, fought on August 11, was one of the hardest of the century, and Condé, who displayed the reckless bravery of his youth, had three horses killed under him. His last campaign was that of 1675 on the Rhine, where the army had been deprived of its general by the death of Turenne; and where by his careful and methodical strategy he repelled the invasion of the Imperial army of Montecucculi. After this campaign, prematurely worn out by the toils and excesses of his life, and tortured by the gout, he returned to Chantilly, where he spent the eleven years that remained to him in quiet retirement. In the end of his life he specially sought the companionship of Bourdaloue, Nicole and Bossuet, and devoted himself to religious exercises. He died on November 11, 1686 at the age of sixty-five. Bourdaloue attended him at his death-bed, and Bossuet pronounced his elegy. Chantilly may refer to: Chantilly, a French city located in the Oise département in the Picardie région. ... Molière, engraved frontispiece to his Works Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known as Molière (January 15, 1622 – February 17, 1673), was a French theatre writer, director and actor, one of the masters of comic satire. ... Racine is the name of several communities in the United States of America: Racine, Minnesota Racine, Missouri Racine, Ohio Racine, West Virginia Racine, Wisconsin Racine County, Wisconsin It is also the name of dramatist Jean Racine. ... Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux, commonly called Boileau, (November 1, 1636 - March 13, 1711) was a French poet and critic. ... There are communes that have the name Fontaine, and Fontaines: Fontaine, in the Aube département Fontaine, in the Isère département Fontaine, in the Territoire de Belfort département Related names Fontaine-au-Bois, in the Nord département Fontaine-au-Pire, in the Nord département Fontaine... Nicole, a proper femine name derived originally from France along with the following conversions: Nicolle, Nicola, Nicoletta which are all feminine forms of Nicolas originally from the Greek for victory of the people. Famous Nicoles are listed below: Nicole, 1980s German singer of Ein bisschen Frieden (A Little Peace... Jacques_Benigne Bossuet (September 27, 1627 - April 12, 1704) was a French bishop, theologian, and court preacher. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Consorts Marie Casimire Louise Children... Nicolas Fouquet (1615 — March 23, 1680) was viscount of Melun and of Vaux, marquis of Belle-Isle, superintendent of finance in France under Louis XIV. Born in Paris, he belonged to an influential family of the noblesse de robe, and after some preliminary schooling with the Jesuits, at the age... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... Capital Besançon Area 16,202 km² Regional President Raymond Forni (PS) (since 2004) Population   - 2004 estimate   - 1999 census   - Density (Ranked 20th) 1,133,000 1,117,059 70/km² (2004) Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Départements Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Franche-Comt... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1,320 km Elevation of the source Vorderrhein: approx. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... Capital Strasbourg Area 8,280 km² Regional President Adrien Zeller Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 1,793,000 1,734,145 209/km² Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Alsace (French: Alsace; Alsatian/German: Elsaß) is a région and also a province of France. ... Battle of Seneffe Conflict Third Anglo-Dutch War Date August 11, 1674 Place Near Seneffe, Belgium Result French victory The Battle of Seneffe was fought on August 11, French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé against the Dutch-Austrian army under William III of Orange. ... William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was a Dutch Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11 April 1689, in each case until his... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Review

The earlier political career of Condé was typical of the great French noble of his day. Success in love and war, predominant influence over his sovereign and universal homage to his own exaggerated pride, were the objects of his ambition. Even as an exile he asserted the precedence of the royal house of France over the princes of Spain and Austria, with whom he was allied for the moment. To be first in war and in gallantry was still his aim, but for the rest he was a submissive, even a subservient, minister of the royal will. It is on his military character, however, that his fame rests. This changed but little. Unlike his great rival Turenne, Condé was equally brilliant in his first battle and in his last. The one failure of his generalship was in the Spanish Fronde, and in this everything united to thwart his genius; only on the battlefield itself was his personal leadership as conspicuous as ever. That he was capable of waging a methodical war of positions may be assumed from his campaigns against Turenne and Montecucculi, the greatest generals of the predominant school. But it was in his eagerness for battle, his quick decision in action, and the stern will which sent his regiments to face the heaviest loss, that Condé is distinguished above all the generals of his time. in private life he was harsh and unamiable, seeking only the gratification of his own pleasures and desires. His enforced and loveless marriage embittered his life, and it was only in his last years, when he had done with ambition, that the more humane side of his character appeared in his devotion to literature.


Condé's unhappy wife had some years before been banished to Chateauroux. An accident brought about her ruin. Her contemporaries, greedy as they were of scandal, refused to believe any evil of her, but the prince declared himself convinced of her unfaithfulness, placed her in confinement, and carried his resentment so far that his last letter to the king was to request him never to allow her to be released. For the town in the Hautes-Alpes, see Ch teauroux-les-Alpes. ...

Preceded by:
Henry II of Bourbon Henry II of Bourbon (September 1, 1588 – December 26, 1646) became Prince of Condé shortly after his birth, following the death of his father Henry I in battle. ...

Prince of Condé Prince of Condé is a title in French peerage, attributed for the first time to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ...

Succeeded by:
Henry III of Bourbon Henry III Jules of Bourbon (July 29, 1643 – April 1, 1709) was Prince of Condé, from 1686 to his death, and Duke of Bourbon. ...

Reference


  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Cond (1965 words)
Born in Paris, the son of Henri, prince of Cond, and Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency.
Cond's birth and military renown placed him at the head of the French nobility; but, added to that, the family of which he was chief was both enormously rich and master of a large part of France.
Cond now realized that the period of agitation and party warfare was at an end, and he accepted, and loyally maintained henceforward, the position of a chief subordinate to a masterful sovereign.
james ii of england - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com (2453 words)
James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685.
Louis XIV's offer to have James elected King of Poland in the same year was rejected, for James feared that acceptance of the Polish Crown might (in the minds of the English People) render him incapable of being King of England.
(Mary II had previously died in 1694.) The Act of Settlement 1701 provided that, if the line of succession established in the Bill of Rights were to be extinguished, then the Crown would go to a distant German cousin, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and to her Protestant heirs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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